Index of JMBFS authors

 

  A

  • Jabar A

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Elizabethkingia meningoseptica FROM DISEASED AFRICAN CATFISH Clarias gariepinus [MB]

      Abstract: Two isolates of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica were successfully isolated from kidney and skin tissue of diseased African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Malaysia. The percentage similarity of both physical and biochemical characteristics for the isolates from kidney (K1) and skin samples (S1) as determined by BBL-Crystal and API 20E were 99 % and 95.4%, respectively. Furthermore, both isolates were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequences and showed more than 97% homology to sequences deposited in GenBank. The API ZYM results were analogous for both strains, with only minor quantitative variations. However, the isolates from kidney sample (K1) showed higher levels of enzymatic activity reaction towards esterase lipase and leucine arylamidase. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of α-galactosidase was detected at low level in kidney isolate and absence in skin isolate.

      Keywords: Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, polymerase chain reaction, Clarias gariepinus, BBL-Crystal, Enzymatic activity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Laith A.A

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Elizabethkingia meningoseptica FROM DISEASED AFRICAN CATFISH Clarias gariepinus [MB]

      Abstract: Two isolates of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica were successfully isolated from kidney and skin tissue of diseased African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Malaysia. The percentage similarity of both physical and biochemical characteristics for the isolates from kidney (K1) and skin samples (S1) as determined by BBL-Crystal and API 20E were 99 % and 95.4%, respectively. Furthermore, both isolates were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequences and showed more than 97% homology to sequences deposited in GenBank. The API ZYM results were analogous for both strains, with only minor quantitative variations. However, the isolates from kidney sample (K1) showed higher levels of enzymatic activity reaction towards esterase lipase and leucine arylamidase. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of α-galactosidase was detected at low level in kidney isolate and absence in skin isolate.

      Keywords: Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, polymerase chain reaction, Clarias gariepinus, BBL-Crystal, Enzymatic activity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Rathiesh. A.C

    (1)
    1. VARIATIONS IN THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF THE HEAD AND BONE FLOURS OF TILAPIA (OREOCHROMIS MOSSAMBICUS) ADAPTED TO ESTUARINE AND FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENTS [FS]

      Abstract: Consumption of fish and fish by products assures various health benefits, but on the other hand the fish processing wastes if not discarded properly pose a serious environment threat. Tilapias are commonly available cichlid fishes which are considered to possess various biological importance. The objective of the work is to analyze and compare the similarities and differences in the nutritional quality of the exotic fish Oreochromis mossambicus found in brackish water and fresh water environments. The estuary adapted tilapia and freshwater tilapia was collected and processed as head and bone flours. The samples were further analyzed and the results in 100 g of Estuarine Tilapia Head Flour (ETHF) was composed of moisture (5.87 ± 0.003%), protein (32.06 ± 0.02%) total lipids (0.202 ±0.003 %), carbohydrates (1.44 ± 0.005%) and ash (1.15 ± 0.006%). The results in 100 g of Estuarine Tilapia Bone Flour (ETBF) was found as moisture (4.20 ± 0.006%), protein (31.48 ± 0.07%), total lipids (0.217 ± 0.002), carbohydrates (0.13 ± 0.004%) and ash (0.89 ±0.004%). The proximate content in Freshwater Tilapia Head Flour (FTHF) ranged as moisture (5.79 ± 0.01%), protein (32.50 ± 0.02%), total lipids (0.202 ± 0.009%), carbohydrates (1.54 ± 0.02%) and ash (1.16 ± 0.003). The proximate content in Freshwater Tilapia Bone Flour (FTBF) ranged as moisture (5.77 ± 0.01%), protein (32.58 ± 0.03%), total lipids (0.200 ± 0.005%), carbohydrates (1.48 ± 0.02%) and ash (1.23 ± 0.01%). The fatty acid occurring in the highest proportions was alpha linolenic acid both ETHF (2.492±0.003mg) and ETBF (2.374±0.002mg). The fatty acid composition in FTHF occurring in the highest proportion was palmitic acid (0.983±0.002mg) and in FTBF the highest proportion was found in stearic acid (0.785±0.005mg). In the amino acid analysis, the highest values were recorded in phenyl alanine for ETHF (1.986±0.002%) and lysine in ETBF (1.364±0.003%). Phenyl alanine content was found higher in both FTHF (1.889±0.002%) and FTBF (1.981±0.003%). The essential vitamins and minerals were also analyzed and the results are discussed in detail.

      Keywords: Fish, nutrition, protein, amino acids, essential, tilapia

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mazlan A.G

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF Elizabethkingia meningoseptica FROM DISEASED AFRICAN CATFISH Clarias gariepinus [MB]

      Abstract: Two isolates of Elizabethkingia meningoseptica were successfully isolated from kidney and skin tissue of diseased African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in Malaysia. The percentage similarity of both physical and biochemical characteristics for the isolates from kidney (K1) and skin samples (S1) as determined by BBL-Crystal and API 20E were 99 % and 95.4%, respectively. Furthermore, both isolates were identified via 16S rRNA gene sequences and showed more than 97% homology to sequences deposited in GenBank. The API ZYM results were analogous for both strains, with only minor quantitative variations. However, the isolates from kidney sample (K1) showed higher levels of enzymatic activity reaction towards esterase lipase and leucine arylamidase. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of α-galactosidase was detected at low level in kidney isolate and absence in skin isolate.

      Keywords: Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, polymerase chain reaction, Clarias gariepinus, BBL-Crystal, Enzymatic activity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Michael Kolawole ADEWUMI

    (1)
    1. NUTRITIONAL PROFILES OF PROCESSED Spondias mombin FOLIAGE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSE OF RUMEN MICROORGANISMS TO THE EXTRACTS [MB]

      Abstract: Spondias mombin foliage was processed into fresh (as control), air-dried and sun-dried samples and were analyzed for proximate, fibre, minerals, vitamins and antinutrients. Also, Identified rumen microorganisms were exposed to non-reconstituted ethanol extract of the foliage. The results showed that crude protein, crude fibre and gross energy were greatly improved by drying from 4.9% to 15.1%, 2.1% to 18.4% and 0.9 kcal/g to 2.9kcal/g in that order. Fibre constituents improved from 11.5% to 67.9%, 7.2% to 53.6% and 2.9% to 9.3% for neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and acid detergent lignin. Similarly, all the mineral components were improved from 0.083% to 0.21%, 0.193% to 0.533% and 0.073% to 0.23% for Calcium, Phosphorus and Sodium respectively by drying. Drying decreased the Ascorbic acid, Riboflavin and Niacin contents from 27.8mg/100g to 9.1mg/100g, 0.083mg/100g to 0.033mg/100g and 0.323mg/100g to 0.143mg/100g in that arrangement. Above all, it was observed that drying tremendously improved the nutritional value of S. mombin foliage by reducing tannin from 2.2% to 1.64%, oxalic acid (2.1% to 1.38%), phytic acid (1.15 to 0.45%), saponin (1.18% to 0.72%) and trypsin inhibitor from 39.74% to 16.57%. However, drying did not influence the toxic potential of the foliage as indicated by susceptibility of all the rumen microorganisms except the mould species. The nutritional quality potentials observed in the present study suggested that S. mombin foliage may be efficiently utilized by ruminants for optimal performance.

      Keywords: Feed processing, novel feed resource, nutritional quality, rumen microorganisms susceptibility, ruminant nutrition

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Qotaibah Ababneh

    (1)
    1. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM CAMELS DIFFER IN COAGULASE PRODUCTION, GENOTYPE AND METHICILLIN RESISTANCE GENE PROFILES [MB]

      Abstract: Accurate and rapid typing of S. aureus is crucial to the control of its infections and minimizing its leakage to the food chain. The primary purpose of this research was to isolate S. aureus from camels’ meat and nasal swabs and to characterize the isolates for coagulase production and the presence of methicillin gene using PCR-RFLP of coagulase gene. A total of 264 camel’s meat and nasal swabs were collected from abattoirs or meat markets and were used in the study. Ninety two percent of samples showed typical colonies of S. aureus on Baird-Parker agar with a mean count 2.5 × 104 ± 1.8 × 104 CFU g-1. Upon confirmation of the isolates using S. aureus specific thermonuclease gene (nuc) PCR primers, only 64 isolates contained the specific product and thus were confirmed as S. aureus. However, when tested for the presence of coagulase gene, only 48 of them were positive while the other 16 were coagulase negative. Coagulase gene-RFLP revealed 19 distinct patterns when the gene was digested with Alu I and Cfo I. The typing revealed that the 48 classified isolates were genetically diverse and comprised a heterogeneous population with 14 genotypes at a 44.4% similarity level. When the coagulase positive isolates were tested for the presence of methicillin resistance (mec A) gene, 37 of the isolates were positive while the other 11 isolates were negative. The high heterogeneity among S. aureus isolates might be due to cross contamination between camel carcasses in slaughter houses and from handlers and their utensils.

      Keywords: Coagulase gene, Staphylococcus aureus molecular typing camel, MRSA

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mohamed Abbas

    (1)
    1. IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF MICRORHIZOMES IN GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCO) [BT]

      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to highlight an effective protocol for in vitro production of ginger microrhizomes. Microrhizomes were induced at the base of the in vitro derived shoots upon transfer to MS medium containing various concentrations of (30, 60 and 90 g/L), BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine (3, 6 and 9 mg/L) and grown under varying photoperiodism in addition to the MS medium supplemented with 9 mg/L BAP and 60-90 g/L sucrose under 16-h photoperiod within 10 weeks of cultivation were the best conditions for microrhizomes induction. Ginger microrhizomes formation in vitro was found to be controlled by many factors, including the concentrations of BAP and sucrose as well as photoperiodism during culturing period.

      Keywords: Ginger, Zingiber officinale, Ginger, Photoperiodism, Sucrose, BAP and Microrhizomes

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Najmeh Abbasi

    (1)
    1. THE STUDY OF SEASONAL STEROID HORMONES IN MALE SIBERIAN STURGEON (Acipenser baerii) FOR DETERMINING GONADAL DEVELOPMENT STAGES [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate of steroid hormones of male Siberian sturgeon in different seasons. For this, blood sampling was taken seasonally from 11 male Siberian sturgeons (7 years old) and then steroid hormones including testosterone and 11-keto testosterone were analyzed by using ELISA. The results showed that testosterone had no significant differences during all the seasons (p>0.05) and the maximum level was in autumn. But 11ketotestesterone had significant differences between winter with other seasons (p<0.05). The min and max level of 11ketotestesterone was in autumn and winter, respectively. 11-keto testosterone hormone levels based on sexual maturation stages showed significant difference between stages III and IV with stage II (p<0.05). Also, there was significant differences between stage II with others in testosterone levels (p<0.05).

      Keywords: Siberian sturgeon, testosterone, 11keto testosterone, sex determination

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mohamed Salah Abbassi

    (1)
    1. THERMOPHILIC BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS RBS 5 ISOLATED FROM HOT TUNISIAN SPRING CO-PRODUCING ALKALINE AND THERMOSTABLE α-AMYLASE AND PROTEASE ENZYMES [MB]

      Abstract: Bacillus licheniformis RBS 5 was isolated from thermal spring in Tunisia. The isolate coproduce α-amylase and protease enzymes. The α-amylase activity showed an optimal activity at approximately 65°C and in wide pH interval ranging from 4 to 9. This enzyme was stable over the range of 45 to 70°C after 30 min of incubation and in the pH range of 8 to 10. Protease activity was optimal; at 80°C, pH 12. This enzyme was stable until 60°C over the pH range of 10 to 12. EDTA at concentration of 5 mM reduces slightly both activities evoking the serine alkaline protease. Cationic ions (Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Mg 2+) have an inhibition effect on α-amylase. However, protease activity was enhanced by Ca2+, Cu2+ and Mg 2+); the other cations reduce slightly the proteolytic activity. SDS and H2O2 were found as inhibitors for both activities whereas Triton X-100 and perfume have no effect. Taken together, these traits make protease activity of B. licheniformis RBS 5 as efficient for use in detergent industry.

      Keywords: Thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis, α-amylase, protease, detergent additive

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Abdelmoez M. Abdallah

    (1)
    1. PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF MILK-CLOTTING ENZYME FROM THE SEEDS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to search for milk clotting substitute from different parts (flowers, seeds, stem, leaves, ripe and unripe fruits) of Moringa oleifera. The samples were blended and extracted using different types of extracting solutions. The most reliable, quick and efficient enzyme extracting solution was found to be 5% NaCl in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, which was used throughout the study. The milk clotting activity was only observed in the seeds extract while the other parts were either deficient or has very low milk clotting activity. Thus, the moringa seeds were used as source of milk clotting enzyme. The extracted proteins were fractionated with ammonium sulfate at concentration of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 %. Highest milk clotting activity was observed in the 20 % fraction. This fraction was assumed to contain the clotting enzymes and characterized for its heating stability (30 – 90°C) and optimum temperature (30 – 90°C). The results demonstrated that moringa seeds milk clotting enzyme is stable up to 50°C with an optimum milk clotting activity of 70°C. The high ratio of milk-clotting to proteolytic activity of the partially purified enzyme indicates the potential of this enzyme as suitable rennet substitute in dairy industry. However, further study is needed to completely purify and characterize this promising milk clotting enzyme from moringa seeds.

      Keywords: Ammonium sulfate fractionation, Milk-clotting activity, Moringa seeds, Rennet substitutes

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Maher Abdel-Aziz

    (1)
    1. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT [FS]

      Abstract: This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion), the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic), Allium porrum L. (leek) and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi). The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

      Keywords: Allium species, plant extract, antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mahfouz Abdel-Gawad

    (1)
    1. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT [FS]

      Abstract: This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion), the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic), Allium porrum L. (leek) and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi). The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

      Keywords: Allium species, plant extract, antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ezzat Abdel-Lateef

    (1)
    1. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT, TOTAL PHENOLIC AND FLAVONOID CONTENTS OF SIX ALLIUM SPECIES GROWING IN EGYPT [FS]

      Abstract: This study was designated to determine the total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluation the in vitro antioxidant activity of the defatted methanolic extracts of six Allium species growing in Egypt. Three of them are subspecies of Allium cepa L. (ssp. red onion, ssp. white onion and ssp. green onion), the other three species are Allium sativum L. (garlic), Allium porrum L. (leek) and Allium kurrat L. (kurrat baladi). The results exhibited that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum have the highest phenolic contents. On the other hand, in vitro antioxidant activity using three methods, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, phosphomolybdate and reducing power assays revealed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum have high antioxidant activities. Moreover, there was positive correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic contents of the tested Allium species. Therefore, the two plant species A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum were submitted to fractionation process using chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The results showed that the ethyl acetate fractions of the two plants have high phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as have high antioxidant activities. Also, the preliminary phytochemical screening of the tested Allium species showed that A. cepa (ssp. red onion) and A. porrum have high quantities of flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins.

      Keywords: Allium species, plant extract, antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mouhamed-Cherif Abdeldjalil

    (1)
    1. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE MUNICIPAL SLAUGHTERHOUSE OF CONSTANTINE - ALGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: The spatial distribution of airborne bacterial contamination (with Total aerobic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Coliforms, Staphylococci and Streptococci) was studied within the municipal abattoir of Constantine (North-East of Algeria).
      Open plate air samples were collected at twenty sampling locations weekly during two months. At the same chosen locations, temperature and humidity of the air were measured. The spatial distribution of bacterial contamination was studied using a Geographic Information System.
      The viscera processing section recorded the highest bacterial concentration and poor correlations had been recorded between bacterial counts and the environmental conditions within the abattoir. The high air bacterial loads recorded all over the slaughterhouse were consequence of the execution of all processing operations within the same section (for both bovine and ovine carcasses) associated to the absence of structural barriers, spatial separation between processing operations and uncontrolled airflow.
      This study highlights the poor hygienic level of the municipal slaughterhouse of Constantine. The implementation of serious measures is needed to reduce the risk of contamination and proliferation of pathogens in meat during slaughtering processes.

      Keywords: Airborne contamination, spatial distribution, slaughterhouse, North-East of Algeria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jawher Abdelhak

    (1)
    1. SYNTHESIS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, SPECTROSCOPY PROPERTIES AND POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIALITIES OF A NEW SYNTHETIC COMPOUND: AMINO- CHLOROPYRIDINIUM DIAQUA DIOXALATO IRON(III) [BT]

      Abstract: We report herein the synthesis and the physicochemical characterization of a new mixed-ligand iron(III) complex of formula (C5H6ClN2)[Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2].2H2O. This compound has been prepared by slow evaporation at room temperature and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It has been characterized by IR and UV-VIS spectra and thermal analysis (TG and DTA). In this compound, the iron ion has a slightly distorted square bipyramidal environment, coordinated by two chelating oxalate ion and two water molecules. Structural cohesion is established essentially by π-π interactions between the rings of pyridine groups and intermolecular hydrogen bonds connecting the ionic entities and uncoordinated water molecules.
      In vitro antimicrobial activities of the amino- chloropyridinium diaqua dioxalato iron (III) against pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria were studied in this work. On the whole, our new compound has high antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. The amino- chloropyridinium diaqua dioxalato iron (III) used at 200µg m-1, can reduce Candida albicans survival of about 45.45%, and destruct hyphe mycelial of Trichophyton rubrum. High lysozyme activities were expressed especially against Listeria innocua with 17 times more than Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) are ranging from 16 µg ml-1 for bacteria to 256 µg ml-1 for yeast and IC50 values varying from 1.44 to 10.45 µg ml-1 for bacteria and 45.8 for yeast.

      Keywords: Iron (III) complex, antifungal antibacterial activity, spectroscopy studies, single crystal structure

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Diana Bayshagylovna Abdraimova

    (1)
    1. SOME PROPERTIES OF ENDOGENOUS α-AMYLASE INHIBITOR FROM WHEAT GRAIN [FS]

      Abstract: The protein with endogenous α-amylase inhibitor activity was extracted and purified from wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains through 70% ammonium sulphate fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel and gel-chromatography on Toyapearl HW-50. The molecular weight and isoelectric point of protein were estimated about 21 kD and 7.0 respectively. The inhibitor repressed of high pI wheat α-amylase isozymes, but had no effect on amylases of microbial and animal origin. The inhibitor also exhibited activity towards serine protease subtilisin. The inhibitor was the most active at pH 7.8 to pH 8.0 and was stable up to 90° C for 10 minutes. The protein is localized in the peripheral parts of the seed, and in the starchy endosperm.

      Keywords: α-amylase, isoenzymes, subtilisin, inhibitor, wheat

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Abeer Khairy Abdulall

    (1)
    1. EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNOGENICITY OF EACH OF L-AMINO OXIDASE- AND L-ASCORBIC ACID-INACTIVATED HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN MICE AS POTENTIAL VACCINE CANDIDATES [BT]

      Abstract: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common causes of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Formaldehyde is the currently used inactivating agent in HAV vaccine processing despite of its adverse effects. The current study aimed to evaluate both L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) and L-ascorbic acid (LAA) as alternative inactivants for HAV and the immunogenicity of inactivated HAV in mice. Vero cell line was used for cultivation of HAV. The cytotoxicity of LAO and LAA on Vero cells was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The immunogenicity of each LAO- and LAA-inactivated HAV was examined in parallel with reference HAV vaccine in mice. Humoral (total IgG) and cellular immune responses (IFN-γ and IL-5) were evaluated in mice sera using ELISA. Both LAO and LAA could efficiently inactivate HAV within 30 and 36 hrs post treatment, respectively, at concentrations of 0.4 µgm/ml of LAO and 1.5 mg/ml of LAA. Inactivated vaccines were immunogenic to mice on both the humoral and cellular levels. LAO prepared vaccines showed a more promising immune reactivity than LAA prepared ones and alum-adsorbed vaccines were more immunogenic than non-adjuvanted ones. In conclusion, data recorded suggest that both LAO and LAA can be used as inactivating agents for HAV grown in cell culture. LAA- and LAO-inactivated HAV can be potential vaccines as they provide effective humoral and cellular immune responses comparable to that of the reference vaccine. The stability of test vaccines is recommended to be traced at different thermal conditions, in addition to different stabilizers and different pharmaceutical formulations must be tested trying to produce a lyophilized formula for long-term stability.

      Keywords: Hepatitis A, vaccine, virus inactivation, L-amino oxidase, L-ascorbic acid, alum

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Amal Osman Abdullatif

    (1)
    1. EVALUATION OF THE IMMUNOGENICITY OF EACH OF L-AMINO OXIDASE- AND L-ASCORBIC ACID-INACTIVATED HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN MICE AS POTENTIAL VACCINE CANDIDATES [BT]

      Abstract: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is one of the most common causes of acute viral hepatitis worldwide. Formaldehyde is the currently used inactivating agent in HAV vaccine processing despite of its adverse effects. The current study aimed to evaluate both L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) and L-ascorbic acid (LAA) as alternative inactivants for HAV and the immunogenicity of inactivated HAV in mice. Vero cell line was used for cultivation of HAV. The cytotoxicity of LAO and LAA on Vero cells was evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The immunogenicity of each LAO- and LAA-inactivated HAV was examined in parallel with reference HAV vaccine in mice. Humoral (total IgG) and cellular immune responses (IFN-γ and IL-5) were evaluated in mice sera using ELISA. Both LAO and LAA could efficiently inactivate HAV within 30 and 36 hrs post treatment, respectively, at concentrations of 0.4 µgm/ml of LAO and 1.5 mg/ml of LAA. Inactivated vaccines were immunogenic to mice on both the humoral and cellular levels. LAO prepared vaccines showed a more promising immune reactivity than LAA prepared ones and alum-adsorbed vaccines were more immunogenic than non-adjuvanted ones. In conclusion, data recorded suggest that both LAO and LAA can be used as inactivating agents for HAV grown in cell culture. LAA- and LAO-inactivated HAV can be potential vaccines as they provide effective humoral and cellular immune responses comparable to that of the reference vaccine. The stability of test vaccines is recommended to be traced at different thermal conditions, in addition to different stabilizers and different pharmaceutical formulations must be tested trying to produce a lyophilized formula for long-term stability.

      Keywords: Hepatitis A, vaccine, virus inactivation, L-amino oxidase, L-ascorbic acid, alum

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Gulbakhor T. Abdullayeva

    (1)
    1. THE EFFECTS OF ISOLATED FRACTIONS OF RED PEPPER CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. ON THE MITOCHONDRIAL PERMEABILITY TRANSITION PORE AND LIPID PEROXIDATION [BT]

      Abstract: Fruit proteins, seed proteins and capsaicinoids fractions were isolated from red pepper of Capsicum annum L. plants family and their effects on mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and lipid peroxidation of rat liver were studied in vitro. Seed proteins did not influence to MPTP; however fruit proteins caused MPTP to open and led to mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Opening of the MPTP causes massive swelling of mitochondria; capsaicinoids fractions inhibited the swelling process of mitochondria and caused the closed state of the MPTP. Fruits and seeds protein fractions from red pepper did not reduce the effect of Fe2+/ascorbate-induced mitochondrial swelling and had no effect on the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the membranes of mitochondria. Capsaicinoid fraction had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the Fe2+/ascorbate-dependent swelling of mitochondria and of lipid peroxidation. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) on the swelling of mitochondria fraction was 2 µg/ml. Сapsaicinoids fraction prevented the effect of Fe2+/ascorbate on mitochondria and reduced the accumulation of MDA in membrane. Complete inhibition of lipid peroxidation was shown at a 50 µg/ml capsaicinoids concentration. Capsaicinoids, reducing the membrane destructive effects of Fe2+/ascorbate, had antioxidant properties and a protective effect on mitochondria. The obtained results showed the presence of different compounds in red pepper differently affecting MPTP and lipid peroxidation.

      Keywords: Red pepper, proteins, capsaicinoid, mitochondria, MPTP, lipid peroxidation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • N. Abe

    (1)
    1. ANTIBACTERIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF BACILLUS METHYLOTROPHICUS-SCS2012 ISOLATED FROM SOIL [MB]

      Abstract: The strain Bacillus methylotrophycus-SCS2012 (Bacillus sp. SCS2012) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing was isolated from soil. Ethyl acetate extract of B. methylotrophycus-SCS2012 showed antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The crude metabolite extracted from B. methylotrophycus-SCS2012 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Streptococcus agalactae, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Shigella dysenteriae with the zone of inhibition range 28.33 to 32.16 mm at 100μg/disc. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Streptococcus agalactae, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Shigella dysenteriae was found to be 156, 156, 312, 312 and 625µg/ml respectively. The ethyl acetate extract also exhibited cytotoxic effects on brine shrimp lethality bioassay with LC50 value of 10.78 g/ml. Thus the ethyl acetate extract of Bacillus methylotrophycus-SCS2012 has broad spectrum activity with moderate cytotoxicity.

      Keywords: Bacillus methylotrophycus-SCS2012, antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration, cytotoxicity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ali Hussein Abed-Al-Kareem

    (1)
    1. CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE FORTIFIED WHEAT FLOUR WITH SYNTHETIC FENAEDTA COMPLEX [FS]

      Abstract: This study includes fortification of two type of flour 70 and 80 % extraction with two sources of non-haem iron sodium iron EDTA (FeNaEDTA) which was synthesis in laboratory and ferrous sulfate in level of 30 mg iron/kg flour. The synthesis FeNaEDTA has been identified in several methods, infra red spectrophotometry, C.H.N analyzer and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP- OES). NaFeEDTA is the only non-haem source that has good bioavailability as it is relatively independent of flour composition and withstands the inhibitory effects of phytates.
      Chemical analysis of the two type of the flour before and after fortification with FeNaEDTA was done (moisture, ash , protein , fat and wet gluten)% and the amount of iron as mg/100g.The falling number was not affected by the above fortificants.The values of falling Number of 70% extraction for non-fortified and fortified flour by FeNaEDTA and ferrous sulfate were ( 425,426,427) second respectively, while for 80% extracted flour were (445,446,448) second respectively.
      The color test showed an increasing of color degree upon fortified by iron sulfate and decreasing of upon fortified by FeNaEDTA in both type of flour.

      Keywords: Fortified Flour, FeNaEDTA

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ganiyat T. Abidoye

    (1)
    1. BIOPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF BACTERIOCINS FROM SOME Lactobacillus species ISOLATED FROM FOODS [MB]

      Abstract: Lactobacillus species isolated from ogi, kunnu, yoghurt and palm-wine were found to produce bacteriocins. The bacteriocins had broad spectra of antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and negative bacteria. The effects of the bacteriocins on Escherichia coli infections in rats were evaluated. Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with E. coli and treated with 1280 AU/ml of the bacteriocins from L. plantarum MO21, L. plantarum MP12, L. casei MK21, L. casei MO11, L. brevis MK11 and L. buchneri MY21. Escherichia coli infection caused upregulation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total protein, globulin, cholesterol, bilirubin and glucose levels in sera of the infected rats which were down-regulated in the bacteriocin treated rats. Gastric and GIT damage caused by E. coli infection were reduced in the bacteriocin-treated groups. Therefore, it is concluded that these bacteriocins may have useful biomedical applications.

      Keywords: Lactobacillus species; bacteriocin; gastric tissue; total protein and globulin

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Amal Abo-Kamar

    (2)
    1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE PARTIALLY PURIFIED PLANTARCIN SR18 PRODUCED BY LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM SR18 [MB]

      Abstract: The bacteriocin bound to the cells and that secreted into the culture filtrate of Lactobacillus plantarum SR18 were precipitated by 75% ammomium sulphate, dialysed and further purified by Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. Bacteriocins were purified from proteins bound to the cell of L. plantarum SR18 (plantarcin SR18 a) and culture filtrate proteins (plantarcin SR18 b), respectively. The SDS-PAGE of partially purified Plantarcin SR18a showed a molecular weight of 3.5 KDa. While, plantarcin SR18 b had a molecular weight of 10.3 KDa. The antibacterial activity of the tested plantarcin SR18 preparations suffered no measurable loss after 45 min at 80ºC. Whereas, At 100ºC, significant decrease in the activity of bacteriocin preparations (60- 80 %) took place by the end of 45 min. At pH ranged from 5-8, the activity of the plantarcin SR18 preparations suffered no measurable loss. Dissociating agents significantly affected the bacteriocin activity. Thus, tween 80 and mercaptoethanol increased the activity of bacteriocin preparations to 1.2-1.4 fold. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) increased the activity of the tested bacteriocin preparations by about 20%.The lowest residual activity (60%) was recorded after treatment with Triton X100 for 45 min. Protease completely inhibited the activities of all forms of plantarcin SR18 after 45 min at 37ºC.

      Keywords: Plantarcin, molecular weight, stability, dissociating agents, protease

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. PRODUCTION OF PLANTARCIN BY LACTOBACILLUS PLANTARUM SR18 [MB]

      Abstract: Out of 86 lactobacilli previously screened in our laboratory, Lactobacillus plantarum SR18 isolated from yoghurt revealed the largest detected inhibition zone against the selected indicator Streptococcus salivarius 5. The obtained electrophoretic patterns revealed that L. plantarum SR18 was free from plasmids. Exposure of 6 h growing L. plantarum culture to T-8M, 3B ultraviolet B lamp (8w, 220v & 312 nm) for 2 h and subsequent growth for further 24 h resulted in an increase of cell-bound bacteriocin titer reached 2 fold at 12 h. Whereas bacteriocin secreted in the culture filtrate was not affected by UV irradiation. Plantarcin SR18 production was maximal (12800 AU/ml) between 12 and 18 h by incubation of the culture at 37°C and pH 5-7 in candle jar (CO2). The bacteriocin bound to the cells and that secreted into the culture filtrate of L. plantarum SR18 were precipitated by 75% ammomium sulphate, dialysed and further purified by Gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The specific activities (AU/mg protein) were increased by a factor of about 5.3 and 2.35 for plantarcins purified from proteins bound to the cell of L. plantarum SR18 (plantarcin SR18 a) and that secreted into the culture filtrate (plantarcin SR18 b), respectively. Gel filtration of plantarcin SR18a resulted in moderate antibacterial activity (3200 AU/ml) and very high activity (25600 AU/ml) of plantarcin SR18b.

      Keywords: Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacteriocin, plasmid, UV induction

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Khaled Mohamed Aboshanab

    (1)
    1. COST-EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION OF THE BIO-PLASTIC POLY-β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE USING ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATE P39 [BT]

      Abstract: Being biodegradable and biocompatible natural polymer, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) drew the attention of scientists to substitute synthetic plastics in our daily lives. However, its industrial production is hampered by its high cost. In this study, an extensive screening program was done to isolate bacteria with high PHB productivity from agricultural fields and develop a cost-effective PHB production. A promising bacterial isolate Acinetobacter baumannii P39 was recovered and identified using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing. It produced 24% PHB per dry weight after 48 h. Several experiments were conducted to optimize the composition of the culture medium and environmental factors for the selected isolate. Results revealed that 60% aeration, 28°C incubation temperature and initial pH 7.5 showed the highest productivity. Besides, 0.7% corn oil and 0.1 g/L peptone were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Substituting glucose with corn oil led to a 23% reduction in total input cost and an estimate price for 1kg PHB is 20.5 L.E. Strain improvement by UV mutation succeeded in improving PHB production by two fold in the selected mutant P39M2. Finally, this study valorizes usage of Acinetobacter isolate in PHB production in addition to solving the critical problem of high cost of production.

      Keywords: Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate- bioplastic- Acinetobacter baumannii, biodegradable- biocompatible

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Hamada Abou-Bakr

    (1)
    1. OPTIMIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR TANNASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER VAN TIEGHEM USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY [MB]

      Abstract: Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the production of tannase by a newly isolate of Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem using rotatable central composite design (RCCD). This statistical optimization process was carried out involving four of quantitative growth parameters (variables), namely tannic acid concentration, nitrogen source concentration, initial pH of the medium and inoculum size. A mathematical model expressing the production process of tannase by submerged fermentation (SmF) technique was generated statistically in the form of a second order polynomial equation. The model indicated the presence of significant linear, quadratic and interaction effects of the studied variables on tannase production by the fungal isolate. The results showed maximum tannase production (580 U/50 ml medium) at 2% tannic acid, 4 g/l sodium nitrate, pH 4 and inoculum size of 5×107 spores/50 ml medium, which was also verified by experimental data.

      Keywords: Tannase optimization, response surface methodology, rotatable central composite design, Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, fungal tannin acyl hydrolase

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Akram Al Aboudi

    (1)
    1. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ISOLATES FROM CAMELS DIFFER IN COAGULASE PRODUCTION, GENOTYPE AND METHICILLIN RESISTANCE GENE PROFILES [MB]

      Abstract: Accurate and rapid typing of S. aureus is crucial to the control of its infections and minimizing its leakage to the food chain. The primary purpose of this research was to isolate S. aureus from camels’ meat and nasal swabs and to characterize the isolates for coagulase production and the presence of methicillin gene using PCR-RFLP of coagulase gene. A total of 264 camel’s meat and nasal swabs were collected from abattoirs or meat markets and were used in the study. Ninety two percent of samples showed typical colonies of S. aureus on Baird-Parker agar with a mean count 2.5 × 104 ± 1.8 × 104 CFU g-1. Upon confirmation of the isolates using S. aureus specific thermonuclease gene (nuc) PCR primers, only 64 isolates contained the specific product and thus were confirmed as S. aureus. However, when tested for the presence of coagulase gene, only 48 of them were positive while the other 16 were coagulase negative. Coagulase gene-RFLP revealed 19 distinct patterns when the gene was digested with Alu I and Cfo I. The typing revealed that the 48 classified isolates were genetically diverse and comprised a heterogeneous population with 14 genotypes at a 44.4% similarity level. When the coagulase positive isolates were tested for the presence of methicillin resistance (mec A) gene, 37 of the isolates were positive while the other 11 isolates were negative. The high heterogeneity among S. aureus isolates might be due to cross contamination between camel carcasses in slaughter houses and from handlers and their utensils.

      Keywords: Coagulase gene, Staphylococcus aureus molecular typing camel, MRSA

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Hasan Aboul-Atta

    (1)
    1. DETECTION OF MATERNAL COLONIZATION OF GROUP B STREPTOCOCCUS BY PCR TARGETING Cfb AND ScpB GENES [BT]

      Abstract: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Molecular based tests, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), can detect GBS within hours and can be used intrapartum allowing for selective intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) in women carrying GBS. The aim of this work was to evaluate PCR as a rapid screening method for detection of maternal colonization of GBS compared to culture. Vaginal/rectal swabs were collected from 120 pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation and cultured on CNA medium. GBS was identified by gram staining and catalase, hippurate and CAMP tests and confirmed by latex agglutination for GBS antigens. PCR was done using two assays; one targeting the cfb gene and the other targeting the scpB gene. Results revealed thatGBS colonization was detected in 15%, 23.3% and 21.7% of pregnant women by culture, cfb PCR assay and scpB PCR assay respectively. cfb PCR assay showed 100% sensitivity and 90.2% specificity whereas scpB PCR assay showed 94.4% sensitivity and 91.2% specificity. PCR could detect GBS genome at a concentration of as low as 10-2 for cfb PCR and 10-3 for scpB PCR. In conclusion, PCR is a rapid, specific and sensitive tool for detection of maternal colonization of GBS. PCR assay targeting scpB gene is more sensitive than that targeting cfb gene.

      Keywords: Group B Streptococcus, polymerase chain reaction, pregnancy

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mohammad Mohammad Aboulwafa

    (1)
    1. COST-EFFECTIVE PRODUCTION OF THE BIO-PLASTIC POLY-β-HYDROXYBUTYRATE USING ACINETOBACTER BAUMANNII ISOLATE P39 [BT]

      Abstract: Being biodegradable and biocompatible natural polymer, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) drew the attention of scientists to substitute synthetic plastics in our daily lives. However, its industrial production is hampered by its high cost. In this study, an extensive screening program was done to isolate bacteria with high PHB productivity from agricultural fields and develop a cost-effective PHB production. A promising bacterial isolate Acinetobacter baumannii P39 was recovered and identified using 16S ribosomal gene sequencing. It produced 24% PHB per dry weight after 48 h. Several experiments were conducted to optimize the composition of the culture medium and environmental factors for the selected isolate. Results revealed that 60% aeration, 28°C incubation temperature and initial pH 7.5 showed the highest productivity. Besides, 0.7% corn oil and 0.1 g/L peptone were the best carbon and nitrogen sources, respectively. Substituting glucose with corn oil led to a 23% reduction in total input cost and an estimate price for 1kg PHB is 20.5 L.E. Strain improvement by UV mutation succeeded in improving PHB production by two fold in the selected mutant P39M2. Finally, this study valorizes usage of Acinetobacter isolate in PHB production in addition to solving the critical problem of high cost of production.

      Keywords: Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate- bioplastic- Acinetobacter baumannii, biodegradable- biocompatible

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Amith Abraham

    (1)
    1. MICROBIAL CONSORTIA FORMULATION FOR THE EFFECTIVE BIODEGRADATION OF BENZENE, TOLUENE, XYLENE AND PHENOL [MB]

      Abstract: Monoaromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, xylene and phenol (BTXP) represent an important class of environmental contaminants because of their recognized toxicity to different organisms. Development of microbial consortia was attempted for the biodegradation of the mixture of these compounds. Alcaligenes sp d2, a phenol degrading microorganism reported earlier, was found to degrade all the compounds individually and also as a mixture. Three more novel bacterial isolates, Enterobacter aerogenes, Raoultella sp and Bacillus megaterium, were selected by soil enrichment technique and identified by 16S rDNA analysis. Phylogenetic analysis was performed in Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis4 based on Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean to infer the phylogeny across the data. The isolates could grow in Mineral Salt media supplemented individually with a maximum concentration of 1.36 mM Benzene, 1.09 mM Toluene, 0.923 mM Xylene and 1.22 mM Phenol as the sole carbon source. Degradation studies were conducted in 100 ml Mineral Salt media containing the mixture of all the four compounds. The ether extracted cell-free medium was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The primary formulation of the microbial consortia for the degradation of the mixture of BTXP was done using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy data. This is the first report on the biodegradation potential of Bacillus megaterium SBS3on both phenol and benzene. Hence this strain can be considered as a novel isolate with immense degradation potential. The consortium of Alcaligenes sp d2, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacillus megaterium, and Raoultella sp formulated through this attempt could effectively degrade the mixture of BTXP and application of this consortium can result in the development of strategies for the bioremediation of Benzene, Toluene, Xylene and Phenol.

      Keywords: Biodegradation, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Microbial consortium, Mineral Salt media

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Yuri de Jesus Lopes de Abreu

    (1)
    1. PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN EC2 AND ITS INTERFERENCE IN THE GROWTH OF SALMONELLA TYPHI IN A MILK MATRIX [MB]

      Abstract: Bacterial interference can occur through various mechanisms, including the production of peroxides, acids, ammonia, bacteriolytic enzymes or bacteriocins. The strain Escherichia coli EC2 produces the antimicrobial substance (AMS) EC2, able to inhibit different strains of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from food, as E. coli and Salmonella sp. The activity of AMS EC2 was lost after treatment with proteolytic enzymes, indicating the presence of an active proteinaceous compound, suggesting that it is a bacteriocin. The substance, renamed bacteriocin EC2, has its better production when the producer strain is grown on Casoy medium, at 37ºC and pH 6.0, without NaCl addition, but it is also able to be produced in milk. When co-cultivated in UHT milk with the producer strain E. coli EC2, the growth of the indicator strain Salmonella Typhi is totally inhibited within the first 4 hours of incubation, suggesting a potential application of bacteriocin EC2 in the control of Salmonella sp. e.g. in foods.

      Keywords: Escherichia coli EC2, bacteriocin EC2, Salmonella Typhi, bacterial interference, milk

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Christian I. Abuajah

    (1)
    1. STEEP-LIQUOR TREATMENTS, GERMINATIVE ENERGY AND APPARENT DEGREE OF ATTENUATION OF THREE SORGHUM VARIETIES DURING MALTING AND BREWING [BT]

      Abstract: The influence of steep-liquor treated with hydrogen peroxide, indole acetic acid and gibberellic acid on the germinative energy and apparent degree of attenuation of three sorghum varieties (SKV8, SKV4 and ICSV400) during malting and brewing was studied using standard methods. Samples steeped in the treated steep-liquors had 3.22 to 7.00 % improved germinative energy, which were significantly (p<0.05) different, more than the controls. Worts of the treated samples also showed 37.43 to 40.3 % improved apparent degree of attenuation, which were significantly (p<0.05) different, more than the controls during the five-day fermentation period. The results were also significantly (p<0.05) different, from the controls. Steep-liquor treatments however, influenced both the GE and ADA of the three sorghum varieties significantly (P<0.05) different along varietal lines. Thus, variety KSV8 steeped in H2O2 had the highest GE of 99.0 ± 0.10% while variety ICSV400 steeped in GA3 had the lowest GE of 94.0 ± 0.16%. Similarly, wort samples from variety KSV8 steeped in H2O2 had the highest ADA of 70.0 ± 1.25% while those of KSV4 steeped in GA3 had the lowest ADA of 31.7 ± 0.53%.

      Keywords: Attenuation, brewing, fermentation, malting, modification, sorghum

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ruth T. S. Ofongo – Abule

    (1)
    1. PERFORMANCE AND MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE GUT OF BROILER BIRDS AFTER ANTIBIOTIC ADMINISTRATION AND ENZYME SUPPLEMENTATION [MB]

      Abstract: This study evaluated the effect of feed additives (antibiotic or enzyme) on performance and bacteria population in the ileum of one day – old broiler chicks (ANAAC 2000) randomly distributed to three treatments having eight replicates and ten birds per replicate. Completely randomized design was used and experiment lasted for 35 days.
      Maize–soybean meal diet without antibiotic administration or enzyme supplementation served as control and was the same diet for all treatments. Antibiotic (Dicoxin plus ®) was administered to birds fed diet 2 and enzyme (Roxazyme G 2G ®) was supplemented to diet 3.Bacterial specific primers for rRNA gene sequences were used to amplify bacterial genes from samples and sequenced. Bacteria were identified from the gene sequences using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) against the National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).
      Enzyme supplementation significantly (P<0.01) improved final Live body weight and weight gain compared to control or administration of antibiotic. The FCR was significantly enhanced (P<0.01) by enzyme and antibiotic supplementation. Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Clostridia were identified in digesta sampled. Partial rRNA sequences identical to Clostridia were the lowest (1) in control and enzyme treatment. A value of 4 was recorded in antibiotic treatment. Lactobacillus acidophilus was numerically high in control (8) and enzyme treatment (5) compared to antibiotic administration (1). Partial rRNA sequences identical to Escherichia coli sequences was however high (48) in birds administered antibiotic compared to control (8) and enzyme treatment (9). Results indicated greater improvement in weight gain, FCR and Lactobacillus in broilers fed enzyme supplemented diet. Feed additives may affect the biodiversity of gut bacteria in poultry birds.

      Keywords: antibiotics, broilers, enzyme supplementation, molecular identification, performance

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mrityunjoy Acharjee

    (1)
    1. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MAJOR SEA FISH AVAILABLE IN LOCAL MARKETS OF DHAKA CITY, BANGLADESH [MB]

      Abstract: Present study attempted to determine the prevalence of pathogenic microflora along the two major sea fish samples: Rupchanda (Pampus chinensis) and Surmai (Scomberomorus guttatus), collected from local market in Dhaka city. Most of the fishes collected were found to be contaminated with a huge number of pathogens within a range of 2.0×102-1.9×109 cfu.mL-1 or cfu.G-1. The study of antibiogram showed a number of isolates to be drug-resistant. The investigation also endeavored to evaluate the efficiency of gamma (γ) irradiation on the pathogenic reduction besides the traditional means. The pathogenic load was found to be reduced by an irradiation dosage of 3 kilo Gray (kGy).

      Keywords: Sea fish, pathogens, antibiotic resistance, irradiation, microbiological quality

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • El Hassan Achbani

    (1)
    1. ECOLOGY OF PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS 2066-7 STRAIN: A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BACTERIA ONION DISEASES [MB]

      Abstract: The growth response of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans 2066-7 to change in water activity (aw), temperature, and pH was determined in vitro in basic medium. The minimum temperature at which 2066-7 was able to grow was 7°C, and the growth of 2066-7 did not change at varying pH levels (4–10.34). The best growth was obtained at a water activity of 0.98 in all media modified with the four solutes (glucose, glycerol, NaCl and polyethylene glycol). The solute used to reduce water activity had a great influence on bacterial growth, especially at unfavorable conditions (low temperature). This study has defined the range of environmental conditions (aw, pH, and temperature) over which the bacteria may be developed for biological control of plant diseases.

      Keywords: Pantoea agglomerans, ecology, water activity and plant diseases

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • S. Achio

    (1)
    1. COMPARISON OF COMPOST MATURITY, MICROBIAL SURVIVAL AND HEALTH HAZARDS IN TWO COMPOSTING SYSTEMS [BT]

      Abstract: Data collected on germination index, temperature, moisture content, pH, total viable count, total coliform count and total fungi count were determined during composting in HV and FA systems at VREL Farms for a period of thirteen weeks and analysed to ascertain the effects of temperature, moisture and pH on compost maturity and microbial survival. There were no significant differences in germination index, pH and moisture content values for both systems as ANOVA results at α = 5% yielded p-values of 0.17, 0.98 and 0.13 respectively. Moisture content and pH values ranged between 40%-70% and 7.20 - 8.30 respectively. Temperature values recorded however were significantly different (p-value = 1.2 x 10-5, α = 5%) in both systems and affected the microbial distribution during the process. The temperature recorded in HV and FA systems ranged between 45.19 ºC – 65.44 ºC and 29.00 ºC – 50.83ºC respectively. Germination Index values were >150% in different systems at the end of week 12. Listeria spp., known to be zoonotic, and Staphylococcus spp. survived in compost processed in FA system; and Penicillium spp. in both systems.

      Keywords: viable count, coliform count, fungi count, passive aerated systems, active aerated systems

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mária Adamkovičová

    (2)
    1. THE INVESTIGATION OF CO-ADMINISTRATION TO CADMIUM, DIAZINON AND SELENIUM ON GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF ADULT MALE RATS [BT]

      Abstract: In this study, differences in growth characteristics (body weight, femoral weight and femoral length) of adult male rats after single cadmium (Cd), as well as, simultaneous exposure to Cd and diazinon (DZN), and after DZN, Cd and selenium (Se) co-administration were investigated. One-month-old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 animals each. In the first group (A), rats received a drinking water containing 30 mg of CdCl2/l for 90 days. In the second group (B), males were orally dosed with combination of40 mg of DZN/l and 30 mg of CdCl2/l in drinking water for 90 days. In the third group C, rats were administered by 40 mg of DZN/l in combination with 5 mg of Na2SeO3/l and 30 mg of CdCl2/l in drinking water for the same treatment period. The fourth group of males without additive toxicants, served as a control group (D). The statistical analysis of obtained data showed a beneficial effect of Cd sole dose on femoral weight in adult male rats. Significant changes in femoral weight were observed between rats from the groups A and B, and A and C. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in body weight and femoral length between all experimental (A, B, C) and control (D) groups. Considerable differences were identified only for femoral length among the groups A and C, and the groups B and C. Our results suggest a protective influence of Cd against Se-induced reduction in body weight and femoral length in rats simultaneously exposed to DZN, Se and Cd in their drinking water. However, positive influence of Cd on rat´s femoral weight is likely suppressed by the toxicity of DZN and/or DZN in combination with Se.

      Keywords: rats, femoral bone, diazinon, selenium, cadmium

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. CADMIUM AND DIAZINON-INDUCED CHANGES IN THE RAT TESTIS STRUCTURE AFTER A PERORAL ADMINISTRATION IN DRIKING WATER [BT]

      Abstract: The present study was carried out to elucidate the effects of heavy metal cadmium (Cd) and a nonselective organophosphorus insecticide diazinon (DZN) administration on the testis structures in adult male rats in subchronic toxicity experiments. A total of 40 Wistar 4 weeks old rats were randomized into 4 groups of 10 animals each and dosed with cadmium (Cd) 30 mg/l (group A), diazinon (DZN) 40 mg/l (group B), and in combination of Cd and DZN (30 and 40 mg/l, respectively, group C) per os in drinking water for 90 days. Testicular histology using a light microscopy and morphometry using PC morphometric software M.I.S. Quick Photo were evaluated. The morphometric data supported histological observations at tubular and interstitial level. Reduced seminiferous epithelium (P<0.001) in Cd group showed desquamation of germ cells, cellular degeneration and necrosis. Increase in epithelial vacuoles and dilated blood vessels relative volume (P<0.001) were observed in all experimental groups. Cd and DZN and their combination exerted changes in the reproductive parameters which could be subsequently negatively related to male fertility. These data provide a novel insight into the reproductive toxicology of Cd-DZN in male rats. However, results did not indicate synergistic or additional effect of simultaneous administration of both toxicants.

      Keywords: testis, histology, morphometry, rat, cadmium, diazinon, fertility

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Leonard Adamu

    (1)
    1. MICROORGANISMS ASSOCIATED WITH COMMERCIAL MOTORCYCLE HELMETS IN LAGOS METROPOLIS [MB]

      Abstract: Microorganisms associated with commercial motorcycle helmets were investigated in the commercial city of Lagos, Nigeria. 300 motorcycle helmets were randomly collected from different commercial motor cyclists in two densely populated areas of Lagos: Yaba College of Technology (YABATECH) and Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH) main gates respectively. Two sterile swabs moistened with sterile water were rotated over the inner surface of each helmet and cultured on MacConkey Agar and Nutrient Agar for bacterial growth and Sabouraud Dextrose Agar for fungi growth. The plates for bacteria growth were incubated aerobically at 37 ºC for 48 h, while plates for fungi at 28 ºC for 2 weeks. Biochemical tests were used to identify bacteria; while, cultural characteristics were used for fungi identification. The microorganisms consistently common to the samples investigated in the two locations were similar and included (with respective frequency of occurrence for both location): Staphylococcus aureus (80%; 7%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (75%; 12%), Staphylococcus epidermis (60%; 8%), Enterobacter aerogenes (52%; 27%), Escherichia coli (40%; 13%), Bacillus spp (37%; 10%), Aspergillus spp (82%; 7%), Candida spp (55%; 22%), Rhizopus spp (40%; 27%), and Penicilium spp (35%; 12%). The motorcycle helmets collected at YABATECH had higher microbial colonization than LUTH irrespective of the isolates. This trend was similar for bacterial and fungi. Results showed that helmets could serve as vehicles for transmission of pathogens. Good hygiene practice (GHP) and regular cleaning of motor cycle helmets with sterilants is strongly advocated in order to reduce the incidence of microbial transmission and its associated infection.

      Keywords: motorcycle helmet, hygiene, pathogenic organisms, fungi, bacteria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Adewole Adebayo

    (1)
    1. BACTERIOLOGICAL AND MINERAL STUDIES OF ROAD SIDE SOIL SAMPLES IN ADO-EKITI METROPOLIS, NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: The bacteriological and heavy metal analyses of road side soil samples in Ado-Ekiti metropolis, Nigeria were investigated. Bacterial population of the soil samples were analyzed using serial dilution procedure and pour plate method for the isolation of organisms. Biochemical tests like catalase, citrate were used to identify the isolated organisms. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry method was used to analyze the heavy metal contents in the soil samples. The mean total bacterial count ranged between 1.60 x 102 CFU.g-1 and 14.5 x 103 CFU.g-1; while the mean total coliform count ranged between 0.3 x102 CFU.g-1 and 2.0 x 102 CFU.g-1. There was significant difference at 0.05 level between the mean total bacteria and total coliform counts of the soil samples at 40meters distance to the major road. There were significant difference within the group of total bacteria and coliform counts at 0.05 level. Staphylococcus spp have the highest frequency of occurrence of 41.5% while Proteus spp have the least frequency of occurrence of 1%. The heavy metal contents of the road side soil samples ranged as follows: zinc (8.45 - 325.22 mg.kg-1), lead (0.25 - 174.21 mg.kg-1), copper (1.56 - 40.33 mg.kg-1), cobalt (0.37 - 140.33 mg.kg-1), and mercury (0.01 - 4.52 mg.kg-1). Conclusively, heavy metals contents had negative effect on the organisms in the soil and also on the environment.

      Keywords: Bacteriological, Roadside soil, Total bacterial, Coliform, Ado-Ekiti

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • E. A. Adebayo

    (1)
    1. ANTIOXIDANT AND NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF SOME PLEUROTUS SPECIES [FS]

      Abstract: The nutrient compositions (dry matter, moisture content, ash content, fat content, crude fibre, total carbohydrate and crude protein), antioxidant and yielding potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius (LAU 09), P. cornucopiae (NE 02), P. sapidus (NE 07) and P. ostreatus (LAU 10) were evaluated. The highest percentage spawn productivity (28.33%) was obtained in NE 02, while the lowest value of 23.33% obtained in NE 07. The highest total weight of fresh mushroom (580g), highest biological efficiency (59.10±12.41%) and production rate (1.85±0.65%) were obtained in LAU 09. The phytochemical screening of the mushroom extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, phlobatannins, flavonoids and anthraquinones. The antioxidant activity of all evaluated mushroom extracts gave a positive result with free radical scavenging potentials found to be in the order of NE 02 > NE 07 > LAU 09 > LAU 10 considering all used in vitro methods. The highest percentage protein of 34 ±3.06% was produced in NE 02, while other strains gave satisfactory yields in terms of nutritional and mineral compositions. The results obtained from this study showed the nutritional and antioxidant potential of mushroom species.

      Keywords: Mushroom, yield, antioxidant, proximate, phytochemical

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Bukola Adebayo-Tayo

    (1)
    1. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii [MB]

      Abstract: Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase) were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase production was 141.0095 U/g at day 3, 6 and 9 of incubation while the maximum pectin lyase production was 5670.50 U/g obtained at day 6. The optimum temperature and pH for polygalacturonase activity was between 40 – 70oC and 5.0 respectively while that of pectin lyase was 60oC and 7.5 respectively. The polygalacturonase produced was stable between pH 3.6 – 10.0 and at a temperature range of 30 – 70oC while the pectin lyase was stable between pH 7.0 – 8.5 and at 40oC. Na+, Mn+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ caused a significant increase in the activity of polygalacturonase whereas Fe2+ and Mg2+ caused a significant decrease in its activity (P≤0.05). The activity of pectin lyase was significantly increased by Fe2+, Mn+ and Zn2+ but significantly decreased by Cu2+, Mg2+ and Na+ (P≤0.05). Mango peel is a cheap, available and valuable substrate for pectinase production which could be useful for industrial applications especially in the food industry for processing fruit juices.

      Keywords: Pectinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, solid state fermentation, mango peels

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Wasiu Olalekan Adebimpe

    (1)
    1. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05) with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg). Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

      Keywords: cockroaches, microbial load, antimicrobial, multi-drug resistance, Nigeria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • K. D. Adedayo

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ON THE SPOILAGE FUNGI OF SOME SELECTED EDIBLE FRUITS IN SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: The influence of electromagnetic field wave on the survival of spoilage fungi associated with some edible fruits consumed in southwestern, Nigeria was studied using cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), apple (Malus domestica) and African star apple (Chrysophyllum africanum). The spoilage fungi used include the genera of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Articulospora, Mucor, Staphylotrichum, Bisbyopeltis, Fusarium, Rhizopus and a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a general decrease in fungal growth as shown in the number of spores produced with increase in exposure time of isolates to electromagnetic field except in Articulospora inflata, Penicillium italicum and Mucor mucedo where there was stimulatory effect as there was increase in the fungal spores compared to the control. A decrease was also observed in growth of the fungal isolates with increase in the intensity of the electromagnetic field at voltage of 7 V to 10 V and from 10 V to 13 V. The highest percentage reduction was recorded by Bisbyopeltis phoebesii at intensity of voltage 13V after 60 minutes of exposure. Exposure of the fruits to electromagnetic field wave did not alter the nutrient components of the fruits as observed in the proximate and mineral contents of the treated and untreated fruits. The result of the study revealed that electromagnetic field wave has great potential for use in the control of fruits spoilage and food preservation.

      Keywords: Berry, electromagnetic field, spoilage, fungi, control

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Adeoye Adejoba

    (1)
    1. IN VIVO ANTI-PLASMODIAL SCREENING OF Nicotiana tabacum AND ITS EFFECTS ON HEPATIC AND RENAL FUNCTION IN SWISS ALBINO MICE [BT]

      Abstract: Malaria remains one of the leading public health diseases in developing countries and efforts to keep the infection at bay have suffered a lot of setbacks compounded by the increasing cases of resistance and cross resistance to firstline antimalaria drugs. In this study, we investigated the anti-plasmodial efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Plasmodium berghei infected swiss albino mice and its effects on liver and kidney function. The comparison of changes in parasite load of the infected mice before and after treatment showed that the parasitemia level reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the mice treated with both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of N. tabacum, while there was a significant (p< 0.05) increase in parasitemia level in the untreated mice. The activities of Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate transaminase(AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and creatinine varied marginally in the treated groups but the values were statistically comparable with control group (untreated) (P>0.05). However, the concentration of urea was statistically higher in treated groups than the control (p<0.05). Our results therefore demonstrate the anti-plasmodial potential of N. tobacum and its relative safety for human consumption at the tested doses.

      Keywords: Nicotiana tabacum, anti-plasmodial effects, plasmodium beighei, biochemical marker

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Claribel Orubima,Monsuru Adeleke

    (1)
    1. IN VIVO ANTI-PLASMODIAL SCREENING OF Nicotiana tabacum AND ITS EFFECTS ON HEPATIC AND RENAL FUNCTION IN SWISS ALBINO MICE [BT]

      Abstract: Malaria remains one of the leading public health diseases in developing countries and efforts to keep the infection at bay have suffered a lot of setbacks compounded by the increasing cases of resistance and cross resistance to firstline antimalaria drugs. In this study, we investigated the anti-plasmodial efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Plasmodium berghei infected swiss albino mice and its effects on liver and kidney function. The comparison of changes in parasite load of the infected mice before and after treatment showed that the parasitemia level reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the mice treated with both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of N. tabacum, while there was a significant (p< 0.05) increase in parasitemia level in the untreated mice. The activities of Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate transaminase(AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and creatinine varied marginally in the treated groups but the values were statistically comparable with control group (untreated) (P>0.05). However, the concentration of urea was statistically higher in treated groups than the control (p<0.05). Our results therefore demonstrate the anti-plasmodial potential of N. tobacum and its relative safety for human consumption at the tested doses.

      Keywords: Nicotiana tabacum, anti-plasmodial effects, plasmodium beighei, biochemical marker

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Monsuru Adebayo Adeleke

    (1)
    1. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05) with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg). Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

      Keywords: cockroaches, microbial load, antimicrobial, multi-drug resistance, Nigeria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Abideen I. Adeogun

    (1)
    1. KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM PARAMETERS OF BIOSORPTION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF LEAD IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY TRICHODERMA LONGIBRACHIATUM [BT]

      Abstract: Biosorption and bioaccumulation of Lead ions (Pb(II)) by Trichoderma longibrachiatum were investigated in a batch system. The effects of some important parameters such as pH, initial metal concentration, temperature and inoculum concerntration on biosorption capacity were also studied. The maximum biosorption capacity of Trichoderma longibrachiatum was at 25 ppm of lead, showed 100 % removal at pH 7 and 25 oC after fifteen days. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 150 minutes. The process fitted well into pseudo second order kinetic model and was best explained by Langmuir isotherm.

      Keywords: Bioaccumulation, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Equilibrium, Kinetic and Langmuir isotherm

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kifouli Adéoti

    (1)
    1. THE USE OF MICROORGANISMS OF CASSAVA RETTING FOR THE PRODUCTION OF PECTINOLYTIC ENZYMES [MB]

      Abstract: Pectinolytic enzymes are used in the food industry for the extraction, clarification and filtration of fruit juice and wine. Depending on their mode of action, these enzymes are classified into two major groups, namely: esterases (methylesterase) and depolymerases (polygalacturonase and lyase). Among the methods for their preparation, fermentation is the most used, and its application depends upon knowledge of the strain’s requirements; many parameters are taken into consideration most of which relate to the strain used. Knowledge and control of these parameters are required for optimal production of these enzymes. Many microorganisms (Aspergillus niger; Kluyveromyces marxianus; Trichoderma viride BITRS-1001; Bacillus licheniformis; Saccharomyces pastorianus etc.) have already been studied and we suggested that there is a possibility of producing these enzymes using the microorganisms employed for the retting of cassava. This review provides a wealth of knowledge on the production of pectinolytic enzymes, using different substrates and microorganisms.

      Keywords: Pectinolytic enzymes, cassava retting, fermentation, microorganisms

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Adeolu Aderemi

    (1)
    1. OPTIMIZATION OF CELL DISRUPTION IN RAPHIDOCELIS SUBCAPITATA AND CHLORELLA VULGARIS FOR BIOMARKER EVALUATION [BT]

      Abstract: Raphidocelis subcapitata and Chlorella vulgaris are bioassay microalgae with rigid cellulosic cell wall which can hinder the release of intracellular proteins often studied as toxicity biomarkers. Since cell disruption is necessary for recovering intracellular biomolecules in these organisms, this study investigated the efficiency of ultrasonication bath; ultrasonication probe; vortexer; and bead mill in disintegrating the microalgae for anti-oxidative enzyme extraction. The extent of cell disruption was evaluated and quantified using bright field microscopy. Disrupted algae appeared as ghosts. The greatest disintegration of the microalgae (83-99.6 %) was achieved using bead mill with 0.42-0.6 mm glass beads while the other methods induced little or no disruption. The degree of cell disruption using bead mill increased with exposure time, beads-solution ratio and agitation speed while larger beads caused less disruption. Findings revealed that bead milling, with specific parameters optimized, is one of the most effective methods of disintegrating the robust algal cells.

      Keywords: Microalgae; cell disruption; ghost cells; ultrasonication; bead beating; biomarker

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Taiwo Aderinola

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF SODIUM BENZOATE ON THE QUALITY AND SENSORY PROPERTIES OF KUNUN-ZAKI SUPPLEMENTED WITH GROUNDNUT [FS]

      Abstract: The quality parameters of kunu-zaki supplemented with groundnut was investigated in this study. Millet, groundnut, ginger, dry red pepper and sugar were used for the production. After production, some samples were pasteurized at 700C for 30 minutes and stored at refrigerated (oC) and ambient conditions (oC). A fresh control sample was also prepared at interval for comparison. Analyses were carried out to determine the chemical composition, microbiological and sensory qualities of product during storage over a period of twenty seven (27) days. Results showed that addition of groundnut improved chemical composition of the fresh samples. It could be attributed to the crude protein and the fat content in the added groundnut. The results were: moisture, 75.7%; crude protein, 13.06%; fat, 7.35%; ash, 0.39% and carbohydrate, 3.5%. The pH values for the fresh samples were: 3.31 (pasteurized refrigerated); 3.31 (pasteurized unrefrigerated); 3.57 (unpasteurized refrigerated); 3.64 (unpasteurized unrefrigerated) and 3.93 for the Fresh sample. The results of the mineral element (mg/100g) were: Ca, 152; Na, 0.19; Mg, 4.76; K, 2.74 and P, 123.22. There was no detection of the presence of the indicator organism – E coli. Results of the sensory evaluation of the product carried out using a five-man panel showed that there were no differences in the appearance, taste and flavor for the first day. However, the pasteurized refrigerated sample with the addition of sodium benzoate was better on the overall acceptability.

      Keywords: Kunun-zaki, groundnut, sodium benzoate, pasteurization, shelf life

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Taiwo A. Aderinola

    (1)
    1. QUALITY AND MICRIOBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN YOGHURT SUPPLEMENTED WITH COW MILK [MB]

      Abstract: The utilization of African yam bean for the production of yoghurt substituted with cow milk was studied. African yam bean milk was extracted from dehulled seed, pasteurized and fermented with Yoghurmet® in ratios with reconstituted cow milk powder in the ratios 50:50, 70:30, 90:10, 100:0 and 0:100 (African yam bean milk:Cow milk). Sample 0:100 which was 100% cow milk yoghurt served as the control. The samples were stored for 14 days at 4oC and 3 days at room temperature. The results of the proximate composition of the fresh samples in percentages are; Moisture: 82.76, 81.62, 83.62, 86.53 and 85.42. Total solids: 17.25, 18.47, 16.35, 13.47and14.57. Protein: 5.93, 4.27, 5.87, 5.57 and 5.14. Ash: 0.94, 0.83, 0.91, 0.90 and 0.87. Fat: 1.07, 2.53, 1.18, 1.45 and 1.75. Carbohydrate: 9.09, 10.73, 8.33, 5.53 and 6.78 for the samples 100:0, 0:100, 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50 respectively. The moisture, total solids, fat and carbohydrate contents differed significantly (p≤0.05) in all the samples. The protein content of 100:0 and 90:0 did not differ significantly but differs in other samples. 0:100 differ significantly from other samples in ash content. There was no fiber in the samples. The total viable microbial count was highest in 70:30 (1×107cfu/ml) for refrigerated storage samples while 50:50 (9.5×106cfu/ml) had the highest count in room temperature storage samples. There were no yeasts/moulds enumerated in the refrigerated storage samples while yeast/moulds appeared in 100:0 (3×106cfu/ml) and 70:30 (1×106cfu/ml) on the 3rd day of room temperature storage. The titratable acidity of all the samples increased gradually throughout the storage period while their pH decreased. The specific gravity of the samples also decreased gradually throughout the storage period. The anti-nutritional composition of the samples containing African yam bean was also determined. The sensory properties showed that samples stored at refrigeration temperature maintained good quality up to 14 days of storage and that sample 50:50 was most preferred.

      Keywords: Watermelon, orange, juice, blends

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Babatunde Aderiye

    (1)
    1. INCIDENCE AND SURVIVAL OF LIPOLYTIC ORGANISMS MONITORED FOR TWELVE MONTHS IN DOMESTIC WASTEWATER AND RECEIVING STREAM [MB]

      Abstract: The incidence and survival of lipolytic organisms in domestic wastewater and receiving stream were monitored over 12 months. The average total bacterial count in the wastewater samples reduced in April and November by 24.2% and 41.6% respectively. There was also a reduction of 42.3% and 60.1% in the load in the receiving stream in August and July. Subsequently, at 5m downstream from the entry of the wastewater the microbial load reduced in March (19.2%) and June (19.2%). However, the occurrence of coliforms was more affected in the months of May (53%) to July (87.2%). At 5m and 10m downstream the coliform population reduced by 27.9% and 30.1% respectively. Of the twelve (12) bacterial isolates obtained at the exit of the wastewater into the receiving stream, only four (4) were found to possess lipolytic activity. These include the species of Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus. There was no significant difference in the amount of nutrients found in the domestic wastewater and receiving stream during the months. This paper also discusses the implication of disposing large amounts of wastewater effluents into the receiving water and the need to remedy and minimize the overall impact of such pollution on the environment.

      Keywords: Lipolytic organisms, coliform, wastewater, receiving stream

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jadesola Aderiye

    (1)
    1. CHANGES IN THE MICROFLORA AND CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF DOMESTIC OIL-RICH WASTEWATER [MB]

      Abstract: Aerobic and anaerobic changes in the microflora and chemical components of domestic oil-rich wastewater were investigated. Enumeration of total bacterial and coliform counts was determined using spreading method of isolation. Enumeration and characterization of fatty acids were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography technique. The microbial load was at its peak on the third day of storage, while the coliforms rose to about 50% and 60% of the total load during aerobic and anaerobic conditions respectively. Anaerobiosis did not affect the total coliform load drastically (47%) on the 12th day of degradation. Among the fatty acids elucidated from fresh dietary oil were lauric (0.99%), myristic (1.00%), palmitic (44.3%). Percentage concentration of fatty acids of extracted oil from aerobic cultured wastewater was as follows: lauric (ND - 5.70%); myristic (ND - 39.5%), palmitic (0.11% - 0.79%), stearic (0.012% - 0.32%), oleic (19.0% - 48.0%) and linoleic (ND - 49.0%), while anaerobic culture produced lauric (ND - 7.3%), myristic (ND - 50.4%), palmitic (0.23% - 0.68%), stearic (0.034% - 0.74%), oleic (13.0% - 52.0%) and linoleic (16.0% - 58.0%) at different storage times. The changes in titratable acidity, mineral and proximate contents with their effects were discussed.

      Keywords: Aerobic, anaerobiosis, microflora, fatty acid, wastewater

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Isaac Adesina

    (1)
    1. CHEMICAL PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF TWO EDIBLE MUSHROOMS (Termitomyces robustus and Lentinus squarrosulus) [MB]

      Abstract: The methanol extracts of two edible mushrooms; Termitomyces robustus (ewe) and Lentinus squarrosulus (erirokiro) were screened for phytochemicals of medicinal importance and the chemical profile investigated using standard analytical methods with the aim of assessing their health promoting properties. Both mushrooms tested positive to flavonoids, saponin, tannin and terpenoid but negative to steroid, anthraquinone and phlobatannin. The results of proximate compositions in % were; moisture contents (7.22 ± 0.07; 11.03 ± 0.21), crude protein (31.34 ± 0.01; 42.77 ± 0.57), ash (7.07 ± 0.04; 10.45 ± 0.43), crude fibre (4.07 ± 0.18; 9.48 ± 0.04), crude fat (3.71 ± 0.16; 6.76 ± 0.22), carbohydrate by difference (24.90 ±0.11; 41.27 ± 0.19), calorific value in kcal (331.55±3.41; 342.35±3.09), and total dietary fibre (10.21 ± 0.00; 11.68 ± 0.00). The anti-nutrient factors in mg/g were; tannin (3.25 ± 0.80; 7.40 ± 0.14) oxalate (1.53 ± 0.00; 1.71 ± 0.07), and phytate (1.48 ± 0.06; 1.94 ± 0.05). Mineral elements, vitamins, essential and non-essential amino acids in substantial quantities were detected in the mushrooms. The phenolic compounds identified and quantified were gallic acid, catechin,chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, epicatechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol.The mushrooms exhibited various antifungi and antimicrobial activities. The two mushrooms possessed good nutritional and chemical qualities and could be sources of many different nutraceuticals.

      Keywords: Phytochemicals, proximate, flavonoids, Polyphenols, Termitomycesrobustus, Lentinussquarrosulus

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Charles Adetunji

    (1)
    1. EXTRACTION AND PURIFICATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LACCASE FROM WILD, MUTANTS AND HYBRID STRAINS OF TWO WHITE-ROT FUNGUS AND ITS APPLICATIONS IN DECOLOURIZATION AND LIGNINOLYSIS [BT]

      Abstract: Extracellular laccases were extracted from a 5-day old submerge cultures of the wild, mutants and hybrid of Lentinus subnudus. Mutants were generated by exposure of the wild strain of L. subnudus to ultraviolet radiation (ג = 280 nm) at specific time intervals while the hybrid was produced by cross-breeding L. subnudus with L. edodes. The crude enzyme was fractionated with 80% ammonium sulphate and further purified on DEAE column. The laccase has a molecular weight of about 45 KDa. Purification yield on DEAE column gave the highest purification yield of 23.25% in SWT and least in SHT (5.29%). Its potentials in decolourization of 2, 6-dichlorophenol-indophenol dye at different pH conditions were investigated. Five out of the six fungal strains tested gave significant (P<0.05) percentage decolourization (≥43.94%) at pH 8. The fungus was further studied for their ability in degrading wheat and paddy straws. The solid substrate fermentation was inoculated with two pieces (0.6cm diameter) mycelial agar blocks of each of the fungal strains, supplemented with 30mg/100g sucrose, 24mg/100g KNO3 and 60mg/100g CaCO3. The periodic reduction in weight of the solid substrate medium and enzymatic activity of laccase for each of the fungal strains was assessed. Therefore, the ability of the wild, mutants and hybrid of L subnudus strains to produce laccase enzyme shows their significant potential in textile industry, especially in decolourization of dye and bioconversion of lignocellulosic wastes.

      Keywords: Lentinus subnudus, laccase, decolourization, degradation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Adetuyi

    (1)
    1. ANTIBACTERIAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF CNESTIS FERRUGINEA DC (CONNARACEAE) EXTRACTS [MB]

      Abstract: To evaluate the health relevance of decoctions, infusions and concoction of medicinal plants in traditional medicine, antibacterial efficacy of crude aqueous, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of Cnestis ferruginea leaf, stem bark and roots were assayed against nine clinical bacterial isolates namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Shigalla dysenteriae, Campylobacter jejunum, a -hemolytic group A streptococcus, and Salmonella enterica ser.Typhi by agar well diffusion method. The leaf extracts had higher inhibitory effects at various degrees than the stem bark and root extracts. Chemical methods were used to determine the quality and quantity of phytochemical components where alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin, tannins, phenol and cardinolides were found present. The antioxidant activities of the extracts of the plant tested were determined by a spectrophotometric method using the stable free radical DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Considerable antioxidant activities were found in the plant extracts. C. ferruginea contains bioactive principles necessary for bacteria inhibition and therefore, the powder could be used as preservative, beverage and source of novel drug(s).

      Keywords: Cnestis ferruginea DC (Connaraceae) extract, antibacterial, phytochemical, antioxidant properties, Nigeria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Foluso Adetuyi

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus) FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn) FLOUR [FS]

      Abstract: In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.
      The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05), protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05) as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05) from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05) (10 to 20). The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg) were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

      Keywords: plantain flour, defatted okra seed flour, nutrients, functional property, Zn bioavailability

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Omowunmi Adewale

    (1)
    1. IN VIVO ANTI-PLASMODIAL SCREENING OF Nicotiana tabacum AND ITS EFFECTS ON HEPATIC AND RENAL FUNCTION IN SWISS ALBINO MICE [BT]

      Abstract: Malaria remains one of the leading public health diseases in developing countries and efforts to keep the infection at bay have suffered a lot of setbacks compounded by the increasing cases of resistance and cross resistance to firstline antimalaria drugs. In this study, we investigated the anti-plasmodial efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Nicotiana tabacum on Plasmodium berghei infected swiss albino mice and its effects on liver and kidney function. The comparison of changes in parasite load of the infected mice before and after treatment showed that the parasitemia level reduced significantly (p<0.05) in the mice treated with both ethanolic and aqueous extracts of N. tabacum, while there was a significant (p< 0.05) increase in parasitemia level in the untreated mice. The activities of Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Aspartate transaminase(AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and creatinine varied marginally in the treated groups but the values were statistically comparable with control group (untreated) (P>0.05). However, the concentration of urea was statistically higher in treated groups than the control (p<0.05). Our results therefore demonstrate the anti-plasmodial potential of N. tobacum and its relative safety for human consumption at the tested doses.

      Keywords: Nicotiana tabacum, anti-plasmodial effects, plasmodium beighei, biochemical marker

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Emmanuel Adeyeye

    (1)
    1. CHANGES IN THE MICROFLORA AND CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF DOMESTIC OIL-RICH WASTEWATER [MB]

      Abstract: Aerobic and anaerobic changes in the microflora and chemical components of domestic oil-rich wastewater were investigated. Enumeration of total bacterial and coliform counts was determined using spreading method of isolation. Enumeration and characterization of fatty acids were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography technique. The microbial load was at its peak on the third day of storage, while the coliforms rose to about 50% and 60% of the total load during aerobic and anaerobic conditions respectively. Anaerobiosis did not affect the total coliform load drastically (47%) on the 12th day of degradation. Among the fatty acids elucidated from fresh dietary oil were lauric (0.99%), myristic (1.00%), palmitic (44.3%). Percentage concentration of fatty acids of extracted oil from aerobic cultured wastewater was as follows: lauric (ND - 5.70%); myristic (ND - 39.5%), palmitic (0.11% - 0.79%), stearic (0.012% - 0.32%), oleic (19.0% - 48.0%) and linoleic (ND - 49.0%), while anaerobic culture produced lauric (ND - 7.3%), myristic (ND - 50.4%), palmitic (0.23% - 0.68%), stearic (0.034% - 0.74%), oleic (13.0% - 52.0%) and linoleic (16.0% - 58.0%) at different storage times. The changes in titratable acidity, mineral and proximate contents with their effects were discussed.

      Keywords: Aerobic, anaerobiosis, microflora, fatty acid, wastewater

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Bhaskar Mani Adhikari

    (1)
    1. STUDY ON FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF SELECTED CHILLI VARIETIES GROWN IN KATHMANDU, NEPAL [FS]

      Abstract: The present work was undertaken to study the functional properties (oleoresin, pungency, antioxidant activity, phenolic content, ascorbic acid content and natural pigments) of six chilli varieties found in Kathmandu, Nepal. The yield of oleoresin was found to be higher in ethyl acetate than acetone. Habanero showed the highest pungency (420,000 SHU) while Bell pepper showed lowest pungency (0 SHU). The antioxidant activity was higher in Habanero (IC50 = 206.43 µg/mL) due to high phenolic content 128.6 mg of GA/g and low in Indian pepper (IC50 = 578.16 µg/mL) due to lower phenolic content 74.92 mg of GA/g. The ascorbic acid contents were ranged from 38.59±4.53 to 107.52±18.65 mg/100g and maximum was observed in Pimento. Among six varieties, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were found to be maximum in Jire.

      Keywords: Chilli, pungency, antioxidant activities, ascorbic acid, natural pigments

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Hriush Adhikari

    (1)
    1. POLYPHASIC ANALYSIS OF TWO THERMOTOLERANT, AND EXOZYMES PRODUCING GEOBACILLUS SPECIES FROM HOT SPRING OF NEPAL [MB]

      Abstract: Background and Aim: Nepal’s geothermal areas are considered as uncharted place for microbiological and biotechnological researchers since not many researches has been conducted on these areas. The main aim of this study was to isolate thermophilic bacteria from hostspring of Nepal. Methods: From one of the hottest natural thermal spring of Nepal, Bhurung Tatopani, 20 different bacteria were isolated and Characterized by both culture dependent and independent approaches. Results: Morphological and biochemical tests along with polyphasic analysis of these thermal isolates confirmed that two of these species belongs to Geobacillus sp. The isolates THG1 and THG2 were found to be gram variable and rod shaped with smooth colony. They were found to be osmotolerant up to 2% NaCl and thermotolerant with optimum temperature of 72°C. They showed significant production of various industrially important enzymes like amylase, lipase, protease and cellulase. 16S rRNA amplification was also performed and sequenced which revealed that the isolate THG1 has 99% similarity with Geobacillus kaustophilus and THG2 has 99% similarity with Geobacillus thermoleovorans. THG1 and THG2 16S rRNA sequences are deposited in genebank with accession id KP764939 and KP764940. For the further confirmation and deeper analysis, fatty acid analysis (FAME) was also performed and their fatty acid composition profile was also created. Conclusion: From the Bhurung hotspring two unique Geobacillus species were isolated.

      Keywords: Bhurung Tatopani, Geobacillus, FAME, Thermotolerant

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Veena Kumara Adi

    (1)
    1. SPICE BASED TREATMENT TO INCREASE THE SHELF LIFE OF PANNER – CLOVE A PROMISING SPICE [FS]

      Abstract: Panner is the important nutritious and whole some indigenous diary product which occupy a prominent place among traditional milk product and carry a lot of market potential. However, like any other milk products, panner too is perishable in nature having a very short shelf life. Little information is available on panner regarding the microbiology aspects during storage, which is the main cause of its spoilage. This study was carried out to identify the potential of spices as natural preservative agents to increase shelf life of panner. Of the 12 spices tested we found that clove (and clove oil) effective in enhancing the shelf life of panner. Further, the clove oil was found to be a better antagonistic agent compared to clove aqueous infusion. The in vitro antibacterial activity of clove oil was tested against the microorganism contaminating and spoiling panner by Agar-well diffusion assay. There was a direct correlation between the amounts of clove in the Agar well to that of zone of inhibition. The effective and lowest minimum inhibitory concentration of clove oil was found to be 0.01%. The clove oil treated panner could extend the shelf life to 40 days. However, except for hardening (observed after 20th day) the panner sample were free of contamination. Supported by the sensory valuation studies, we opine that clove oil could be an effective bio-preservative spice in increasing the shelf life of panner.

      Keywords: Spices, clove oil, panner, shelf life

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Olayinka Quadri Adio

    (3)
    1. SCREENING, OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE OF Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 [MB]

      Abstract: This study focused on screening, production and characterization of strains of microorganisms isolated from groundnut cake wastes capable of producing lipolytic enzyme. Over one hundred isolates were screened on Bromocresol green medium to detect the presence of lipase producing organisms by a colour change of the medium from green to yellow around the colonies at pH 3.8 – 5.6. Two of the isolates with NCBI Accession number ACJE01000015.1 and NT-166520.1 were identified as Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 and A.niger CBS 513.88 respectively based on the nucleotide sequence of the domain of DNA gene. Other lipase producers include A. niger (B-05, B-17, B-33), A. oryzae (G -47, G- 51), and yeast, Candida sp. (H-06, H-11). Lipase activities of A. niger ATCC 1015 were evaluated at temperature (25 – 60 °C), pH 5 - 9 and enzyme loading (10 -35 %, v/v) for optimization. The effect of inducers on lipase production was also carried out by using coconut oil, physic nut oil, groundnut oil and olive oil. A. niger ATCC 1015 gave the largest halo on the medium with 102.4 U/g activity. Zones of hydrolysis also increased with time and ranged from 3 mm to 10 mm at 30 ºC for 96 h. The ability of cells to maintain sharp contrast between green medium and its clear zone without prior replication permits direct visualization and isolation of positive strains.
      Optimum production of the enzyme (specific activity 216.7 Umg-1) was attained at temperature 45°C, pH 7, and enzyme loading (25% v/v) with physic nut oil (2%) inducer. Hence A. niger ATCC 1015 strain can be commercially exploited as a potential lipase producing strain for industrial application.

      Keywords: Bromocresol green medium; solid state fermentation; optimization; Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. SCREENING, OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE OF Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 [MB]

      Abstract: This study focused on screening, production and characterization of strains of microorganisms isolated from groundnut cake wastes capable of producing lipolytic enzyme. Over one hundred isolates were screened on Bromocresol green medium to detect the presence of lipase producing organisms by a colour change of the medium from green to yellow around the colonies at pH 3.8 – 5.6. Two of the isolates with NCBI Accession number ACJE01000015.1 and NT-166520.1 were identified as Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 and A.niger CBS 513.88 respectively based on the nucleotide sequence of the domain of DNA gene. Other lipase producers include A. niger (B-05, B-17, B-33), A. oryzae (G -47, G- 51), and yeast, Candida sp. (H-06, H-11). Lipase activities of A. niger ATCC 1015 were evaluated at temperature (25 – 60 °C), pH 5 - 9 and enzyme loading (10 -35 %, v/v) for optimization.The effect of inducers on lipase production was also carried out by using coconut oil, physic nut oil, groundnut oil and olive oil.A. niger ATCC 1015 gave the largest halo on the medium with 102.4 U/g activity. Zones of hydrolysis also increased with time and ranged from 3 mm to 10 mm at 30 ºC for 96 h. The ability of cells to maintain sharp contrast between green medium and its clear zone without prior replication permits direct visualization and isolation of positive strains.
      Optimum production of the enzyme (specific activity 216.7 Umg-1)was attained at temperature 45°C, pH 7, and enzyme loading (25% v/v) with physic nut oil (2%) inducer. Hence A. niger ATCC 1015 strain can be commercially exploited as a potential lipase producing strain for industrial application.

      Keywords: Bromocresol green medium; solid state fermentation; optimization; Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. PRODUCTION OF LIPASES IN SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION BY Aspergillus niger F7-02 WITH AGRICULTURAL RESIDUES [MB]

      Abstract: In this study mould strains screened and molecularly identified as Aspergillus niger F7-02 was used to produced extracellular lipase in Solid State Fermentation (SSF) process. Different agricultural residues were combined in different ratios as carbon, nitrogen and elemental sources in the solid culture medium. The optimization of the culture medium was carried out for such parameters as incubation time (24 h - 96 h), inoculum concentration (0.5 – 3.0%, w/v), initial moisture content (40 – 70%, w/v), and initial pH (6 – 8) for maximum yield. The maximum lipase activity of 76.7 U/ml was obtained with a medium containing rice bran (RB), palm kernel cake (PKC), groundnut cake (GNC) and starch (S) at the ratio of 5:5:3:1 (%w/w) with optimum conditions of 60% moisture, 1% inoculum and a pH of 7.0 with an incubation temperature of 30 oC and incubation time of 72 h.

      Keywords: Agricultural waste, Aspergillus niger F7-02, lipase, optimization, solid state fermentation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ravindra Adivarekar

    (1)
    1. BIOSCOURING OF WOOL USING PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS ISOLATED FROM ABATTOIR WASTE [MB]

      Abstract: Bioscouring refers to the enzymatic removal of impurities from fibres/fabrics, which endows it with improved hydrophilicity for further wet processes. Enzymatic scouring preserves the fibre’s structure and strength, avoids high energy consumption and severe pollution problems that are associated with conventional alkaline treatments. In the present study, protease enzyme was extracted from Bacillus subtilis which was isolated from abattoir (slaughter house) waste. Different medium parameters were optimized for maximal enzyme production. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis bag method. Partially purified protease enzyme was used in the bioscouring of wool fibres. Different parameters such as pH, temperature, time, enzyme concentration were optimized to achieve an efficient scouring. Comparison of enzymatic process for wool fibre with conventional alkaline soap process in terms of weight loss, whiteness index, tensile strength and FTIR studies confirmed that bioscouring could be as effective as the conventional process.

      Keywords: Bioscouring, Protease, Bacillus subtilis, Abattoir waste, Wettability, Alkali solubility, Whiteness index

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Euloge S. Adjou

    (1)
    1. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE MYCOFLORA AND PROCESSING EFFECTS ON THE NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF PEANUT (ARACHIS HYPOGEA L. VAR. TS 32-1) [FS]

      Abstract: The microbiological and nutritional characterization of peanut (Arachis hypogea L var. TS 32-1) was investigated. Bacteria and fungi were isolated from this product. The fungal isolates were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus Speare, Aspergillus ochraceus Wilhelm and Fusarium poae. The respective mean moisture content and total acidity in samples were 8.19 ± 0.01% and 1.2 ± 0.02%. Nutritional analysis showed that peanut (Arachis hypogea L var. TS 32-1) has interesting nutritional potential. Carbohydrate content (7.84 ± 0.3%), protein content (33.88 ± 0.1%), fat (47.48 ± 0.01%) and the presence of minerals such as calcium (0.25 ± 0.05g/kg), potassium (5.21 ± 0.02g/kg) and magnesium (1.92 ± 0.03%) allowed its application as supplement in infant feeding in rural areas. Anti-nutritional factors such as oxalate and phytate were also detected in samples. This nutritional potential is significantly affect by thermal processes which can reduce essentially protein and carbohydrate contents and also anti-nutritional factor levels. However, values were lower than established toxic level. Finally, more attention should be made to its microbial quality in order to preserve children’s health.

      Keywords: Peanut, proximate analysis, processing effects, anti-nutritional factor

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Benjamin Ado

    (1)
    1. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii [MB]

      Abstract: Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase) were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase production was 141.0095 U/g at day 3, 6 and 9 of incubation while the maximum pectin lyase production was 5670.50 U/g obtained at day 6. The optimum temperature and pH for polygalacturonase activity was between 40 – 70oC and 5.0 respectively while that of pectin lyase was 60oC and 7.5 respectively. The polygalacturonase produced was stable between pH 3.6 – 10.0 and at a temperature range of 30 – 70oC while the pectin lyase was stable between pH 7.0 – 8.5 and at 40oC. Na+, Mn+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ caused a significant increase in the activity of polygalacturonase whereas Fe2+ and Mg2+ caused a significant decrease in its activity (P≤0.05). The activity of pectin lyase was significantly increased by Fe2+, Mn+ and Zn2+ but significantly decreased by Cu2+, Mg2+ and Na+ (P≤0.05). Mango peel is a cheap, available and valuable substrate for pectinase production which could be useful for industrial applications especially in the food industry for processing fruit juices.

      Keywords: Pectinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, solid state fermentation, mango peels

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • M. P. Adon

    (1)
    1. PHYTOPLANKTON COMPOSITION OF A SHALLOW AFRICAN TROPICAL RESERVOIR (ADZOPÉ, CÔTE D’IVOIRE) [MB]

      Abstract: Phytoplankton of the Adzopé reservoir was investigated from May 2008 to February 2009. Samples were taken seasonally from 4 sampling stations. A total of 212 taxa belonging to 6 divisions have been identified, including Chlorophyta (35.38 % of taxa), Euglenophyta (29.25 %), Bacillariophyta (18.40 %), Cyanoprocaryota (10.85 %), Xanthophyta (5.19 %) and Pyrrhophyta (2.36 %). The greatest species richness was found in the central zone at S3 (205 taxa) and the smallest was recorded in the upper zone at station S1 (165 taxa). In the remaining stations were collected 173 (S2) and 195 (S4) taxa. At all the stations, the phytoplankton community was typically dominated by the pelagic-benthic species of Bacillariophyta (17 taxa) and pelagic species of Euglenophyta (43 taxa) and Chlorophyta (41 taxa). Spatio-temporal patterns of phytoplankton groups showed that Euglenophyta and Chlorophyta were permanent groups whatever the stations and seasons except stations S1 and S2 in long rainy season, where Chlorophyta accounted for 9.1 and 12.5 % of sporadic taxa respectively.

      Keywords: phytoplankton, shallow reservoir, species richness, West Africa

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kolesárová Adriana

    (1)
    1. INTERNAL MILIEAU OF DAIRY COWS AT THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITION OF RAW MILK [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate selected blood biochemical parameters and milk composition of dairy cows at the beginning of lactation and to observe the correlations between blood and milk parameters. In total, 15 Holstein cows at the beginning of lactation were chosen. Blood and milk samples were collected. Energetic (glucose - GLU, d-beta-hydroxybutyrate - D-BHB, triglycerides - TG), nitrogenous (total proteins - TP, UREA), hepatic (aspartate aminotransferase - AST, alanine aminotransferase - ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase - GGT, alkaline phosphatase - ALP, bilirubin - BILI, cholesterol - CHOL) and mineral (sodium - Na, potassium - K, chlorides - Cl-, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg) profiles were determined in the blood serum. Levels of lactose, fat, proteins and minerals (sodium - Na, potassium – K, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg) were determined in milk. Most of the parameters outside physiological limits were found among mineral and hepatic profile. Levels of calcium, phosphorus and sodium were decreased in comparison to reference values. Average concentration of urea was also lower. On the other hand, increase of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase were observed. Levels of lactose (4.82 g.100g-1), fat (4.21 g.100g-1), protein (3.14 g.100g-1) and calcium (4.82 g.l-1) in milk complied with Slovak national standard (STN 57 0529). In our study, ratio of fat to protein lower than 0.75 was observed in 13 % of cows (risk of ketosis) and higher than 1.4 in 40 % (NEB). Strong negative correlation between serum cholesterol and milk fat (-0.716; P<0.01) and middle strong negative correlation between cholesterol and milk protein (-0.397; P<0.01) were observed.
      ALT affected negatively amount of phosphorus in milk (-0.417; P<0.001), which complied with demineralization of the organism and following restriction of liver detoxification activity. On the other hand, strong positive correlation was observed between serum ALT and milk sodium (0.738; P<0.05), what points to close relationship between hepatic enzymes and mineral composition of raw milk.

      Keywords: Dairy cows, metabolic test, milk quality, beginning of lactation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Pavelková Adriana

    (1)
    1. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK [FS]

      Abstract: In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

      Keywords: raw cow milk, fat, fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Frederick Adzitey

    (1)
    1. GENOTYPING OF SALMONELLA STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DUCKS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS IN PENANG, MALAYSIA USING REPETITIVE EXTRAGENIC PALINDROMIC (REP) [MB]

      Abstract: Salmonella are important foodborne pathogens of worldwide concern. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 107 Salmonella strains isolated from ducks, their rearing and processing environments in Penang, Malaysia using repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR). REP-PCR of the Salmonella strains produced DNA bands of different sizes for differentiation purposes. The DNA band sizes ranged from 105-7692 bp for S. Typhimurium, 116-7033 bp for S. Hadar, 127-7399 bp for S. Enteritidis, 140-7497 bp for S. Braenderup and 123-5857 bp for S. Albany. Cluster analysis at a coefficient of 0.85 grouped the Salmonella strains into various clusters and singletons. S. Typhimurium were grouped into 4 clusters and 26 singletons at a discriminatory index (D-value) of 0.98, S. Hadar were grouped into 3 clusters and 13 singletons at a D-value of 0.914, S. Enteritidis were grouped into 3 clusters and 9 singletons at a D-value of 0.971, S. Braenderup were grouped into 2 clusters and 11 singletons at a D-value of 0.981, and S. Albany were grouped into 3 clusters and 7 singletons at a D-value of 0.978. With the exception of S. Hadar strains which were grouped into two major groups (genotypes) by REP-PCR, the rest were grouped into three major genotypes. REP-PCR successfully typed all the Salmonella strains and proved to be a useful typing tool for determining the genetic diversity of the duck Salmonella strains. Determining the genetic diversity among Salmonella strains, other foodborne pathogens and their sources of isolation is important to trace their primary or potential sources and the sources of human infection.

      Keywords: Ducks, genetic diversity, REP-PCR, Salmonella strains

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Armelle Lyvane Ntsame Affane

    (1)
    1. METABOLITE PROFILES AND ACCEPTABILITY BY CLUSTERS OF DIFFERENT KEFIR TYPES FOR SOUTH AFRICAN CONSUMERS [FS]

      Abstract: Kefir is an alternative fermented dairy product for low income South African consumers. However, it was shown that mass culturing of kefir grains leads to a loss of positive sensory attributes. Thus, this paper evaluates the chemical composition and the sensory acceptability for South African consumers of four variants of kefir (traditional kefir, mass-cultured kefir, Candi-kefir and Lacto-kefir).
      Results showed that all variants of kefir contained key flavour compounds: acetaldehyde (7 – 45 mg.L-1), ethanol (186 – 1774 mg.L-1), diacetyl (5 – 12 mg.L-1), ethyl acetate (1,2 – 30 mg.L-1) and acetic acid (892 – 4 490 mg.L-1); with acidity (TA: 0,85 – 0,96%; pH: 4,13 – 4,25) comparable with ranges reported in literature.
      Based on the liking of flavour of the variants of kefir, three clusters of consumers (N=85) were identified using Ward’s clustering. Cluster I was negatively sensitive to acidic products as indicated by the low scores (<5,30) given for liking of flavour. For Cluster II consumers, the main driver of liking of flavour was ethanol (r = 0,963; p < 0.05), therefore giving the best score (7,5) to traditional kefir the most ‘yeasty’ variant. For cluster III, acidity was a significant driver of liking (r = 0,999; p < 0.05). Thus, less acidic kefir products obtained better consumer liking scores ranging between 7,09 and 7,63.
      The results of this study add to the understanding of sensory attributes which drive consumer preference for kefir. This important information can be used by the South African dairy industry to strengthen the current market through the appropriate production of kefir.

      Keywords: Kefir, consumer preference, acidity, flavour compounds, diacetyl to acetaldehyde ratio

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • John P. Affiku

    (1)
    1. PROXIMATE STUDY, MINERAL AND ANTI-NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES HARVESTED FROM LAFIA, NIGERIA: POTENTIAL BENEFITS IN POULTRY NUTRITION AND HEALTH [FS]

      Abstract: The leaves of Moringa oleifera were harvested from Lafia in Nasarawa State of Nigeria during the rainy season in June 2011 for proximate, mineral and phytochemical analysis. The results of proximate analysis revealed the presence of high crude protein (17.01% ±0.1) and carbohydrate (63.11% ±0.09). The leaves also contained appreciable amounts of crude fibre (7.09% ±0.11), ash (7.93% ± 0.12), crude fat (2.11% ±0.11) and fatty acid (1.69% ±0.09). The total ash content showed it contained minerals, Ca (1.91% ±0.08), K (0.97% ±0.01), Na (192.95±4.4), Fe (107.48±8.2), Mn (81.65±2.31), Zn (60.06±0.3) and P (30.15±0.5) parts per million (ppm). Magnesium (0.38% ±0.01) and copper (6.10±0.19) were the least. The results of phytochemical analysis and anti-nutrients showed presence of tannins (21.19% ±0.25), phytates (2.57% ±0.13), trypsin inhibitors (3.0% ±0.04), saponins (1.60% ±0.05), oxalates (0.45% ±0.01) and cyanide content ((0.1% ±0.01). The presence of these essential nutrients and minerals implies Moringa oleifera leaves from Lafia, Nasarawa State could be utilized as a source of feed supplement to improve growth performance and health status of poultry. The benefits of essential nutrients and minerals in maintaining good health were also highlighted in this study.

      Keywords: Moringa oleifera, leaf extract, nutrients, anti-nutrients, chickens

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jide Anthony Afolayan

    (1)
    1. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOXICITY AND ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF EXTRACTS OF SENSEVIERIA AETHIOPICA (THUNB) AGAINST BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH OTITIS [MB]

      Abstract: Otitis is highly prevalent infection caused mainly by bacteria and frequently prone to secondary infections. It may lead to other permanent dysfunctions in children and multidrug-resistance has been reported among implicated bacterial pathogens. The aim of this study is to evaluate the phytochemicals, antioxidants and antibacterial potential of acetone and methanolic extracts of Sansevieria aethiopica (Thunb.) leaf against bacterial pathogens responsible for otitis. The phytochemical analyses of the extracts were determined using standard assay methods and the antioxidant activity was assessed using 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ferric reducing power. Brine shrimp lethality test was used to determine the cytotoxicity effect of the extract while macrobroth dilution method was used for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts. The phenolic contents of the extracts were 57.13 and 19.06 mg tannic acid/g in acetone and methanolic extracts respectively. Flavonols and proathocyanidin recorded the least values in methanolic and acetone extracts respectively. The extracts have good antioxidant properties although lower than the standard chemicals used as controls. The extracts expressed antibacterial effects on both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria however, their activity was more pronounced on Gram negative organisms. Although, slightly toxic, the extracts have both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects on the selected bacteria associated with otitis, especially Gram negative.

      Keywords: Otitis, Sensevieria aethiopica, antioxidant, phytochemicals, antibacterial

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sadia Afrin

    (1)
    1. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, ANTIMICROBIAL AND PRELIMINARY CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF CYNOMETRA RAMIFLORA- A MANGROVE PLANT [BT]

      Abstract: A mangrove medicinal plant Cynometra ramiflora (Family: Leguminosae) was selected to investigate the bioactivities namely antioxidant, antimicrobial and preliminary cytotoxic activity using methanol and chloroform extracts of the leaves and stems, respectively. In 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the methanolic stem extract was found to be 31.62 µg.mL-1. Reducing power of the same extract demonstrated consistent increase in a concentration-dependent manner and was comparable with quercetin while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay revealed potential total antioxidant capacity (84.0 mM Fe (II)/g of extract). In addition, the presence of total phenolics (96.2 mg GAE/g of extract), total flavonoids (166.4 mg QE/g of extract) and tannins content (80.4 mg GAE/g of extract) were determined in the methanolic stem extract. The chloroformic stem extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against a number of bacterial strains while the MIC values of extracts were in the range from 62.5 to 500µg.mL-1. The methanolic stem and leaf extracts demonstrated strong lethality in preliminary cytotoxicity assay using brine shrimp nauplii where the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values were 1.596 and 4.613 µg.mL-1 respectively. It can be therefore concluded that the methanolic extracts of C. ramiflora possess potential antioxidant, antimicrobial and strong preliminary cytotoxic activity and could be further exploited for prospective scientific exploration towards bioactive principles.

      Keywords: Cynometra ramiflora, antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kazi Farhana Afroz

    (1)
    1. EFFECTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI-1 BY 16S-23S rRNA INTERGENIC SPECER REGION SEQUENCING [MB]

      Abstract: Fermentation profiling is a common tool to identify Lactobacillus paracasei from other related members of Lactobacillus genus. Because of the proximate biochemical characteristics, identification based on the fermentation pattern within L. casei group (L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rahmnosus) has considerable limitation. On the other hand, members of L. casei group are genetically very closely related and sequencing of signature region is the most reliable and rapid method of differentiation. In this study, instead of sequencing entire 16S or 23S ribosomal RNA gene, we have sequenced 16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer region and compared them across the members of L. casei group. We also compiled thirteen signature sequences within 16s-23s ISR rRNA gene of L. casei group members. Our isolated strain (L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1) resembled 100% and 99% similarity when compared with 16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer region of L. paracasei and L. casei respectively. Our study summarizes that sequencing of short 16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer region carries great significance in identification of closely related probiotic bacteria such as the members of L. casei group. The findings of this research could be very much helpful for food and pharmaceutical industries who are dealing with probiotic bacteria.

      Keywords: Identification, L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1, 16s-23s rRNA, signature sequence, probiotic

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • V.E. Agabekov

    (1)
    1. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BASED DISINFECTANT BIOXIL [MB]

      Abstract: Antifungal activity of the Bioxil containing hydrogen peroxide as an active agent has been studied. The mentioned species act as indicators of microbiological quality of fruit juices and hygienic condition of juice processing industry. Inhibition activity of the mentioned disinfection agent has been studied in vitro against different yeast strains: Rhodotorula rubra J-120 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae J-200 and their mix culture. For the evaluation of antifungal efficacy of the Bioxil suspension and surface tests were used. Relation between antifungal activity of Bioxil, its concentrations, yeast species and contact times was established. Bioxil containing 1% and 3% of H2O2 has shown unequal inhibition activity against different yeast strains. Influence of washing and disinfection steps on the level of contamination of conveyor and working surfaces by yeasts and has been investigated. In the processing conditions, after treatment of conveyors and working surfaces, without preliminary washing, lower inhibition activity of the Bioxil has been occurred.

      Keywords: Yeast, hydrogen peroxide, antifungal activity, Bioxil

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Amir Agabou

    (1)
    1. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE MUNICIPAL SLAUGHTERHOUSE OF CONSTANTINE - ALGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: The spatial distribution of airborne bacterial contamination (with Total aerobic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Coliforms, Staphylococci and Streptococci) was studied within the municipal abattoir of Constantine (North-East of Algeria).
      Open plate air samples were collected at twenty sampling locations weekly during two months. At the same chosen locations, temperature and humidity of the air were measured. The spatial distribution of bacterial contamination was studied using a Geographic Information System.
      The viscera processing section recorded the highest bacterial concentration and poor correlations had been recorded between bacterial counts and the environmental conditions within the abattoir. The high air bacterial loads recorded all over the slaughterhouse were consequence of the execution of all processing operations within the same section (for both bovine and ovine carcasses) associated to the absence of structural barriers, spatial separation between processing operations and uncontrolled airflow.
      This study highlights the poor hygienic level of the municipal slaughterhouse of Constantine. The implementation of serious measures is needed to reduce the risk of contamination and proliferation of pathogens in meat during slaughtering processes.

      Keywords: Airborne contamination, spatial distribution, slaughterhouse, North-East of Algeria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kusum Agarwal

    (1)
    1. APOPTIC ACTIVITY OF CHICKEN ANEMIA VIRUS VP3 GENE CLONED IN REPLICASE BASED EUKARYOTIC VECTOR [BT]

      Abstract: CAV is one of the smallest avian viruses; it is 23–25 nm in size, icosahedral in shape and non-enveloped, having a 2.3 kb, circular, single-stranded, negative sense DNA genome. The genome encodes three viral proteins VP1, VP2 and VP3, that are transcribed from a single major transcript of 2.0 kb. The apoptosis inducing potential of CAV-VP3 (apoptin) was studied in HeLa cell line. The study confirmed that VP3 induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, which was confirmed by demonstrating the characteristics changes of apoptosis which include nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation by DNA laddering assay, plasma membrane alteration by annexin-V binding assay and Caspase 3. The objective of our work was to study the apoptic activity of apoptin in HeLa cell line.

      Keywords: VP3 gene, apoptin, apoptosis, replicase vector, antitumor

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Toyin Olayemi Agbabiaka

    (1)
    1. ASSESSMENT OF LOCAL METHODS OF PROCESSING FOR THE PRESERVATION OF THE PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TWO LOCAL CHEESES IN ILORIN, NIGERIA [FS]

      Abstract: Nigerian locally produced cheese from milk, commonly known as wara is highly nutritious and highly prone to attack by spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Moist heat treatment and salting alone are the common methods used for processing. This study assessed the efficacy of these local processing methods in preserving the physicochemical properties and microbiological quality of wara. Samples were purchased from open markets in Ilorin; processed by boiling in water and with addition of salt; and stored at room temperature (28±2oC) to mimic the local method. The samples were observed at 24 hrs interval for a period of 96 hrs, for changes in pH, color, odor and texture. Microbiological analysis was done following standard methods. The pH of most of the samples increased while the color, odor and texture deteriorated within 48 hrs of storage. The cheese samples were preserved most by boiling with salt. Many spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were isolated. The bacterial isolates were Lactobaccillus acidophilus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococcus feacalis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella, Aerococcus, Micrococcus and Streptococcus spp.; while the fungi were Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Candida tropicalis, Rhizopus arrhizus, Penicillium and Mucor spp. Some of the microorganisms were eliminated during treatments, others survived while some contaminated the samples during storage. Though boiling of wara with salt was shown to improve its keeping quality compared to other methods studied, further treatments such as frying, drying, and roasting; as well as storage at low temperature may significantly increase the shelf life.

      Keywords: Wara, boiling, salting, bacteria, fungi

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Neeraj Kumar Aggarwal

    (1)
    1. IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA AGAINST THE MICROBES ISOLATED FROM FRUIT JUICES [MB]

      Abstract: The present work has been conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Terminalia chebula against microorganisms associated with juices. Methanol, ethanol, acetone, and aqueous ( hot and cold) extracts from fruits of T. chebula were tested for their antimicrobial activity through agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)/minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined through the macrodilution broth method against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp. and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Their total phenolic content and total tannin content were also evaluated. Organic and cold aqueous extracts displayed activity against all three tested microbes. There were highly positive relationship between antimicrobial activities and phenolic and tannin content of the tested extracts against each microorganism. Methanolic extract was found to be best against all tested microbes with lowest MIC of 0.78 mg/ml and MBC of 1.56 mg/ml and showed better antimicrobial activity than sodium benzoate. Therefore, methanolic extract of T. chebula has a biopreservative potential in fruit juices.

      Keywords: Terminalia chebula, preservative, MIC, MBC

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Z. A. Aghamaliyev

    (1)
    1. SILVER NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIZED BY THE AZERBAIJANIAN ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES ASPERGILLUS NIGER [MB]

      Abstract: The synthesis of nanoparticles by microorganisms is environmentally safe method. The silver nanoparticles produced by fungi is complex material having different size, shape and other properties depending on the producer. İt is necessary to study new microbial strains to synthesize silver nanoparticles with important properties. The synthesis of different stable silver nanoparticles by the mold fungi was investigated in this work. To achieve this goal different strains (isolates) of Aspergillus niger were used. The most intensive formation of nanoparticles was observed in strains Aspergillus niger BDU-A4, BDU-K8, BDU-UB1 and BDU-UB5.While examining nanoparticles the following analysis methods were used: UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Electron microscopic examination showed that the shape, size and nature of nanoparticles’ clusters were dependent on fungal strains. The shape of nanoparticles is usually circular but it may be oval like in case of nanoclusters consisting of a few spherical nanoparticles. Their size varies from 20 to 100 nm.The formation of free ellipsoidal shape nanoparticles was observed at strain of Aspergillus niger BDU-K8, that varies in the range 62,9 - 68,4 nm.

      Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Aspergillus niger, synthesis, SEM, X-Ray Spectroscopy

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Greń Agnieszka

    (1)
    1. CONCENTRATION OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN RAW AND ULTRA HEAT TREATED COW MILK [FS]

      Abstract: The potential presence of toxic metals in food is being recognized as a priority by standards organizations and constitutes an analytical challenge. The toxic metal content of milk and dairy products is due to several factors: environmental conditions, the manufacturing process and the possible contamination during several steps of the manufacturing processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate samples of raw milk with fat contents 3.8% obtained at randomly from animal farms in around Nitra, western Slovakia region and ultra – heat treated cow milk (UHT) with fat contents 1.5% commercially available from local market in Nitra. Samples of milk were analysed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). UHT milk showed higher levels of cadmium, nickel and iron. Higher levels of zinc, copper were detected in raw milk. Significant differences in the concentration of copper between raw and UHT cow milk were found.

      Keywords: metals, raw milk, ultra – heat treated cow milk

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Csaba Ágoston

    (1)
    1. EXAMINATION OF ENERGY RECOVERY OF BREWERS' SPENT GRAIN II. - BIOLOGICAL PROCESS [FS]

      Abstract: Production rate of technologies applied in the food industry can only be economical if energy consumption is specifically reduced simultaneously with increasing the capacities and/or utilization of alternative energy sources gains higher ratio during production.
      A high proportion of waste forms is produced in food processing technologies. Fiscal and environmental cost of waste handling i.e. transportation, recovery and disposal is often significant.
      Brewing industry’s most important by-product is the brewers' spent grains (BSG) formed during mashing. Utilization of this product is theoretically solved, it is most frequently sold as animal fodder, however utilization in the energy sector can and should be considered and has promising possibilities. Seeking economic and environmental benefits, this paper analyses the possibilities of energy recovery from brewers’ spent grains through aerobic digestion and anaerobic fermentation.

      Keywords: Brewers' spent grains (BSG), energy recovery, aerobic digestion, fermentation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Renu Agrawal

    (1)
    1. ANTI – SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE ACTIVITY BY PROBIOTIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA (PEDIOCOCCUS PENTOSACEUS); AN IN VITRO STUDY [MB]

      Abstract: Shigellosis caused by Shigella is prevalent throughout the world with approximately 164.7 million cases, of which 163.2 million are in developing countries as per the World Health Organization report. In the current study the effect of a known Probiotic Lactic acid Bacteria (PLB) Pediococcus pentosaceus, a previously reported strain of PLB from our laboratory on gastroenteric pathogen – Shigella dysenteriae was studied and its mode of action was established. In agar diffusion tests PLB lysate showed larger inhibition zones of S. dysenteriae than a known Shigella susceptible antibiotic ampicillin which shows a better potentiality of PLB lysate over standard antibiotic. Further the effect of PLB lysate on Shigella dysenteriae lysis was confirmed by electrophoretic and microscopic study. PLB lysate at 250 μg/mL protein concentration inhibited ~70% of Shigella dysenteriae growth in vitro. A significant protection was observed against the cellular damage caused by Shigella dysenteriae lysate. Red blood cells and buccal cells protection against the lysis induced by Shigella dysenteriae lysate substantiated the cytoprotective role of PLB, thus PLB can be an effective natural agent against Shigella mediated infection.

      Keywords: Shigellosis, anti-Shigella activity, Probiotic Lactic acid Bacteria (PLB), Cellular damage and protection

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ruchi Agrawal

    (1)
    1. PRODUCTION OF AN EXTRACELLULAR CELLOBIASE IN SOLID STATE FERMENTATION [MB]

      Abstract: The bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass has attracted wide interest globally in last decade. One of the main reasons for the high cost of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass is the expensive enzymes involved in enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (cellulase). The utilization of agro-industrial waste as a potential substrate for producing enzymes may serve a dual purpose of reducing the environmental pollution along with producing a high value commercial product. Twelve different agro-industrial wastes were evaluated for extracellular cellobiose or β-glucosidase production by a mutant of Bacillus subtilis on solid state fermentations (SSF). The Citrus sinensis peel waste was found to be the most suitable substrate with highest BGL titre (35 U/gds). Optimum incubation time, inoculum size, moisture content and volume of buffer for enzyme extraction were 72 h, 40 % v/w, 10 mL and 20 mL respectively.

      Keywords: Bacillus subtilis, solid state fermentation, cellobiase, Citrus sinensis, mutant, biofuels

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Cristóbal N. Aguilar

    (2)
    1. PECTIN – CANDELILLA WAX: AN ALTERNATIVE MIXTURE FOR EDIBLE FILMS [FS]

      Abstract: Edible films and coatings have received special attention in recent years due to the advantages that represent their use as edible packaging over synthetics materials. This contributes in high degree to reduce the environmental pollution with non-biodegradable materials. By functioning as barriers, such edible films and coatings can improve the recycling and/or substitute some synthetic packaging materials. New packaging materials have been developed and characterized by some scientists from natural sources (biomaterials); however, it is necessary the manufacture tailor-made to every food. The main objective of this review is to provide basic and applied information and benefits that can be generate the use of two products with low cost (candelilla wax and pectin), but with great importance in the food industry and that can be used to manufacture edible films and coatings.

      Keywords: Pectin, candelilla wax, glycerol, edible films, foods

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS [FS]

      Abstract: In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums) were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05) in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating), while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

      Keywords: Candelilla wax, jojoba oil, polyphenols, tarbush, biopolymers

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jayesh J. Ahire

    (1)
    1. CHOLESTEROL BIOTRANSFORMATION TO CHOLESTA-4, 6-DIEN-3-OL AND EFFECT OF ASSIMILATION ON ADHESION PROPERTIES OF LACTOBACILLUS HELVETICUS CD6 [MB]

      Abstract: Cholesterol biotransformation by Lactobacillus helveticus CD6 was observed in minimal medium supplemented with 3 mM cholesterol when grown for 120 h at 37 °C. Its gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) showed production of cholesta-4, 6-dien-3-ol and cholest-5-en-3-ol (3.beta) with 12 U ∕mg cholesterol oxidase-like enzyme activity. The cholesterol assimilation was evaluated at varied concentrations of bile salt in MRS medium. The cell survival and cholesterol assimilation was found to be adversely affected in presence of bile salt. Microscopic studies revealed changed cell morphology when grown with cholesterol. The cell adhesion properties like autoaggregation, microbial adhesion to solvents where found to be affected by cholesterol. The 7.49 % cell adhesion to ethyl acetate indicates the decrease in electron accepting properties of cell surface, while 9 % decrease in xylene adhesion and 13 % decrease in autoaggregation was observed which would be helpful in cholesterol lowering when supplemented in the form of probiotic preparation.

      Keywords: Cholesta-4, 6-dien-3-ol, Cholesterol, Cholesterol oxidase-like enzyme, Lactobacillus helveticus

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ajaz Ahmad

    (1)
    1. STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACT OF AERVA LANATA FOR CITRININ AND FUNGAL BIOMASS REDUCTION IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY [MB]

      Abstract: Citrinin, a nephrotoxic mycotoxin produced by several fungal strains belonging to the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus. Generally found in stored grains and after their harvest. The objective of the present investigation was to study the antimicrobial activity (anti-fungal) of aqueous leaf extract of Aerva lanata and to optimize its conditions for the maximum inhibition of citrinin and fungal biomass by Aspergillus niger. Optimization of culture conditions was carried out using Box-Behnken method of response surface methodology. Extent of inhibition of citrinin was carried out using HPLC and reduction in fungal biomass was carried out using dry cell weight after comparing with controls. Optimized culture conditions as per the point prediction tool were found to be 11.27 mg/L for concentration of Aerva lanata extract, nine and half days of incubation period and temperature of 25.5 °C resulted in maximum inhibition of citrinin. These optimized values of tested parameters were and compared with control citrinin production (243.28 mg/L) and dry cell weight production (362.28mg).An average of 87.77±1.21% inhibition of citrinin and 80.02±1.42% of dry cell weight was obtained in an optimized medium at 9.5th d of fermentation with 97.82 % and 96.21% validity, respectively.

      Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Aerva lanata, citrinin, fungal biomass, Box-Behnken design

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Farah Ahmad

    (1)
    1. CHARACTERIZATION OF PAENIBACILLUS DURUS (PNF16) A NEW ISOLATE AND ITS SYNERGISTIC INTERACTION WITH OTHER ISOLATED RHIZOBACTERIA IN PROMOTING GROWTH AND YIELD OF CHICKPEA [MB]

      Abstract: Application of PGPR in crop production and protection is well known and can also contribute in reducing use of agrochemicals. However, the performance of PGPR is influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. Isolating new efficient PGPR strain well adapted to local soil agroclimatic conditions is expected to perform with more consistency. In this study five selected rhizobacteria isolated previously were first tested in vitro for plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics. One of the isolate PNF16 was identified as Paenibacillus durus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. PNF16 alone and in combination with other rhizobacteria (Azotobacter (AZT3), Achromobacter (PNF11), Bacillus (Bc1), Pseudomonas (Ps5) and Mesorhizobium (IARI) were tested for plant growth promoting effect under pot conditions in two consecutive years. PNF16 was found to produce 21.7 µg ml-1 of indole acetic acid like substances, hydroxymate type of siderophores (Salicylate type 11 µg ml-1 and benzoate type 6.5 µg ml-1) and solubilized phosphate (405.33 µg ml-1). PNF16 -Mesorhizobium combination was found significantly better compared to other combinations for growth parameters, nodulation and yield of chickpea over control. Similar study was also performed for other tested strain. Significant increase in plant growth (32%), nodulation (43%) compared to untreated control was recorded. Co-inoculation also showed synergy and increased the number of pods per plant, 1000-grain weight, dry matter yield, grain yield and protein content by 23%, 22%, 21%, 18% and 4.4% respectively, compared to control. The results indicated the potential usefulness of PNF16 alone and in combinations in enhancement of nodulation and stimulation of plant growth in chickpea and adapted to soil condition of the region.

      Keywords: Paenibacillus; Mesorhizobium; PGPR, plant-microbe interaction, nodulation, chickpea

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Iqbal Ahmad

    (1)
    1. CHARACTERIZATION OF PAENIBACILLUS DURUS (PNF16) A NEW ISOLATE AND ITS SYNERGISTIC INTERACTION WITH OTHER ISOLATED RHIZOBACTERIA IN PROMOTING GROWTH AND YIELD OF CHICKPEA [MB]

      Abstract: Application of PGPR in crop production and protection is well known and can also contribute in reducing use of agrochemicals. However, the performance of PGPR is influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. Isolating new efficient PGPR strain well adapted to local soil agroclimatic conditions is expected to perform with more consistency. In this study five selected rhizobacteria isolated previously were first tested in vitro for plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics. One of the isolate PNF16 was identified as Paenibacillus durus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. PNF16 alone and in combination with other rhizobacteria (Azotobacter (AZT3), Achromobacter (PNF11), Bacillus (Bc1), Pseudomonas (Ps5) and Mesorhizobium (IARI) were tested for plant growth promoting effect under pot conditions in two consecutive years. PNF16 was found to produce 21.7 µg ml-1 of indole acetic acid like substances, hydroxymate type of siderophores (Salicylate type 11 µg ml-1 and benzoate type 6.5 µg ml-1) and solubilized phosphate (405.33 µg ml-1). PNF16 -Mesorhizobium combination was found significantly better compared to other combinations for growth parameters, nodulation and yield of chickpea over control. Similar study was also performed for other tested strain. Significant increase in plant growth (32%), nodulation (43%) compared to untreated control was recorded. Co-inoculation also showed synergy and increased the number of pods per plant, 1000-grain weight, dry matter yield, grain yield and protein content by 23%, 22%, 21%, 18% and 4.4% respectively, compared to control. The results indicated the potential usefulness of PNF16 alone and in combinations in enhancement of nodulation and stimulation of plant growth in chickpea and adapted to soil condition of the region.

      Keywords: Paenibacillus; Mesorhizobium; PGPR, plant-microbe interaction, nodulation, chickpea

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Rehan Ahmad

    (2)
    1. DETERMINATION OF LEAD (Pb), IRON (Fe) AND MANGANESE (Mn) CONCENTRATION IN SEWAGE WATER AND VEGETABLE LEAF SAMPLES [FS]

      Abstract: Application of waste water for irrigation purposes has increased over the past years. This waste water contains high amounts of trace elements and heavy metals.Many of these are non-essential and toxic to plants, animals and human beings. The use of polluted water in the immediate surroundings of big cities in Pakistan is a common practice for growing of vegetables. When this water applied for long time in irrigation, these heavy metals may accumulate in soil and that may be toxic to plants and also cause deterioration of soil. The present study revealed that heavy metal content was above the toxicity level in leafy vegetables grown in the area of Lahore. This study showed that among the different tested plant species, the amount of heavy metals was more in leaves than fruits. Plants whose fruits grow below the soil showed higher concentration of heavy metals while other showed less concentration whose edible portion was above the ground level. Leafy vegetables (spinach, cabbage, coriander etc) showed higher concentration in leaves than in fruits. The concentration of heavy metals in upper layer of soil (0 -15 cm) is higher than the lower layer (15-30 cm). The reason behind is that the upper layer was receiving sewage water permanently while the penetration of sewage water below 15 cm was less. The increase in heavy metal accumulation in different plant species and their different parts is not constant and is not in proportion to the increase in heavy metal concentration in soil irrigated with sewage wastewater.

      Keywords: Accumulate, growth, heavy metal, spinach, vegetable

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. ESTIMATION OF AMOXICILLIN RESIDUES IN COMMERCIAL MEAT AND MILK SAMPLES [MB]

      Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the extent of ß - lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin residues in market milk and meat. Samples were randomly collected from Faisalabad city, Pakistan. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method with inflorescent detector was used to detect, identify and quantify the amoxicillin residues in milk and meat samples. The milk samples were purified by performing a protein precipitation step, followed by derivatization. To clean up tissue samples, a liquid extraction, followed by a solid-phase extraction procedure C18 (4.0X4.6mm, 5μm) was performed. A 50% meat and 90% milk samples were found contaminated with residues. The residues of amoxicillin in milk were in range of 28 to 46μg/kg and in meat were 9 to 84μg/kg. All of the contaminated milk and 40 out of 50% meat samples fall in maximum residue limits.

      Keywords: Amoxicillin, residue, meat, milk, health risks

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Rosma Ahmad

    (2)
    1. GENOTYPING OF SALMONELLA STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DUCKS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS IN PENANG, MALAYSIA USING REPETITIVE EXTRAGENIC PALINDROMIC (REP) [MB]

      Abstract: Salmonella are important foodborne pathogens of worldwide concern. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 107 Salmonella strains isolated from ducks, their rearing and processing environments in Penang, Malaysia using repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR). REP-PCR of the Salmonella strains produced DNA bands of different sizes for differentiation purposes. The DNA band sizes ranged from 105-7692 bp for S. Typhimurium, 116-7033 bp for S. Hadar, 127-7399 bp for S. Enteritidis, 140-7497 bp for S. Braenderup and 123-5857 bp for S. Albany. Cluster analysis at a coefficient of 0.85 grouped the Salmonella strains into various clusters and singletons. S. Typhimurium were grouped into 4 clusters and 26 singletons at a discriminatory index (D-value) of 0.98, S. Hadar were grouped into 3 clusters and 13 singletons at a D-value of 0.914, S. Enteritidis were grouped into 3 clusters and 9 singletons at a D-value of 0.971, S. Braenderup were grouped into 2 clusters and 11 singletons at a D-value of 0.981, and S. Albany were grouped into 3 clusters and 7 singletons at a D-value of 0.978. With the exception of S. Hadar strains which were grouped into two major groups (genotypes) by REP-PCR, the rest were grouped into three major genotypes. REP-PCR successfully typed all the Salmonella strains and proved to be a useful typing tool for determining the genetic diversity of the duck Salmonella strains. Determining the genetic diversity among Salmonella strains, other foodborne pathogens and their sources of isolation is important to trace their primary or potential sources and the sources of human infection.

      Keywords: Ducks, genetic diversity, REP-PCR, Salmonella strains

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. THE PREVALENCE OF Salmonella sp., Listeria sp. AND Aeromonas spp. IN CATFISH (CLARIAS (Clarias gariepinus) AND TILAPIA (Tilapia mossambica) BY PELLETING METHOD [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to modify the isolation methods of Aeromonas sp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria sp. in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from wet markets and ponds in Malaysia by pelleting the sample. A total of 108 samples (32 catfish intestines, 32 tilapia intestines, and 44 water samples) were obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds. The modified method was employed by pelleting the samples and followed by either implementing pre-enrichment or without pre-enrichment on the isolation of Salmonella and Listeria spp. The modified method (by pelleting the sample in combination with pre-enrichment) was the most efficient for Salmonella and Listeria isolation. The sensitivity of the modified Salmonella isolation method was 0.53 and 0.73 for fish and water samples, respectively. The sensitivity of the modified Listeria method was 1 and 0.92 for fish and water samples, respectively. However, the sensitivity of the method by pelleting the sample was similar to those of non-pelleting the sample on Aeromonas isolation. Five species of Aeromonas spp., seven serovars of Salmonella sp., and four species of Listeria sp. were observed in catfish, tilapia and water samples. Overall, by pelleting the sample offered the beneficial to isolate Aeromonas spp., Salmonella sp. and Listeria spp. in catfish, tilapia and water.

      Keywords: Aeromonas, Listeria, pelleting, Salmonella

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • I. S. Ahmadov

    (1)
    1. SILVER NANOPARTICLES SYNTHESIZED BY THE AZERBAIJANIAN ENVIRONMENTAL ISOLATES ASPERGILLUS NIGER [MB]

      Abstract: The synthesis of nanoparticles by microorganisms is environmentally safe method. The silver nanoparticles produced by fungi is complex material having different size, shape and other properties depending on the producer. İt is necessary to study new microbial strains to synthesize silver nanoparticles with important properties. The synthesis of different stable silver nanoparticles by the mold fungi was investigated in this work. To achieve this goal different strains (isolates) of Aspergillus niger were used. The most intensive formation of nanoparticles was observed in strains Aspergillus niger BDU-A4, BDU-K8, BDU-UB1 and BDU-UB5.While examining nanoparticles the following analysis methods were used: UV-Visible Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy. Electron microscopic examination showed that the shape, size and nature of nanoparticles’ clusters were dependent on fungal strains. The shape of nanoparticles is usually circular but it may be oval like in case of nanoclusters consisting of a few spherical nanoparticles. Their size varies from 20 to 100 nm.The formation of free ellipsoidal shape nanoparticles was observed at strain of Aspergillus niger BDU-K8, that varies in the range 62,9 - 68,4 nm.

      Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, Aspergillus niger, synthesis, SEM, X-Ray Spectroscopy

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • G.U. Ahmed

    (1)
    1. DIVERSITY, ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES AND ASSOCIATED MICROBIOTA OF SOIL PENICILLIA FROM VIRGIN FOREST FLOOR [MB]

      Abstract: The diversity of Penicillium spp. and associate mycobiota from different virgin forest
      floor in the Brahmaputra Valley, Assam, India was analyzed. Soil samples were collected
      from six different undisturbed forest floors together with seasonally flooded forest and also
      from agricultural fields. Samples were taken from the litter and from three soil core i.e. 0-5,
      10-15 and 30-35 cm in depth. The isolated fungal species were identified based on
      morphological and reproductive characteristics. About 18 common fungal species from
      different soil samples were isolated dominated by Penicillium sp. and Aspergillus sp. The
      total fungal population found in the studied sites was 98.87 (±10.7) x103 CFU/g dry soils in
      all the seasons in top soils. The total CFUs of Penicillium were also highest among the species
      in all the sites (mean 18.73 ±1.1 x103 CFU/g; n=7) where 27.2 x103 CFU/g in summer and
      11.6 x103 CFU/g dry soil in winter. Relative density of Penicillium sp. was also higher among
      the associated fungi although relative density of Aspergillus (23.83) was higher than
      Penicillium (19.39). Among the 30 isolates of Penicillium, few species have shown
      antimicrobial activity against the tested bacterial pathogens. The cultural filtrate of four
      different isolates showed antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus bombycis, Aeromonas
      salmonicida, Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli having inhibition zone of about ≥10mm. All
      the tested bacterial species were sensitive to six different Penicillium spp.

      Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; diversity; mycobiota; Penicillium spp.

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed

    (2)
    1. SCREENING OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM SUDANESE FERMENTED FOODS FOR BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION [MB]

      Abstract: Forty isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from different types of fermented foods consumed in Sudan. Phenotypic tests revealed that all isolates were homofermentative LAB. Twenty-four isolates produced inhibitory substances primarily active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 2818 and Escherichia coli ATCC 29522. The inhibitory activity of 88% of enterococci and 58% of lactobacilli was recorded from meat isolates, whereas all activity of pediococcal isolates came from fermented milk isolates. The cell-free cultures of 18 isolates exhibiting inhibitory activity was chosen for further investigation such as sensitivity to proteolytic enzyme (pepsin), effect of heat treatment (60°C for 60min, 100°C for 20min and 121°C for 15min) and effect of pH ( pH 2.0, pH 6.5, and pH 9.0). The inhibitory activity was eliminated upon treatment with pepsin. The bacteriocin-like substances lost their activity after heating at all temperatures used and at alkaline pH (9.0), whereas they were active at acidic pH (2.0). The antimicrobial activity of bacteriocin-like substances produced by the isolated LAB could prevent spoilage and/or pathogenic microorganism in Sudanese fermented food. Further study should be related with species identification of the producer strains and with the purification and characterization of these becteriocin-like substances in order to explore them in food industry.

      Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, bacteriocin, dodery, lactic acid bacteria, Sudanese fermented foods

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF MILK-CLOTTING ENZYME FROM THE SEEDS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to search for milk clotting substitute from different parts (flowers, seeds, stem, leaves, ripe and unripe fruits) of Moringa oleifera. The samples were blended and extracted using different types of extracting solutions. The most reliable, quick and efficient enzyme extracting solution was found to be 5% NaCl in 100 mM sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, which was used throughout the study. The milk clotting activity was only observed in the seeds extract while the other parts were either deficient or has very low milk clotting activity. Thus, the moringa seeds were used as source of milk clotting enzyme. The extracted proteins were fractionated with ammonium sulfate at concentration of 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 %. Highest milk clotting activity was observed in the 20 % fraction. This fraction was assumed to contain the clotting enzymes and characterized for its heating stability (30 – 90°C) and optimum temperature (30 – 90°C). The results demonstrated that moringa seeds milk clotting enzyme is stable up to 50°C with an optimum milk clotting activity of 70°C. The high ratio of milk-clotting to proteolytic activity of the partially purified enzyme indicates the potential of this enzyme as suitable rennet substitute in dairy industry. However, further study is needed to completely purify and characterize this promising milk clotting enzyme from moringa seeds.

      Keywords: Ammonium sulfate fractionation, Milk-clotting activity, Moringa seeds, Rennet substitutes

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Rashid Ahmed

    (1)
    1. COMPOSITIONAL PROPERTIES OF THREE FRESHWATER CARP SPECIES GROWN IN BRACKISH WATER [FS]

      Abstract: Three freshwater fish species viz. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Gibelion catla, grown in brackish water ponds were analyzed for compositional properties to assess the potential of this habitat to produce nutritionally adequate fish for human consumption. Overall, the unsaturated fatty acids were lower in L. rohita (46.6%) than saturated fatty acids; while in C. mrigala and G. catla, the unsaturated fatty acids were 50.4% and 58.2%, respectively. The most abundant saturated fatty acid in examined species was palmitic acid (C16:0), 23.7 to 34.1%; mono-unsaturated fatty acid was oleic acid (C18:1) 19.6 to 31.7% and poly-unsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (C18:2) 9.46 to 13.3%. A reasonable amount of essential fatty acids ω-3 (5.80 to 9.26%) and ω-6 (9.46 to 13.3%) was also found in these species while growing in brackish water on salt tolerant forages like Leptochloa fusca, Brachiaria mutica and Kochia indica as supplemental feed. The ω-3/ω-6 ratio was calculated as 0.46, 0.80 and 0.69 in L. rohita, C. mrigala and G. catla, respectively. The maximum EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid, C20:5) was observed in C. mrigala (2.23%), followed by G. catla (1.62%) and L. rohita (0.98%). While the DHA (docosahexanenoic acids, C22:6) was found maximum in G. catla (1.97%) and minimum in C. mrigala (0.95%). The results of body composition indicated that L. rohita found maximum protein contents (19.2%) with minimum total fats (1.28%) while C. mrigala found maximum total fats (2.11%) but minimum protein contents (18.3%). Overall results indicated that the Indian carps grown in brackish water have comparable chemical composition and nutritive value with the same species grown in freshwater medium.

      Keywords: Indian carps, brackish water, chemical composition, fatty acids profile

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Shamim Ahmed

    (1)
    1. QUALITY COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BANGLADESHI AND CHINA GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.) [FS]

      Abstract: The essential oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. was extracted from China and Bangladeshi varieties and yielded 0.21% and 0.23 % by hydro-distillation method on fresh weight basis respectively. Fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The major constituents of China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oils were zingiberene 38.10 % and 41.49%, β-phellandrene 12.0% and 9.92%, α-citral 11.48% and 9.76 %, α-curcumene 9.22% and 11.58%, camphene 5.94% and 4.60% , β-bisabolene 4.39% and 5.0% respectively. The IC50 (DPPH method ) values were found 61.18 µg/mL and 56.71 µg/mL with the highest inhibition of 78.49 % and 80.77% and the LC50 values in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay were found 0.4842 µg/mL and 0.7151 µg/mL in China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oil respectively. Both the essential oils showed significant activities against some gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The proximate composition of the China and Bangladeshi variety showed the ash (7.12±0.151, 8.15±0.18%), protein (5.47±0.19, 6.60±0.16%), crude fibre (4.32±0.10, 4.61±0.12%), carbohydrate (16..06±0.35, 18.38±0.41) and food energy (70.50±0.89, 81.74±1.01 kcal/100g.) respectively. The elemental compositions of the both varieties were found rich in Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Se, Na and K. These results indicate the quality composition of the two varieties may find interest in spice and culinary industries as well as in medicinal preparation.

      Keywords: Zingiber officinale, essential oil, limonene, GC/MS, mineral element, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Tasnia Ahmed

    (1)
    1. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MAJOR SEA FISH AVAILABLE IN LOCAL MARKETS OF DHAKA CITY, BANGLADESH [MB]

      Abstract: Present study attempted to determine the prevalence of pathogenic microflora along the two major sea fish samples: Rupchanda (Pampus chinensis) and Surmai (Scomberomorus guttatus), collected from local market in Dhaka city. Most of the fishes collected were found to be contaminated with a huge number of pathogens within a range of 2.0×102-1.9×109 cfu.mL-1 or cfu.G-1. The study of antibiogram showed a number of isolates to be drug-resistant. The investigation also endeavored to evaluate the efficiency of gamma (γ) irradiation on the pathogenic reduction besides the traditional means. The pathogenic load was found to be reduced by an irradiation dosage of 3 kilo Gray (kGy).

      Keywords: Sea fish, pathogens, antibiotic resistance, irradiation, microbiological quality

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Md. Aminul Ahsan

    (1)
    1. QUALITY COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BANGLADESHI AND CHINA GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.) [FS]

      Abstract: The essential oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. was extracted from China and Bangladeshi varieties and yielded 0.21% and 0.23 % by hydro-distillation method on fresh weight basis respectively. Fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The major constituents of China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oils were zingiberene 38.10 % and 41.49%, β-phellandrene 12.0% and 9.92%, α-citral 11.48% and 9.76 %, α-curcumene 9.22% and 11.58%, camphene 5.94% and 4.60% , β-bisabolene 4.39% and 5.0% respectively. The IC50 (DPPH method ) values were found 61.18 µg/mL and 56.71 µg/mL with the highest inhibition of 78.49 % and 80.77% and the LC50 values in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay were found 0.4842 µg/mL and 0.7151 µg/mL in China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oil respectively. Both the essential oils showed significant activities against some gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The proximate composition of the China and Bangladeshi variety showed the ash (7.12±0.151, 8.15±0.18%), protein (5.47±0.19, 6.60±0.16%), crude fibre (4.32±0.10, 4.61±0.12%), carbohydrate (16..06±0.35, 18.38±0.41) and food energy (70.50±0.89, 81.74±1.01 kcal/100g.) respectively. The elemental compositions of the both varieties were found rich in Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Se, Na and K. These results indicate the quality composition of the two varieties may find interest in spice and culinary industries as well as in medicinal preparation.

      Keywords: Zingiber officinale, essential oil, limonene, GC/MS, mineral element, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • D. A. Aina

    (1)
    1. ANTIOXIDANT AND NUTRITIONAL IMPORTANCE OF SOME PLEUROTUS SPECIES [FS]

      Abstract: The nutrient compositions (dry matter, moisture content, ash content, fat content, crude fibre, total carbohydrate and crude protein), antioxidant and yielding potential of Pleurotus pulmonarius (LAU 09), P. cornucopiae (NE 02), P. sapidus (NE 07) and P. ostreatus (LAU 10) were evaluated. The highest percentage spawn productivity (28.33%) was obtained in NE 02, while the lowest value of 23.33% obtained in NE 07. The highest total weight of fresh mushroom (580g), highest biological efficiency (59.10±12.41%) and production rate (1.85±0.65%) were obtained in LAU 09. The phytochemical screening of the mushroom extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, steroids, phlobatannins, flavonoids and anthraquinones. The antioxidant activity of all evaluated mushroom extracts gave a positive result with free radical scavenging potentials found to be in the order of NE 02 > NE 07 > LAU 09 > LAU 10 considering all used in vitro methods. The highest percentage protein of 34 ±3.06% was produced in NE 02, while other strains gave satisfactory yields in terms of nutritional and mineral compositions. The results obtained from this study showed the nutritional and antioxidant potential of mushroom species.

      Keywords: Mushroom, yield, antioxidant, proximate, phytochemical

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Lola Ajala

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF DEFATTED OKRA SEED (Abelmoschus esculentus) FLOUR ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION, FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES AND Zn BIOAVAILABILITY OF PLANTAIN (Musa paradisiacal Linn) FLOUR [FS]

      Abstract: In Nigeria it is advised that nursing mothers should give their baby plantain flour paste “amala ogede” with ‘ewedu’ Corchorus olitorius soup during the process of weaning their baby. The over matured okra that cannot be cut with kitchen knife are thrown away in Nigeria, this lead to postharvest loss of okra. The seed in this okra could be utilised by processing into okra seed flour for the fortification of plantain flour. Since the okra seed flour is rich in oil and the oil contains cyclopropenoid fatty acids which cause some toxicity concerns therefore this work is to evaluate the chemical composition, the functional properties and Zn bioavailability of plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.
      The nutrient content increased significantly (P≤0.05), protein; 3.88 – 11.38 %, fibre; 3.03 – 16.30 % and ash; 2.72 – 5.77 % while the fat and carbohydrate content reduced significantly (P≤0.05) as the percentage of defatted okra seed flour increased. The bulk density of the plantain flour decreased significantly (P≤0.05) from 0.795 g/cm3 to 0.769 g/cm3 as the percentage of okra seed flour increased while the least gelation concentration increased significantly (P≤0.05) (10 to 20). The calculated [Ca][Phytate]/[Zn] molar ratio for the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour (0.02 – 0.04 mol/kg) were below the critical level. The increase in the least gelation concentration coupled with increase in the protein content of the resultant flour from the blend means more of the protein will be available in the food made from the plantain flour mixed with defatted okra seed flour.

      Keywords: plantain flour, defatted okra seed flour, nutrients, functional property, Zn bioavailability

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Olasunmbo Abolanle Ajayi

    (1)
    1. QUALITY EVALUATION OF ZOBO (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA) JUICE PRESERVED WITH MORINGA (MORINGA OLEIFERA) OR GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) EXTRACTS AT DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS [FS]

      Abstract: This study aimed to improve the storability of zobo juice naturally. Zobo juice infused with extracts of Moringa seeds or ginger at (0.5 and 1%), control (0% preservative) and, food vendor prepared (FVPZ) zobo were evaluated for 8 weeks. Samples were stored at ambient or refrigeration temperatures and physico-chemical, microbial load and sensory qualities of the juice were analyzed using standard methods. There were drops in pH values after pasteurization from (2.44- 2.75) to (2.31 - 2.58). Vitamin C increased with storage in preserved juice but reduced in control and FVPZ. There were significant (p<0.05) differences between samples in total titratable acidity. All of the samples had varying levels of microbial load. Microbial load of raw material ranged from (7.8×104 to TNTC), (3.0×103 to 3.0×104) and (5.6×104 to 8.0×104) CFU/g, while zobo juice on day 0 had counts ranging from (2.23×103 to TNTC); (3.0×102 to 8.0×104); (4.0×104 to 5.6×104), CFU/mL for total viable, staphylococcal and fungal count respectively. There was zero enterobacteriaceae count on day 0 but increased during storage. Moringa and ginger zobo juice overall had reduced microbial load during storage compared to zobo without preservative. On day 0 show that FVPZ was more liked: appearance (4.5), aroma (4.5), taste (4.4) and general acceptability (4.7) but scores degenerated during storage. At 8 weeks of storage, 0.5%GZ scored higher in all attributes. Refrigeration retarded microbial growth but did not influence sensory scores. Study concludes that incorporation of moringa or ginger extracts into zobo was effective in improving storability of juice but ginger preserved juice was preferred.

      Keywords: Zobo juice, Roselle, ginger, Moringa seeds, drum stick, preservative

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ouwakemi Ruth Ajiboye

    (1)
    1. BIOPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF BACTERIOCINS FROM SOME Lactobacillus species ISOLATED FROM FOODS [MB]

      Abstract: Lactobacillus species isolated from ogi, kunnu, yoghurt and palm-wine were found to produce bacteriocins. The bacteriocins had broad spectra of antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and negative bacteria. The effects of the bacteriocins on Escherichia coli infections in rats were evaluated. Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with E. coli and treated with 1280 AU/ml of the bacteriocins from L. plantarum MO21, L. plantarum MP12, L. casei MK21, L. casei MO11, L. brevis MK11 and L. buchneri MY21. Escherichia coli infection caused upregulation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total protein, globulin, cholesterol, bilirubin and glucose levels in sera of the infected rats which were down-regulated in the bacteriocin treated rats. Gastric and GIT damage caused by E. coli infection were reduced in the bacteriocin-treated groups. Therefore, it is concluded that these bacteriocins may have useful biomedical applications.

      Keywords: Lactobacillus species; bacteriocin; gastric tissue; total protein and globulin

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Oyetunji I. Ajoke

    (1)
    1. PREVALENCE OF METHICILLIN-RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM HEALTHY COMMUNITY INDIVIDUALS VOLUNTEERS IN JOS SOUTH, NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: This study investigated the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from the nasal swabs of healthy community individual volunteers in Jos South, Nigeria and its susceptibility pattern to seven other antibiotics. Standard procedures were employed for isolation, screening, and susceptibility testing. The result of this study reveal that 98 (49 %) S. aureus were isolated from 200 nasal swab samples collected. The prevalence rate for male and female group was 48 % and 50 % respectively. Sixty two isolates (63.3 %) were found to be methicillin resistant. The MRSA isolated were highly resistant to Ampicillin (88.7 %), Amoxicillin (85.5 %), Tetracycline (80.6 %), Cotrimoxazole (80.6 %) but had low resistance to Erythromycin (35.5%). The MRSA isolated showed high susceptibility to Ofloxacin (98.4 %) and Gentamicin (83.9 %). While 55 (88.7 %) of the MRSA isolated showed multidrug resistance and only 3 (4.8 %) were susceptible to all other tested antibiotics.

      Keywords: antibiotics susceptibility, screening, nosocomial infection

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kenechukwu Obumneme Akabueze

    (1)
    1. ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF DENNETTIA TRIPETALA F. BAKER ROOT AND BARK EXTRACTS [MB]

      Abstract: The antimicrobial activities and phytochemical constituents of aqueous and hexane extracts of both the bark and roots of Dennettia tripetala F. Baker (Annonaceae) were determined using routine methods. Flavonoids, saponins, phenolic compounds, volatile oil, carbohydrate and reducing sugars were present in the aqueous extract of the root and bark, but absent in the hexane extracts. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were tested against bacterial and fungal isolates using agar diffusion method.The commercial antibiotics used as positive reference standards to determine the sensitivity of the isolates were Gentamicin and Fluconazole.The aqueous extract of the root showed inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with zones of inhibition ranging from 0.01mm to 30mm. The aqueous root extract inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis with MIC values at 50 mg/ml.The results showed that the aqueous root extract possesed antimicrobial attributes as indicated by its activity on test bactetrial isolates. Phytochemicals were not present in the hexane extracts and the extracts showed no activity against the test organisms.

      Keywords: Dennettia tripetala, aqueous extract, hexane extract, bark, root, phytochemistry and antimicrobial

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Hilda Abiola Akatah

    (1)
    1. MICROBIAL LOAD AND MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE OF PATHOGENIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FEACES AND BODY SURFACES OF COCKROACHES IN AN URBAN AREA OF SOUTHWESTERN NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: This study investigates the microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic bacteria isolated from the faeces and body surfaces of cockroaches in Osogbo, Southwestern Nigeria. The cockroaches collected from residential areas and hospital vicinities were screened for microbial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern using standard protocols. A total of twenty- three microorganisms namely Klebsiella aerogenes, Bacillius cereus, Proteus spp, Staphyloccocus aureus, S. saprophyticus, Enteroccocus faecalis, Staphylococus epididermis, E. coli, Listeria monoctogene, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Psuedomonas species, Seretia mensence, Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergilius spp., A. flavus, A. fumigates, Mucor species and Penicilium species were isolated. The microbial load of the microorganisms was significantly higher in the isolates from hospital as compared with the residential area (p<0.05) with the exception of Canidida species, Mucor and Penicillium which had higher or equal microbial load at the residential areas. All the pathogenic bacteria isolated had multiple resistance to antibiotics most importantly, Ampicillin, Augumentin, Amoxicillin and Septrin (30μg). Efforts geared towards controlling the insects will be indispensable in curbing the wide spread of multi-drug resistant pathogens in the study area.

      Keywords: cockroaches, microbial load, antimicrobial, multi-drug resistance, Nigeria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Hamid Akbarirad

    (1)
    1. DETERIORATION AND SOME OF APPLIED PRESERVATION TECHNIQUES FOR COMMON MUSHROOMS (AGARICUS BISPORUS, FOLLOWED BY LENTINUS EDODES, PLEUROTUS SPP.) [FS]

      Abstract: Mushrooms are consider as a nutritional and health beneficial product. Three most cultivated mushrooms worldwide are Agaricus bisporus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus spp. Mushrooms are highly perishable. They tend to lose quality after harvest, mainly because of their high respiration rate and the fact that they have no barrier to protect them from water loss. Mushrooms’ shelf-life is limited to a few days under normal refrigeration conditions, which is a constraint on the distribution and marketing of fresh product, making extension of mushroom’s shelf life a constant quest. Modified atmosphere packaging provides an affordable packaging system that partly avoids enzymatic browning, fermentation and other biochemical processes by maintaining a controlled gas atmosphere. However, modified atmosphere packaging conditions should be carefully designed. Inappropriate modified atmosphere conditions may be ineffective or even shorten the shelf life of the product due to damage of tissues. Preservation techniques and specially use of MAP, specifically for Agaricus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus, is reviewed.

      Keywords: Deterioration, preservation, mushroom, Agaricus bisporus

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Fahri Akbas

    (1)
    1. MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL THERMOSTABLE LIPASE FROM SHEWANELLA PUTREFACIENS AND USING ENZYMATIC BIODIESEL PRODUCTION [BT]

      Abstract: A novel thermostable lipase from Shewanella putrefaciens was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, characterized and used in biodiesel production. Enzyme characterization was carried out by enzyme assay, SDS-PAGE and other biochemical reactions. The recombinant lipase was found to have a molecular mass of 29 kDa and exhibited lipase activity when Tween 80 was used as the substrate. The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 80°C. The recombinant lipase was used for the transesterification of canola oil and waste oil. The enzyme retains 50% of its activity at 90°C for 30 minutes. It is also able to retain 20% of its activity even at 100 °C for 20 minutes. These properties of the obtained new recombinant thermostable lipase make it promising as a biocatalyst for industrial processes.

      Keywords: Cloning, lipase, thermostable, Shewanella putrefaciens, biodiesel production

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Fred Coolborn Akharaiyi

    (2)
    1. ANTIBACTERIAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF SENNA HIRSUTA MILL USING ANIMAL MODEL-MICE [MB]

      Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial and biochemical activities of 50, 100 and 200mg.mL-1 concentrations of ethanol leaf extract of Senna hirsuta (hairy senna) against seven human pathogenic bacteria species namely: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhi. The in-vitro bioassay revealed the leaf extracts of valuable antibacterial activity where zones of inhibition ranging from 12.1mm to 39.1mm were observed on the test bacteria species. Among the test bacteria, K. pneumoniae was the most inhibited and S. typhi the least inhibited. On mice infection with the bacteria species for three days, decrease in weight of mice was observed. The in-vivo therapeutic use of the extracts in mice infected with the bacteria pathogens resulted to weight gain of the mice and other physiological changes that indicated health improvement of the mice and was also of hepatoprotective potential. The in-vivo antioxidant assay exhibited satisfactory therapeutic effects where improvement in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) status of mice was observed on comparing results of the positive and negative controls.

      Keywords: Plant extracts, activities, antibacterial, albino mice, biochemical

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. ANTIBACTERIAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF CNESTIS FERRUGINEA DC (CONNARACEAE) EXTRACTS [MB]

      Abstract: To evaluate the health relevance of decoctions, infusions and concoction of medicinal plants in traditional medicine, antibacterial efficacy of crude aqueous, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts of Cnestis ferruginea leaf, stem bark and roots were assayed against nine clinical bacterial isolates namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Shigalla dysenteriae, Campylobacter jejunum, a -hemolytic group A streptococcus, and Salmonella enterica ser.Typhi by agar well diffusion method. The leaf extracts had higher inhibitory effects at various degrees than the stem bark and root extracts. Chemical methods were used to determine the quality and quantity of phytochemical components where alkaloids, flavonoids, saponin, tannins, phenol and cardinolides were found present. The antioxidant activities of the extracts of the plant tested were determined by a spectrophotometric method using the stable free radical DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Considerable antioxidant activities were found in the plant extracts. C. ferruginea contains bioactive principles necessary for bacteria inhibition and therefore, the powder could be used as preservative, beverage and source of novel drug(s).

      Keywords: Cnestis ferruginea DC (Connaraceae) extract, antibacterial, phytochemical, antioxidant properties, Nigeria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • M. S. Akhter

    (1)
    1. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT FROM LOCAL CITRUS GERMPLASMS AVAILABLE IN THE SOUTH WESTERN REGION OF BANGLADESH [FS]

      Abstract: The experiment was carried out to study the physico-chemical characteristics of 20 selected citrus fruits germplasm of South Western region of Bangladesh during July 2010 to January 2012. There was significant variation among the germplasms in relation to fruit characteristics and organolaptic evaluation. Better performance was found in germplasm No. 20 in respect of total fruit weight, weight of seed and skin thickness of fruits. Germplasm No.1 showed better performance in respect of percentage of edible portion and germplasm No. 6 in respect of percentage of non edible portion. The total soluble solids found higher in germplasm No. 20 (12.23 %) and titratable acidity in germplasm No. 16 (49.33 %). Vitamin C and carotenoids found maximum in germplasm No. 20 (442.70 mg/100g). Germplasm No. 4 and 12 was better in respect of anthocyanin (0.10 mg/100gm) and flavonoids (0.19 gm) content of fruit pulp. Considering desired fruit characteristics germplasam No. 20 (pummelo) was found better. Citrus fruits' squash was successfully prepared by using 60 g sugar containing treatment consisting 50-80 g of sugar with 10 g variation of sugar in three treatments without changing other ingredient. Citrus fruits jelly was successfully prepared by using 300 g sugar containing treatment consisting 250-350 g of sugar with 50 g variation of sugar in three treatments without changing other ingredient. Citrus fruits jarok was successfully prepared by using 55 g salt containing treatment consisting 50-60 g of salt with 5 g variation of salt in three treatments without changing other ingredient.

      Keywords: Physico-chemical characteristics, germplasm, Bangladesh, citrus, fruits

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Oluwakemi Akindolapo

    (1)
    1. THE BACTERIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL STUDIES ON OLUMIRIN WATERFALL ERIN- IJESHA, OSUN STATE, NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: The potability and qualities of Olumirin waterfall, Erin-Ijesa were investigated by determining the total bacteria and coliform count with antibiotic susceptibility of the isolated bacteria and physico-chemical qualities of the water samples. Total bacteria and coliform enumeration were determined using pour plating and multiple tube techniques, the antibiotic susceptibility were carried out using disc diffusion method, while physico-chemical and mineral studies were also carried out using standard methods. The mean total viable count of the water samples ranged 14.8 x 102 CFU.ml-1 - 21.3 x 103 CFU.ml-1 while the coliform count ranged 13 -175 MPN/100ml. The identified bacteria isolates and their percentage distribution were E.coli (43.1%), Klebsiella spp (20.7%), Proteus spp (12.1%), Salmonella spp (6.99%), Pseudomonas spp (5.17%), Shigella spp (6.9%), and Enterococcus spp (5.17 %). Antibiotic resistance shown by bacteria isolates were exhibited as follow; Nalixidic acid (31%), Ampicilin (76%), Cotrimoxazole (60%), Gentamicin (19%), Nitrofurantoin (24%), Colitin (48%), Streptomycin (34%) and tetracycline (52%). 82.8% of the isolate exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance. The physico-chemical analysis also revealed the presence of some mineral elements in the water samples. The mineral value of the water samples include; magnesium (84.8 - 93.4) mg.L-1, phosphate (12.6 - 17.1) mg.L-1, sodium (47.8 - 87.6) mg.L-1, potassium (76.6 - 104.5) mg.L-1, chloride (59.0 - 90.2) mg.L-1, zinc (0.75 - 1.82) mg.L-1, lead (0.12 - 0.33) mg.L-1, iron (0.52 - 0.60) mg.L-1, copper (0.12 - 0.27) mg.L-1 while nickel and arsenic were not detected in any of the water samples. Comparing the experimental results with the international water standard for natural water, the waterfall is not fit for consumption or for any domestic purpose unless being treated. Also, problems that may arise from the resistance bacteria strains can be tackled while the new antibiotics can also be developed.

      Keywords: Olumirin, coliform, waterfall, bacteria, antibiotics

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Olajide Joseph Akinjogunla

    (1)
    1. AETIOLOGIC AGENTS OF ACUTE OTITIS MEDIA (AOM): PREVALENCE, ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY, β-LACTAMASE (βL) AND EXTENDED SPECTRUM β-LACTAMASE (ESBL) PRODUCTION [MB]

      Abstract: Two hundred and seventy-two samples from patients with acute otitis media attending Ear, Nose and Throat clinics in Uyo and Ikot Ekpene were collected using sterile swab sticks between January 2009 and December, 2010. In vitro antibiotic susceptibilities of the isolates were evaluated using Kirby-Bauer technique. Beta-lactamase and extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers were determined using starch paper test, chromogenic cephalosporin test and double disc synergy test, respectively. The highest prevalence of AOM was observed in age group ≤ 10 years with 84 (30.9%) cases and lowest prevalence observed in age group ≤ 61 having 12 (4.4%) cases with significant difference in the prevalence of AOM between age groups ≤ 10 years and other age groups at (P<0.5). One hundred and sixty-five samples showed growth of single isolates, 69 (25.4%) showed growth of two isolates and polybacterial growth was present in 29 (10.7%). Bacteria isolated were Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aureginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacteriodes fragilis. The isolates were highly sensitive to moxifloxacin and levofloxacin. The starch paper test identified 152 (38.2%) β-lactamase producers, while β-lactamase enzyme was detected in 163 (41.0%) of isolates through chromogenic cephalosporin test, with no statistical difference at P˃0.5 between the results obtained using the two methods. Thirty-three (33) of the 81 Gram negative bacilli were ESBL producers. Consequently, this study has updated data on the incidence of the AOM and also revealed the actual therapy.

      Keywords: Otitis Media, Prevalence, Susceptibility, Betalactamase, EsBL

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • O. C. Akinkunmi

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ON THE SPOILAGE FUNGI OF SOME SELECTED EDIBLE FRUITS IN SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: The influence of electromagnetic field wave on the survival of spoilage fungi associated with some edible fruits consumed in southwestern, Nigeria was studied using cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), apple (Malus domestica) and African star apple (Chrysophyllum africanum). The spoilage fungi used include the genera of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Articulospora, Mucor, Staphylotrichum, Bisbyopeltis, Fusarium, Rhizopus and a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a general decrease in fungal growth as shown in the number of spores produced with increase in exposure time of isolates to electromagnetic field except in Articulospora inflata, Penicillium italicum and Mucor mucedo where there was stimulatory effect as there was increase in the fungal spores compared to the control. A decrease was also observed in growth of the fungal isolates with increase in the intensity of the electromagnetic field at voltage of 7 V to 10 V and from 10 V to 13 V. The highest percentage reduction was recorded by Bisbyopeltis phoebesii at intensity of voltage 13V after 60 minutes of exposure. Exposure of the fruits to electromagnetic field wave did not alter the nutrient components of the fruits as observed in the proximate and mineral contents of the treated and untreated fruits. The result of the study revealed that electromagnetic field wave has great potential for use in the control of fruits spoilage and food preservation.

      Keywords: Berry, electromagnetic field, spoilage, fungi, control

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Stephen Abiola Akinola

    (1)
    1. LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND YEAST DIVERSITIES IN SPONTANEOUSLY FERMENTED MILLET SOURDOUGHS [MB]

      Abstract: The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast diversities in spontaneously fermented pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) and finger millet (Eleusine coracona) sourdoughs were investigated. Pearl and finger millet grains were processed into flour and used in spontaneous sourdough fermentation. LAB and yeast cultures were isolated, screened and identified based on morphological, biochemical and sugar utilisation pattern using API 50CHL and API 20 AUX kits. Titratable acidity, pH and Temperatures of sourdoughs developed were also monitored. Titratable acidity and Temperature increased with increasing days of fermentation and conversely the pH. and mesophilic bacterial count followed that of a normal bacterial growth curve. Dominant LAB and yeasts in pearl and finger millet spontaneously developed sourdoughs were Lb. plantarum, Lb. plantarum 1, Pediococcus pentosaseus, Lb. pentosus, and Saccharomyces cereviasiae. However, Candida milleri was found in pearl millet sourdoughs. The dominant cultures in millet sourdoughs could find applications as starter cultures if improved sourdough quality is desired.

      Keywords: Pearl millet, Finger millet, Sourdough, Lactic acid bacteria, Yeast, Fermentation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mmadiniru J. Akintomide

    (1)
    1. INORGANIC NITROGEN SUPPLEMENTATION AND MICRO-FUNGAL FERMENTATION OF WHITE YAM PEELS (FLOUR) INTO SINGLE CELL PROTEIN [MB]

      Abstract: Solid state fermentation (SSF) technique was employed for the production of single cell protein (SCP) using white yam peels as a substrate. Commercial baker’s yeast (S. cerevisiae) and a local isolate of A. niger were used for the fermentation process to generate crude protein. The effect of supplementation by various inorganic sources of nitrogen on the crude protein yields was compared. Ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4], one of the inorganic nitrogen source used, supported the highest crude protein yields of 16.78% and 21.30% respectively for A. niger and S. cerevisiae while the lowest yield of 13.92% and 18.00% were supported by potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate respectively.

      Keywords: fermentation, microscopic fungi, microbial proteins, nitrogn salts, white yam peels

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Oluwabunmi Oluwafunmilayo Akinwunmi

    (1)
    1. QUALITY EVALUATION OF ZOBO (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA) JUICE PRESERVED WITH MORINGA (MORINGA OLEIFERA) OR GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE) EXTRACTS AT DIFFERENT STORAGE CONDITIONS [FS]

      Abstract: This study aimed to improve the storability of zobo juice naturally. Zobo juice infused with extracts of Moringa seeds or ginger at (0.5 and 1%), control (0% preservative) and, food vendor prepared (FVPZ) zobo were evaluated for 8 weeks. Samples were stored at ambient or refrigeration temperatures and physico-chemical, microbial load and sensory qualities of the juice were analyzed using standard methods. There were drops in pH values after pasteurization from (2.44- 2.75) to (2.31 - 2.58). Vitamin C increased with storage in preserved juice but reduced in control and FVPZ. There were significant (p<0.05) differences between samples in total titratable acidity. All of the samples had varying levels of microbial load. Microbial load of raw material ranged from (7.8×104 to TNTC), (3.0×103 to 3.0×104) and (5.6×104 to 8.0×104) CFU/g, while zobo juice on day 0 had counts ranging from (2.23×103 to TNTC); (3.0×102 to 8.0×104); (4.0×104 to 5.6×104), CFU/mL for total viable, staphylococcal and fungal count respectively. There was zero enterobacteriaceae count on day 0 but increased during storage. Moringa and ginger zobo juice overall had reduced microbial load during storage compared to zobo without preservative. On day 0 show that FVPZ was more liked: appearance (4.5), aroma (4.5), taste (4.4) and general acceptability (4.7) but scores degenerated during storage. At 8 weeks of storage, 0.5%GZ scored higher in all attributes. Refrigeration retarded microbial growth but did not influence sensory scores. Study concludes that incorporation of moringa or ginger extracts into zobo was effective in improving storability of juice but ginger preserved juice was preferred.

      Keywords: Zobo juice, Roselle, ginger, Moringa seeds, drum stick, preservative

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • B.J. Akinyele

    (1)
    1. BASAL MEDIA FORMULATION USING CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS AS CARBON AND NITROGEN SOURCE FOR THE GROWTH OF SOME FUNGI SPECIES [MB]

      Abstract: The possibility of developing alternative media to commercial potato dextrose agar was assessed using, Canavalia ensiformis (Linn) (jack beans) as carbon and nitrogen source. Six leguminous meal media were used as substitute for either carbon or nitrogen or both, while potato dextrose broth (PDB) was used as a positive control and basal medium as a negative control. Six species of fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Meria coniospora, Mucor sp, Neurospora crassa and Rhizopus oryzae were aseptically inoculated into the formulated media and allowed to grow. Their mycelia dry weights were taken after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. Growth of all fungal species was observed to be slightly lower, about the same or better in the formulated media relative to the control. Aspergillus flavus had its highest biomass of 1.70g in the media formulated with Canavalia ensiformis as the carbon source relative to 1.42g as the standard at the 120 hour. A. niger had a growth of 0.62g relative to 0.61g at 120 hours of the control. Meria coniospora had a growth of 0.27g relative to 0.38g at 120 hours. Mucor sp had a growth of 0.54g relative to 0.44g at 120 hours. Neurospora crassa had a growth of 1.05g relative to 0.24g at 120 hours. Rhizopus oryzae had a growth of 0.14g relative to 0.25g at 120 hours. The study revealed that Canavalia ensiformis contains minerals and nutrients that is able to provide the nutritional requirements of these fungi. Thus, it can be used as an alternative material in the preparation of culture media for in vitro cultivation of these fungi for teaching and research purposes.

      Keywords: fungi, nutrients, minerals, Canavalia ensiformis, Basal media

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Bamidele J. Akinyele

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD ON THE SPOILAGE FUNGI OF SOME SELECTED EDIBLE FRUITS IN SOUTHWESTERN, NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: The influence of electromagnetic field wave on the survival of spoilage fungi associated with some edible fruits consumed in southwestern, Nigeria was studied using cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), apple (Malus domestica) and African star apple (Chrysophyllum africanum). The spoilage fungi used include the genera of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Articulospora, Mucor, Staphylotrichum, Bisbyopeltis, Fusarium, Rhizopus and a yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. There was a general decrease in fungal growth as shown in the number of spores produced with increase in exposure time of isolates to electromagnetic field except in Articulospora inflata, Penicillium italicum and Mucor mucedo where there was stimulatory effect as there was increase in the fungal spores compared to the control. A decrease was also observed in growth of the fungal isolates with increase in the intensity of the electromagnetic field at voltage of 7 V to 10 V and from 10 V to 13 V. The highest percentage reduction was recorded by Bisbyopeltis phoebesii at intensity of voltage 13V after 60 minutes of exposure. Exposure of the fruits to electromagnetic field wave did not alter the nutrient components of the fruits as observed in the proximate and mineral contents of the treated and untreated fruits. The result of the study revealed that electromagnetic field wave has great potential for use in the control of fruits spoilage and food preservation.

      Keywords: Berry, electromagnetic field, spoilage, fungi, control

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Juliet Bamidele Akinyele

    (1)
    1. SCREENING AND OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITIONS FOR CELLULASE PRODUCTION BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER NSPR012 IN SUBMERGED FERMENTATION [MB]

      Abstract: This study aimed at screening of selected fungal strains and optimization of process parameters for cellulases production in submerged fermentation. Aspergillus niger NSPR012 was selected for further studies as the most potent in producing cellulase of high activity. Utilization of various agro-wastes as substitute tocarboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) for cellulase production was also investigated. Among tested carbon sources, banana peels at a concentration of 5% was found to be the most effective carbon source. The cellulase production by Aspergillus niger NSPR012 in mineral salt medium attained maximum after 96 h of incubation. Maximum cellulase activity (0.466µmol/min/mL) was obtained with locust beans as the best organic nitrogen source. The optimum incubation temperature and initial pH were 37°C and 5.5, respectively. With this information, banana peels could have good biotechnological potential for bio-products formation in which cellulase is one.

      Keywords: Aspergillus niger NSPR012, carboxymethylcellulose, cellulases, submerged fermentation, culture conditions

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Victoria Omolara Akpambang

    (1)
    1. ANTIBACTERIAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OF ETHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF SENNA HIRSUTA MILL USING ANIMAL MODEL-MICE [MB]

      Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial and biochemical activities of 50, 100 and 200mg.mL-1 concentrations of ethanol leaf extract of Senna hirsuta (hairy senna) against seven human pathogenic bacteria species namely: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus cereus and Salmonella typhi. The in-vitro bioassay revealed the leaf extracts of valuable antibacterial activity where zones of inhibition ranging from 12.1mm to 39.1mm were observed on the test bacteria species. Among the test bacteria, K. pneumoniae was the most inhibited and S. typhi the least inhibited. On mice infection with the bacteria species for three days, decrease in weight of mice was observed. The in-vivo therapeutic use of the extracts in mice infected with the bacteria pathogens resulted to weight gain of the mice and other physiological changes that indicated health improvement of the mice and was also of hepatoprotective potential. The in-vivo antioxidant assay exhibited satisfactory therapeutic effects where improvement in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) status of mice was observed on comparing results of the positive and negative controls.

      Keywords: Plant extracts, activities, antibacterial, albino mice, biochemical

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Boniface Akpan

    (1)
    1. OCCURRENCE OF SALMONELLA, VIBRO AND E. COLI IN EDIBLE LAND SNAIL IN NIGER DELTA, NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: We determined the presence of foodborne pathogens from proximal gut of edible land snail (Archachatina marginata) sampled from Itam, Akpan Andem, Afaha and Ikpa markets in Uyo metropolis during the dry season. Fresh snail samples were collected from open market tables presented for sale were screened in the laboratory for microbial load. The total bacteria, Salmonella, Vibrio and Escherichia coli pathogens were measured. The results showed (p<0.05) pathogens in snail meat were found to be above 102cfu-g recommended microbiological limits. The foodborne pathogenic bacteria rating of sampled markets was Itam < Akpan Andem < Afaha < Ikpa. Edible snail can be a bioindicator and vector of foodborne pathogens. It is critical that producers, retailers, processors and consumers take responsibility to prevent contamination, cross-contamination, mishandling, as well as proper holding, storage and cooking of snail meat to eradicate foodborne pathogenic incidence.

      Keywords: Edible mollusc, consumer health, food pathogens, meat contamination, zoonoses

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Inyang Akpan

    (1)
    1. SCREENING, OPTIMIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASE OF Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 [MB]

      Abstract: This study focused on screening, production and characterization of strains of microorganisms isolated from groundnut cake wastes capable of producing lipolytic enzyme. Over one hundred isolates were screened on Bromocresol green medium to detect the presence of lipase producing organisms by a colour change of the medium from green to yellow around the colonies at pH 3.8 – 5.6. Two of the isolates with NCBI Accession number ACJE01000015.1 and NT-166520.1 were identified as Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 and A.niger CBS 513.88 respectively based on the nucleotide sequence of the domain of DNA gene. Other lipase producers include A. niger (B-05, B-17, B-33), A. oryzae (G -47, G- 51), and yeast, Candida sp. (H-06, H-11). Lipase activities of A. niger ATCC 1015 were evaluated at temperature (25 – 60 °C), pH 5 - 9 and enzyme loading (10 -35 %, v/v) for optimization. The effect of inducers on lipase production was also carried out by using coconut oil, physic nut oil, groundnut oil and olive oil. A. niger ATCC 1015 gave the largest halo on the medium with 102.4 U/g activity. Zones of hydrolysis also increased with time and ranged from 3 mm to 10 mm at 30 ºC for 96 h. The ability of cells to maintain sharp contrast between green medium and its clear zone without prior replication permits direct visualization and isolation of positive strains.
      Optimum production of the enzyme (specific activity 216.7 Umg-1) was attained at temperature 45°C, pH 7, and enzyme loading (25% v/v) with physic nut oil (2%) inducer. Hence A. niger ATCC 1015 strain can be commercially exploited as a potential lipase producing strain for industrial application.

      Keywords: Bromocresol green medium; solid state fermentation; optimization; Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sadia Akram

    (1)
    1. FOOD PACKAGING IN PERSPECTIVE OF MICROBIAL ACTIVITY: A REVIEW [FS]

      Abstract: A successful packaging technique demands certain barriers for microbes, achieved through controlled conditions to indicate microbial growth, levels of oxygen, harmful bacterial and fungal toxins, moisture levels, and the indicators for temperature and time. Active food packaging is greatly being applied these days for food safety against harmful microbes. Food is protected from biological, physical, and chemical damages caused by pathogenic microbes through different technologies of packaging including modified atmosphere packaging and controlled atmospheric packaging through antimicrobial films. Moreover, it is essential to use selective materials suitable for different food stuffs for the maintenance of nutritional value of foods. Use of various gas scavengers and bio-based package designing are also greatly helpful towards enhanced shelf life of food products.

      Keywords: Active packaging, preservation, antimicrobial packaging, gas scavengers

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Richard Akromah

    (1)
    1. MOLECULAR AND PHENOTYPIC RESISTANCE OF GROUNDNUT VARIETIES TO LEAF SPOTS DISEASE IN GHANA [BT]

      Abstract: Groundnut yield is constrained in most cases by early and lateleaf spots diseases. Selection and breeding for resistance will enhance yields. Therefore, this study was conducted in Crop Research Institute, Fumesua-Kumasi, Ghana to screen 20 groundnut varieties for leaf spots resistance using both molecular and phenotypic tools. Differences in disease incidence among individual plants, severity score, lesion diameter and defoliation across the 20 genotypes were highly significant (p<0.01) under phenotypic screening. Fourteen genotypes were moderately resistant while six genotypes were susceptible. The SSR markers pPGseq2F5280, pPGseq2B10280/290, pPGPseq17F6120/140/150, PMc588180/220 and PM384100 confirmed most resistant genotypes at the molecular level. The resistant genotypes confirmed by the markers were ‘ICG7878’, ‘Obolo’, ‘Oboshie’, ‘Jenkaar’, ‘Adepa’, ‘Nkosour’, ‘Azivivi’, ‘Nkatekokoo’, ‘Behenase’, ‘Manipinta’, ‘Otuhia’, ‘GK7’, ‘Nkatiesari’ and ‘Sumnut22’. Genotypes ‘55-437’, ‘Yenyawoso’, ‘Bremawuo’, ‘Kumawu’, ‘Konkoma’ and ‘Shitaochi’ were susceptible. Hence, resistance to leaf spots exists among commercially grown groundnuts in Ghana. Both morphological descriptors and DNA molecular could be used for identification of resistant genotypes.

      Keywords: Arachis hypogaea, Cercospora, Phenotypic, Resistance, SSR Markers

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Hasina Akther

    (1)
    1. ROLE OF PLANTS FOUND IN NORTH EAST INDIA AND BANGLADESH IN CONTROLLING POPULATION GROWTH [BT]

      Abstract: Being part of the Indian subcontinent both the North Eastern region of India and the Bangladesh share a long common cultural, economic and political history. One of the most critical problems of developing countries like India as well as Bangladesh is their enormous increase in human population. Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) of India is 48.3 and that of Bangladesh is 53.8. As the large majority of population of both the countries belong to rural area, the family planning programmes have largely remained unsuccessful because of many factors including lack of availability of contraceptive drugs in rural markets, lack of accessibility of rural people to medical personnel as well as the lack of acceptability of synthetic drugs due to various socio-cultural and religious perceptions prevailing among many ethnic communities. These contributed to a growing interest among researchers in developing contraceptives of natural origin and at present natural herbal contraception have become one of the major focuses of modern contraceptive research. Since time immemorial herbal drugs are being practiced by various rural communities and ethnic tribes in North East India as well as in Bangladesh, and hence the acceptability of herbal contraceptives is expected to be much higher among rural folk. In different parts of North East India and Bangladesh, ethnic communities are using plant based medicinal products till today. This study aims at highlighting the contraceptive property of some plants found in North-Eastern India as well as in Bangladesh.

      Keywords: Herbal contraceptive, human population growth, India, Bangladesh

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Khalid Al'Abri

    (1)
    1. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF HONEY FROM DIFFERENT ORIGINS: A COMPARSION WITH MANUKA HONEY [MB]

      Abstract: The antibacterial activity of honey is well documented, this activity is mainly due to its low pH, osmolarity and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Recently, more attention has been given to the importance of a unique extra antimicrobial activity, termed as a non-peroxide activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of selected honeys from different origins; specifically to evaluate their non-hydrogen peroxide derived activity, against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli and S. epidermidis; manuka honey was used as the control. Antibacterial activity of the honeys was assayed using standard well diffusion methods. noticeable variations in the antibacterial activity of the different honey samples were observed. Most of tested honeys had broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, particularly Greek Pine, Scottish Heather, Chilean Ulmo, New Zealand Beech and Jarrah Honey. Unfortunately, none of the tested honey had a detectable non-peroxide activity.

      Keywords: Antibacterial activity, manuka honey, Non-peroxide activity, MRSA

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Khalaf S. Al-Delaimy

    (1)
    1. INHIBITION OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS BY LACTIC ACID BACTERIA AND / OR BIFIDOBACTERIUM LACTIS DURING MILK FERMENTATION AND STORAGE [MB]

      Abstract: Survival and inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus by the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter culture (Sterptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus delbrukii subsp. bulgaricus) and/ or probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium lactis during milk fermentation to yoghurt and storage up to 12 days was studied. Adding S. aureus (initial count log 6.64/ ml) with LAB (initial count log 6.8/ ml) in milk during yoghurt processing and storage resulted in no significant change in the counts of both S. aureus and LAB during fermentation period of 4 hrs at 45° C. A steady decrease in S. aureus count during storage at 25° C and 4° C was observed reaching a complete (100 %) inhibition after 9 and 12 days, respectively, with no significant increase in LAB count. Adding S. aureus (initial count log 6.62/ ml) with B. lactis (initial count log 6.83/ ml) in milk for 4 hr at45° C, no significant changes in the counts of both bacteria were found. After storage at 25° C and at 4° C a sharp decline in the S. aureus count with a 100 % inhibition after 6 and 9 days with approximately two log and one log increase in B. lactis counts consecutively. In general similar result was observed when adding S. aureus together with LAB and B. lactis in milk during fermentation and storage. pH values decreased during milk fermentation and storage from initially 6.55-6.64 to around 4 in most milk samples.
      The results of this study show that S. aureus was completely inhibited by LAB and/or B. lactis after milk fermentation to yoghurt and storage at room temperature and refrigeration for 6-9 days. It is therefore recommended to add the probiotic B. lactis with LAB to milk for yoghurt processing.

      Keywords: S. aureus, Lactic acid bacteria, Bifidobacterium lactis, inhibition, milk fermentation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • M.B. Al-Fageeh

    (1)
    1. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BASED DISINFECTANT BIOXIL [MB]

      Abstract: Antifungal activity of the Bioxil containing hydrogen peroxide as an active agent has been studied. The mentioned species act as indicators of microbiological quality of fruit juices and hygienic condition of juice processing industry. Inhibition activity of the mentioned disinfection agent has been studied in vitro against different yeast strains: Rhodotorula rubra J-120 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae J-200 and their mix culture. For the evaluation of antifungal efficacy of the Bioxil suspension and surface tests were used. Relation between antifungal activity of Bioxil, its concentrations, yeast species and contact times was established. Bioxil containing 1% and 3% of H2O2 has shown unequal inhibition activity against different yeast strains. Influence of washing and disinfection steps on the level of contamination of conveyor and working surfaces by yeasts and has been investigated. In the processing conditions, after treatment of conveyors and working surfaces, without preliminary washing, lower inhibition activity of the Bioxil has been occurred.

      Keywords: Yeast, hydrogen peroxide, antifungal activity, Bioxil

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sulaiman Al-Yousef

    (1)
    1. PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A LYTIC METHICILLIN RESISTANT-STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS BACTERIOPHAGE [MB]

      Abstract: A marked increase in the infection incidence caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains has been noted in medical practice in recent years. This study was conducted to study the biological and characterize of MRSA-phage. Methicillin resistance of Staphylococcus aureus was detected and confirmed by determining of the MIC of oxacillin by the standard agar dilution method. Phage was biologically purified using single plaque technique, then phage characterization were studied using host range, adsorption time, particle morphology and its structural protein. MRSA phage showing lytic nature was purified by repeated plating after picking of single isolated plaques. This phage is active against all 11 isolates either of S. aureus or MRSA tested as hosts. Phage produced clear plaques indicating their lytic nature. This phage was concentrated employing polyethylene glycol (PEG)-NaCl precipitation method. Morphologically, MRSA Phage has a hexagonal head having a long non-contractile tail, indicating his icosahedral nature. Adsorption studies showed 100% adsorption of MRSA-Phage after 35 minutes of exposure. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) experimentation indicated that the phage particles contain one major structural protein (about 30 Kda).

      Keywords: MRSA, phage, concentration, characterization

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Tolulope P. Alakeji

    (1)
    1. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF YEASTS ISOLATED FROM SOME NIGERIAN TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS [MB]

      Abstract: Yeasts play important roles in confering some desirable qualities such as nutritional value in traditional fermented foods. This study was carried out to investigate the potentials of yeasts isolated from some Nigerian traditional fermented foods for functional characteristics such as growth at pH 2.5 and 2% bile salts concentration and ability to lower cholesterol in culture medium. A total of 40 yeast strains were isolated from burukutu, ogi and pito. They were characterized phenotypically. Fifteen strains were selected based on the ability to tolerate pH 2.5 and 2% bile salts and they were further identified using API 20C AUX (Biomerieux, France) to be Debaryomyces hansenii (5), Candida krusei (4), Candida glabrata (2), Candida colliculosa (1), Pichia anomala (1), Pichia farinosa (1) and Pichia membranefaciens (1). At pH 2.5, C. glabrata SA2 showed the highest increase in viable cells count after 24h (6.31 log10 cfu ml-1) while the most sensitive strain was P. membranefaciens BA2 (0.70 log10 cfu ml-1). P. membranefaciens BA2 survived in 2% bile salts than other yeast strains, with viable cell increase of 0.84 log10 cfu ml-1 after 24 h while the least tolerance was observed for D. hansenii OA1 with an increase in viable cells of 7.76 log10 cfu ml-1. C. krusei OB1 exhibited the greatest reduction of cholesterol of 91.34% while the least reduction of 24.28% was observed for D. hansenii OA1 after 48h incubation. The yeast strains in this study demonstrated functional attributes which can be employed as dietary adjuncts for the development of non-dairy beverages with hypocholesterolemic attributes.

      Keywords: Yeast, Traditional fermented food, Functional properties, Cholesterol reduction

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Md. Zahangir Alam

    (1)
    1. MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MAJOR SEA FISH AVAILABLE IN LOCAL MARKETS OF DHAKA CITY, BANGLADESH [MB]

      Abstract: Present study attempted to determine the prevalence of pathogenic microflora along the two major sea fish samples: Rupchanda (Pampus chinensis) and Surmai (Scomberomorus guttatus), collected from local market in Dhaka city. Most of the fishes collected were found to be contaminated with a huge number of pathogens within a range of 2.0×102-1.9×109 cfu.mL-1 or cfu.G-1. The study of antibiogram showed a number of isolates to be drug-resistant. The investigation also endeavored to evaluate the efficiency of gamma (γ) irradiation on the pathogenic reduction besides the traditional means. The pathogenic load was found to be reduced by an irradiation dosage of 3 kilo Gray (kGy).

      Keywords: Sea fish, pathogens, antibiotic resistance, irradiation, microbiological quality

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Nadia Alam

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION OF SEED-BORNE AND SEED ASSOCIATED FUNGI OF Lablab purpureus (L.) SWEET AND THEIR BIOLOGICAL CONTROL [MB]

      Abstract: Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet is one of the most important and nutritious vegetables as well as pulse in Bangladesh and is grown extensively all over the country. It suffers from various fungal infections, which reduce greatly its quality and quantity. Seed-borne and seed associated fungi are one of the factors of substantial damages of the bean genotypes. Seed- borne and seed associated fungi of eleven genotypes of L. purpureus (L.) Sweet and their various controlling methods were studied. From eleven bean seed samples, seven types of fungal pathogens were isolated and identified. The most predominant fungi species were Aspergillus spp. followed by Fusarium sp. and Rhizopus sp. Comparatively less frequent fungi were Penicillium sp., Curvularia sp., Colletotrichum sp. and Alternaria sp. Plant extracts (Lawsonia inermis, Azadirachta indica and Allium sativum), cow urine, hot water and chemical fungicides (Bavistin, redomil and dithane M-45) were used to observe the efficacy of them against different species of fungi and their effect on germination rate and vigour index of bean seeds. Among the controlling measures, considering fungal infection controlling capacity, germination rate, vigour index as well as cheap, easy, environment friendly, easily available and easily applicable controlling measures, Azadirachta indica leaf extract was the best. Genotype GBLB-6, GBLB-11 and GBLB-13 showed more better performance through all the controlling measures and these genotypes may be used in the breeding program for their higher germination rate, higher vigour index and comparatively lower susceptibility to fungal pathogen.

      Keywords: L. purpureus (L.) Sweet , fungal pathogen , plant extract, biological control

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Alawlaqi

    (1)
    1. BIOSECURITY FOR REDUCING OCHRATOXIN A PRODUCTIVITY AND THEIR IMPACT ON GERMINATION AND ULTRASTRUCTURES OF GERMINATED WHEAT GRAINS [MB]

      Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary metabolite of some fungi that causes very serious problems for plants, animals and humans. Various microorganisms such as bacteria and microscopic fungi have been tested for their abilities to prevent ochratoxin A contamination or detoxify foods. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus bulgaricus reduced OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus to 40.88 µg/ml ( productivity 60.69% ) and 13.80 µg/ml (productivity 20.48% ) respectively compared with the control (67.35 µg/ml) (productivity 100%). The results clearly indicated that the seed germinibility in the presence of OTA was decreased with increasing concentration, whereas the germinibility was uncompletely ceased at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml) of OTA. The maximum amount of germination was observed in control (without OTA treatment) and at low concentration (13.80 µg/ml) within 4 days. Antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase decreased in germinated grains treated with OTA. Catalase was 18.12 U/ml in grains treated with low concentration (13.80 µg/ml) of OTA while at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml), it was 12.23 U/ml compared with the control (20.33 U/ml). On the other hand, peroxidase decreased only in germinated grains treated with high concentration of OTA. The ultrastructural studies indicate that there were dramatic differences between the cells of root system of wheat seedlings of grains treated and untreated with the OTA. Cell ultrastructures of treated grains with OTA showed that the cytoplasmic membrane collapses away from the cell wall. Plasmodesmata threads were appeared in untreated cells but not formed in treated cells.

      Keywords: Biosecurity, ochratoxin A, productivity, wheat grains

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • José Alberto

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF THE ADDITION OF COMMON BEAN FLOUR ON THE COOKING QUALITY AND ANTIOXIDANT CHARACTERISTICS OF SPAGHETTI [FS]

      Abstract: Pasta is a nutritionally unbalanced food, due to its low fat and fiber and low value of its protein. It is considered an adequate vehicle for food supplementation with minerals, proteins and other healthy components such as bioactive compounds present in common beans. The effect of composite pasta (wheat – common bean; 30 % w/w) on the cooking quality (optimal cooking time, cooking loss, weight loss, firmness, color), total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays and phenolic acid profile was investigated. According to the quality parameters, pasta added with bean flour was less hard with respect to the pasta made from durum wheat. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity by DPPH and ORAC assays were higher in the pasta with common bean flour than in the pasta control. Also, more phenolic acids were identified in cooked pasta containing common bean flour as analyzed by HPLC.

      Keywords: Antioxidant; Common beans; Cooking; Polyphenols; Spaghetti

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Crislaine Alberton

    (1)
    1. THERMAL ANALYSIS, RHEOLOGY, X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETRY AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY IN THE EVALUATION OF BINARY MIXTURES OF “STARCH-HYDROCOLLOIDS” [FS]

      Abstract: Starch is arguably the most investigated biopolymer in the world and the cassava starch that is extracted from Manihot esculenta Crantz, represents an important vegetal crop in tropical countries, where its roots and derivatives serve as food and a source of energy. The main composition of these roots is 70-80% water, 16-24% starch and small quantities (<4%) of protein, lipids vitamins and minerals. Hydrocolloids, or gums, are substances consisting of a hydrophilic long-chain with colloidal properties that, in water-based systems, produce gels. Starches and hydrocolloids are often used together in food systems to provide texture, water mobility, control moisture, improve product quality and stability, facilitate processing and reduce costs. In this study, the interactions between cassava and starch-hydrocolloids (1% of the following gums: CMC, jatahy, pectin and xanthan) were investigated. The TG/DTG method made it possible to determine the thermal decomposition of each sample, which under air atmosphere occurs in three steps. Little difference was observed in the degree of relative crystallinity (XRD) and in the average roughness or average diameter of the starch granules (NC-AFM). The viscosity and pasting properties (RVA) increased, and were higher for starch treated with jatahy gum. A large decrease was observed in peak temperature and gelatinisation enthalpy for the treated samples (DSC).

      Keywords: Modified starches, hydrocolloids, thermal analysis, enthalpy, pasting properties

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Aida Albu

    (1)
    1. ASPECTS OF EGGS QUALITY PROVIDED FROM FREE RANGE AND CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS [FS]

      Abstract: Egg, is a complete food that plays a critical role in daily nutrition, irrespective of the trade vessels has been obtained. The aim of the current paper is to compare the chemical indicators and the microbial load of eggs from two operating systems for laying hens (EU approved battery and free range). Were taken in study 120 eggs from those two systems of rearing which 90 eggs we are making chemical analysis of albumen, yolk, and whole egg, and 30 eggs were stored in refrigerating conditions for microbiological indicators. Egg obtained from free range system have a slightly higher content of protein from albumen (10.36±0.12 % vs. 9.98±0.03 %) compared with conventional system, and a higher content of lipids of yolk with 2.24%. We determined the eggshell TNGMA by rapid method Tempo TVC and by content of egg with decimal dilutions and inoculation with Plate Count Agar. Following these determinations TNGMA on the eggshell recorded the highest level of contamination in eggs obtained from free range system 5.01 log cfu/eggshell, and the situation was available for TNGMA of egg contents 2.76 ± 0,58 cfu/g. Rearing in freedom of laying hens (free range) caused a qualitative improvement of dry components of both the egg components (yolk and albumen) but also the quantitative one, and eggs obtained has a high nutritional value, but hygiene and biosecurity are very important concepts, not only on the health of laying hens, but also in terms of consumer health, and eggs from alternative systems are high microbiological load than eggs from conventional systems.

      Keywords: Bacterial contamination, chemical indicators, conventional, free range, egg

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mahsa Alem

    (1)
    1. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.) [MB]

      Abstract: Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

      Keywords: Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), alcoholic extract, aqueous extract, antimicrobial properties, GC-MS

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Vollmannová Alena

    (1)
    1. INTERNAL MILIEAU OF DAIRY COWS AT THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITION OF RAW MILK [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate selected blood biochemical parameters and milk composition of dairy cows at the beginning of lactation and to observe the correlations between blood and milk parameters. In total, 15 Holstein cows at the beginning of lactation were chosen. Blood and milk samples were collected. Energetic (glucose - GLU, d-beta-hydroxybutyrate - D-BHB, triglycerides - TG), nitrogenous (total proteins - TP, UREA), hepatic (aspartate aminotransferase - AST, alanine aminotransferase - ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase - GGT, alkaline phosphatase - ALP, bilirubin - BILI, cholesterol - CHOL) and mineral (sodium - Na, potassium - K, chlorides - Cl-, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg) profiles were determined in the blood serum. Levels of lactose, fat, proteins and minerals (sodium - Na, potassium – K, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg) were determined in milk. Most of the parameters outside physiological limits were found among mineral and hepatic profile. Levels of calcium, phosphorus and sodium were decreased in comparison to reference values. Average concentration of urea was also lower. On the other hand, increase of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase were observed. Levels of lactose (4.82 g.100g-1), fat (4.21 g.100g-1), protein (3.14 g.100g-1) and calcium (4.82 g.l-1) in milk complied with Slovak national standard (STN 57 0529). In our study, ratio of fat to protein lower than 0.75 was observed in 13 % of cows (risk of ketosis) and higher than 1.4 in 40 % (NEB). Strong negative correlation between serum cholesterol and milk fat (-0.716; P<0.01) and middle strong negative correlation between cholesterol and milk protein (-0.397; P<0.01) were observed.
      ALT affected negatively amount of phosphorus in milk (-0.417; P<0.001), which complied with demineralization of the organism and following restriction of liver detoxification activity. On the other hand, strong positive correlation was observed between serum ALT and milk sodium (0.738; P<0.05), what points to close relationship between hepatic enzymes and mineral composition of raw milk.

      Keywords: Dairy cows, metabolic test, milk quality, beginning of lactation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Richard Alexa

    (3)
    1. THE EFFECT OF GREEN TEA EXTRACT - EPIGALLOCATECHIN GALLATE (EGCG) ON PORCINE OVARIAN GRANULOSA CELL [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of our study was to elucidate the potential effect of green tea substance on basic ovarian functions. For this purpose, we examined the action of green tea bioactive molecule, epigallocatechin gallate (given at doses 0, 1, 10, 100 μg/mL), on cultured porcine ovarian granulosa cell functions - proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis. Accumulation of PCNA (marker of proliferation), BAX (marker of apoptosis) and the release of steroid hormones (progesterone and testosterone) were analysed by immunocytochemistry and RIA respectively. It was observed that epigallocatechin gallate addition decreased the percentage of proliferative (PCNA-positive) cells at all used doses (1, 10 and 100 μg/mL). The percentage of apoptotic (BAX-positive) cells was increased at the highest used dose (100 μg/mL), but not a lower doses. Epigallocatechin gallate stimulated progesterone release (at 10 μg/mL but not at 1 and 100 μg/mL) and diminished testosterone release (at 1 μg/mL but not at 10 and 100 μg/mL) by porcine granulosa cells. Our results suggest a direct effect of epigallocatechin gallate on proliferation, apoptosis and steroidogenesis in porcine ovaries. Taken together, these data suggest that green tea molecule epigallocatechin gallate can negatively affect reproductive (ovarian) functions – suppress ovarian cell proliferation, promote their apoptosis and alter release of steroid hormones.

      Keywords: epigallocatechin gallate, proliferation, apoptosis, progesterone, testosterone

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. EFFECT OF dbcAMP ON PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS OF PORCINE GRANULOSA CELLS in vitro [BT]

      Abstract: Cyclic nucleotide cAMP and its target protein kinase A (PKA) dependent intracellular mechanisms can play an important role in regulation of ovarian cell function and in mediating gonadotropin action on these cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) (0; 0.1; 1 and 10 µg/ml) or FSH (0; 0,01; 1 IU/ml) on proliferation and apoptosis of porcine granulosa cells in vitro. Indices of cell apoptosis (expression of apoptotic peptide bax) and proliferation (expression of proliferation-associated peptide PCNA) within ovarian granulosa cells were analysed by immunocytochemistry. It was observed that accumulation of PCNA was increased by dbcAMP and FSH at all doses added. The occurrence of bax was also stimulated by dbcAMP after exposition (at 0,1 and 1 µg/ml, but not at dose 10 µg/ml) and by FSH (at all doses added). The stimulatory effect of both dbcAMP and FSH on both ovarian cell apoptosis and proliferation suggest, that these substances may promote ovarian follicular cell turnover. The similarity of dbcAMP and FSH effect may indicate that FSH can affect ovarian functions via cAMP-dependent intracellular mechanisms. The present data may provide new tools to regulate human and animal reproductive processes via cAMP-dependent mechanisms.

      Keywords: dbcAMP, proliferation, apoptosis, porcine granulosa cells, cAMP/PKA

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL EFFECTS OF PLANT FLAVONOID QUERCETIN [BT]

      Abstract: Flavonoid compounds in vegetable-based diets bring a significant contribution to the role of fruits and vegetables as health-promoting foods. This review summarizes the available data concerning physiological and therapeutical effect of plan flavonoid quercetin. Quercetin has a number of beneficial influence on health because of their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, anti-carcinogenic and anti-diabetes properties. Effects of quercetin have been explained by its interference with cellular enzymes, receptors, transporters and signal transduction systems. Despite the available data reviewed here, the targets, effects, absorption, metabolism and areas of practical application of quercetin are still poorly understood, therefore further studies in this areas are required.

      Keywords: quercetin, oxidation, proliferation, inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular diseases

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Alfaro-Cruz

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF ULTRASOUND AND THERMAL TREATMENT ON PECTIN METHYLESTERASE ACTIVITY IN PAPAYA (Carica papaya) JUICE [FS]

      Abstract: Among the pectic enzymes present in fruits and vegetables, pectin methylesterase (PME) is usually related to the loss of quality and it causes adverse effects on finished products. In this research, the kinetic of ultrasound and thermal treatments are evaluated in the PME activity in papaya juice. The results showed that the ultrasound treatment caused an increase in the catalytic activity up to 52%. After a while, the catalytic activity decreased in 27% indicating that the ultrasound was not effective in the enzymatic inactivation, whereas the thermal treatment inactivated 71% of the PME. However, these results open perspectives to evaluate the effect of ultrasound and enhance the catalytic activity of enzymes of industrial interest.

      Keywords: Ultrasound, pectin methylesterase, inactivation, papaya

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • TRAORÉ Sababenedyo Alfred

    (1)
    1. IMPROVEMENT OF BORASSUS AKEASSII WINES QUALITY BY CONTROLLED FERMENTATION USING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAINS [FS]

      Abstract: Palm wine produced traditionally and consumed by many people around the world and specifically in Burkina Faso posed health risks because of questionable quality of wine produced by mix culture fermentation and the use of antiseptics for the stabilization. In order to improve its quality, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii wines and identified by amplification and RFLP analysis of the 5-8S-ITS region were used for in vitro fermentation of unfermented palm sap. The physicochemical characteristics of the sap were measured before and after fermentation process by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and the microbiological quality were also performed. HPLC analysis showed that glucose and fructose concentration in palm sap were 37.0 and 27.6 g/L respectively, ethanol content was ranged between 2.76 and 5.31 % (g/mL) for controlled fermentation and 2.20 % (g/mL) for spontaneous fermentation. Lactic and acetic acids were ranged between 0.1 and 0.3 g/L and 1.5 and 1.6 g/L for controlled fermentation versus 2.5 and 3.1 g/L and the spontaneous fermentation respectively. Coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were detected only in the unfermented palm sap and the wine fermented spontaneously.
      Principal component analysis showed a good separation between spontaneous and controlled fermentation. Sterilization and controlled fermentation of the unfermented sap with palm wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains led to the improvement of palm wine quality.

      Keywords: Borassus akeassii wine, Fermentation, improvement, quality, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RFLP, HPLC

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ayesha S. Ali

    (1)
    1. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH POTENTIAL TYROSINASE FROM MACROFUNGI AND ITS APPLIANCE IN FOOD ENGINEERING [BT]

      Abstract: Tyrosinase (EC1.14.18.1) was extracted from oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, using 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 5.8) containing 1 mM of ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by Sephadex G-100 and diethylaminoethyl chromatography. The purified enzyme showed a specific activity of 46.4 U/mg with 20.3 % yield. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed single peptide chain with a molecular weight of 75 kDa. The enzyme has optimum activity on pH 6.0 at 35˚ C. The kinetics parameter with L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine), with a KM of 0.119 mM and Vmax of 2.97 mM. Thus, purified tyrosinase from P.ostreatus showed similarities with other tyrosinase sources. The results indicate that P.ostreatus can be a novel and better source of tyrosinase extraction due to its higher specific activity. The information offered here should help food industry in developing and using potential tyrosinase desirable efficacy and safety, and for improving food quality.

      Keywords: Pleurotus ostreatus, Tyrosinase, Purification, Specific activity, Charaterization, Crosslinking enzyme, Extraction

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Gulam Rusul Rahmat Ali

    (1)
    1. GENOTYPING OF SALMONELLA STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DUCKS AND THEIR ENVIRONMENTS IN PENANG, MALAYSIA USING REPETITIVE EXTRAGENIC PALINDROMIC (REP) [MB]

      Abstract: Salmonella are important foodborne pathogens of worldwide concern. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic diversity of 107 Salmonella strains isolated from ducks, their rearing and processing environments in Penang, Malaysia using repetitive extragenic palindromic-polymerase chain reaction (REP-PCR). REP-PCR of the Salmonella strains produced DNA bands of different sizes for differentiation purposes. The DNA band sizes ranged from 105-7692 bp for S. Typhimurium, 116-7033 bp for S. Hadar, 127-7399 bp for S. Enteritidis, 140-7497 bp for S. Braenderup and 123-5857 bp for S. Albany. Cluster analysis at a coefficient of 0.85 grouped the Salmonella strains into various clusters and singletons. S. Typhimurium were grouped into 4 clusters and 26 singletons at a discriminatory index (D-value) of 0.98, S. Hadar were grouped into 3 clusters and 13 singletons at a D-value of 0.914, S. Enteritidis were grouped into 3 clusters and 9 singletons at a D-value of 0.971, S. Braenderup were grouped into 2 clusters and 11 singletons at a D-value of 0.981, and S. Albany were grouped into 3 clusters and 7 singletons at a D-value of 0.978. With the exception of S. Hadar strains which were grouped into two major groups (genotypes) by REP-PCR, the rest were grouped into three major genotypes. REP-PCR successfully typed all the Salmonella strains and proved to be a useful typing tool for determining the genetic diversity of the duck Salmonella strains. Determining the genetic diversity among Salmonella strains, other foodborne pathogens and their sources of isolation is important to trace their primary or potential sources and the sources of human infection.

      Keywords: Ducks, genetic diversity, REP-PCR, Salmonella strains

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Shafaqat Ali

    (2)
    1. DETERMINATION OF LEAD (Pb), IRON (Fe) AND MANGANESE (Mn) CONCENTRATION IN SEWAGE WATER AND VEGETABLE LEAF SAMPLES [FS]

      Abstract: Application of waste water for irrigation purposes has increased over the past years. This waste water contains high amounts of trace elements and heavy metals.Many of these are non-essential and toxic to plants, animals and human beings. The use of polluted water in the immediate surroundings of big cities in Pakistan is a common practice for growing of vegetables. When this water applied for long time in irrigation, these heavy metals may accumulate in soil and that may be toxic to plants and also cause deterioration of soil. The present study revealed that heavy metal content was above the toxicity level in leafy vegetables grown in the area of Lahore. This study showed that among the different tested plant species, the amount of heavy metals was more in leaves than fruits. Plants whose fruits grow below the soil showed higher concentration of heavy metals while other showed less concentration whose edible portion was above the ground level. Leafy vegetables (spinach, cabbage, coriander etc) showed higher concentration in leaves than in fruits. The concentration of heavy metals in upper layer of soil (0 -15 cm) is higher than the lower layer (15-30 cm). The reason behind is that the upper layer was receiving sewage water permanently while the penetration of sewage water below 15 cm was less. The increase in heavy metal accumulation in different plant species and their different parts is not constant and is not in proportion to the increase in heavy metal concentration in soil irrigated with sewage wastewater.

      Keywords: Accumulate, growth, heavy metal, spinach, vegetable

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. ESTIMATION OF AMOXICILLIN RESIDUES IN COMMERCIAL MEAT AND MILK SAMPLES [MB]

      Abstract: The present study was conducted to evaluate the extent of ß - lactam antibiotic, amoxicillin residues in market milk and meat. Samples were randomly collected from Faisalabad city, Pakistan. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method with inflorescent detector was used to detect, identify and quantify the amoxicillin residues in milk and meat samples. The milk samples were purified by performing a protein precipitation step, followed by derivatization. To clean up tissue samples, a liquid extraction, followed by a solid-phase extraction procedure C18 (4.0X4.6mm, 5μm) was performed. A 50% meat and 90% milk samples were found contaminated with residues. The residues of amoxicillin in milk were in range of 28 to 46μg/kg and in meat were 9 to 84μg/kg. All of the contaminated milk and 40 out of 50% meat samples fall in maximum residue limits.

      Keywords: Amoxicillin, residue, meat, milk, health risks

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sharique A. Ali

    (1)
    1. PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HIGH POTENTIAL TYROSINASE FROM MACROFUNGI AND ITS APPLIANCE IN FOOD ENGINEERING [BT]

      Abstract: Tyrosinase (EC1.14.18.1) was extracted from oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, using 100 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 5.8) containing 1 mM of ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, followed by Sephadex G-100 and diethylaminoethyl chromatography. The purified enzyme showed a specific activity of 46.4 U/mg with 20.3 % yield. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed single peptide chain with a molecular weight of 75 kDa. The enzyme has optimum activity on pH 6.0 at 35˚ C. The kinetics parameter with L-DOPA (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine), with a KM of 0.119 mM and Vmax of 2.97 mM. Thus, purified tyrosinase from P.ostreatus showed similarities with other tyrosinase sources. The results indicate that P.ostreatus can be a novel and better source of tyrosinase extraction due to its higher specific activity. The information offered here should help food industry in developing and using potential tyrosinase desirable efficacy and safety, and for improving food quality.

      Keywords: Pleurotus ostreatus, Tyrosinase, Purification, Specific activity, Charaterization, Crosslinking enzyme, Extraction

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Shoaib Ali

    (1)
    1. AMINO ACID PROFILING OF YEAST CREAM; A POTENTIAL PROTEIN ENRICHED INGREDIENT FOR POULTRY FEED [FS]

      Abstract: Yeast cream, an extremely good source of single cell protein (SCP), is formed as a by-product after the fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in bioethanol industry. A huge amount of yeast cream is produced annualy but seldom has destined as protein source in food industry therefore, produced yeast cream, is discarded due to no utilization especially in under developed countries including Pakistan. The yeast cream can be utilized in various food and feed industries (espcially in poultry industry) in a promising way to solve the protein shortage problems. Although, in previous century, several attempts have been under taken at larger scale to opt SCP as a potential human food ingredient to combat the protein shortage but failed due to its potential hazardous ingredients. However, adopting SCP as a potential poultry feed ingredient can potentially alleviate the such effects. This current study was aimed at deciphering the amino acid level in yeast cream in order to investigate its potential usage in poultry industry . To meet the objectives, three different independent yeast cream samples of two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Instant saf and Thermophilic yeast (Red) were collected from Shakarganj sugar mills distillery, Jhang and their amino acids profiling was determined with the help of HPLC. Our results pinpointed that yeast cream produced by Thermophilic yeast (Red) contains optimal level of essential amino acids. Thus, we hereby recommend that yeast cream produced by Thermophilic yeast (Red) can potentially be employed, as a protein source, in poultry feed. However, careful and sophisticated experimentation is required before adopting yeast cream as a protein substitute in poultry feed.

      Keywords: Yeast cream, Single cell protein, Sacchromycescerevisiae, HPLC, poultry feed

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Abdullah Aliloo

    (1)
    1. THE IN VITRO EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON BACTERIAL BIOFILMS [MB]

      Abstract: Biofilm formation is one of the most important bacterial virulence factors that plays a key role in infections. In the present study, effects of silver nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro against bacterial biofilm. Ninety bacterial isolates were selected for study. The Congo Red agar, tube and microtitre assays were used for the detection of biofilm. Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and microdilution methods. The microtitre assay was used to study the biofilm inhibition activity. The most common biofilm producing bacteria was Staphylococcus aureus. The power of biofilm production is different among bacteria, and the effect of silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli was less than Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The silver nanoparticles are effective against planctonic and biofilm forms. Because of the importance of biofilm in infectious diseases and the development of drug resistance, silver nanoparticles may be an appropriate way for the control and the prevention of biofilm.

      Keywords: Bacteria, Biofilm, Silver nanoparticles

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • S. Allirani

    (1)
    1. AUXINS AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL FACTORS INFLUENCED CALLUS FORMATION IN ACHYRANTHES ASPERA L. LEAF EXPLANT [BT]

      Abstract: Callus induction from leaf explant of Achyranthes aspera L. had been achieved using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various plant growth regulators under light and dark incubation conditions. Callusing potential on B5 medium had also been evaluated. Our results showed that Kinetin (KIN) was inefficient in callus formation. Leaf explant inoculated on MS+2,4-D (1 mg/L-1) or MS+2,4,5-T (7 and 8 mg/L-1) media and incubated under light produced good callus. But colour of the callus formed in 2,4-D medium became brown after 2 weeks. Better callusing response was seen in MS+2,4,5-T (8 mg/L-1) incubated under dark. Subculture of callus initiated using MS+2,4,5-T (8 mg/L-1) under light condition onto MS medium without any plant growth regulator, BM (basal medium) under dark incubation resulted in yellow green, fleshy and soft callus without browning. B5 medium was not good in callus formation under any incubation conditions.

      Keywords: Leaf explant, callus, MS medium, B5 medium, 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, NAA, IBA, BAP, KIN

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Viera Almášiová

    (4)
    1. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION ON TESTICULAR STRUCTURE AND STEROIDOGENESIS IN RATS [BT]

      Abstract: In the new era of intensive usage of modern electronic devices everybody is influenced by an accumulating effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) more widely than ever in the past. EMR is a self-propagating wave in space with electric and magnetic components and is physically classed as non-ionising radiation. The immediate whole body electromagnetic radiation – EMR was used to investigate testicular structure and testosterone synthesis of the Wistar rats. Sexually mature (48 days old) rats were subjected to pulsed electromagnetic fields at frequency of 2.45 GHz and mean power density of 2.8 mW/cm2 for 3 h per 3 weeks. Histological structure of the testicular parenchyma and plasma testosterone concentrations were evaluated in 21 days post irradiation. The light microscopy revealed moderate degenerative changes in testicular parenchyma as well as decreased plasma testosterone levels in experimental animals compared to the control counterpart which indicate an adverse effect of EMR on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in rats. These findings confirmed the evidence, that the testes are amongst the most susceptible organs to the EMR. Next studies are required for elucidation of relation between the EMR and widely debated disorders of fertility and fecundity not only in the human population.

      Keywords: electromagnetic radiation, testes, structure, testosterone, rats

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. T-2 TOXIN AND ITS EFFECT ON THE STRUCTURE OF RABBIT LIVER [BT]

      Abstract: The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the T-2 toxin and quercetin (Q) on the structure of rabbit’s liver. T-2 toxin is a member of the fungal metabolites known as the trichothecences. Quercetin belongs to a large number of flavonoid compounds commonly found in a variety of fruits and vegetables. These flavonoid compounds have manifold biological properties. We observed the influence of this flavonoid on rabbit’s liver after mycotoxin exposure.
      Adult female and male rabbits of the meat line M91 were used in this experiment. Animals were divided into three groups: control group, T-2 group (1000 μg.kg-1), and T-2 toxin combined with quercetin (T-2+Q) (1000 μg.kg-1 and 0.3 mg.kg-1).
      Light microscopy revealed the most pronounced changes in the T-2 group in the portobiliar spaces of the rabbit’s liver. They were dilated and contained inflammatory cells. The inflammation was not located only in these spaces, but was spread along the lobules. In these areas the marked proliferation of progenitor cells, oval cells were observed. These cells were oval, with light-staining cytoplasm and pronounced euchromatic oval shaped nucleus. Hepatocytes located at the borders of portobiliar space showed marked morphological changes. They were large, pale with round euchromatic nuclei. Many of them had two nuclei.
      The histological changes in the T-2+Q group were moderate in comparison with changes observed in T-2 group. We observed only moderate to slight inflammation in the portobiliar space. Sinusoids were slightly dilated and contained lymphocytes and Kupffer cells. Hepatocytes were pale with round nuclei. The number of binuclear hepatocytes increased considerably compared with T-2 group.In our study we observed partial protective effect of this dietary antioxidant to liver. Quercetin reduced the intensity of inflammation in the portal spaces. Rapid regeneration parenchyma by of activation of hepatocytes and oval cells was also seen.

      Keywords: T-2 toxin, quercetin, liver, structure, rabbit

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. LIVER, ONE OF THE TARGET ORGAN OF PESTICIDES [BT]

      Abstract: In our previous works we observed the morphological changes in the rabbit’s liver for the period of 3, 10, 20 and 30 days after bendiorarb exposure. The most frequent change was the inflammatory process which reached the highest intensity on day three of administration of bendiocarb. In the present study we observed the ultrastructural changes in the rabbit´s liver after 10-day of bendiocarb exposure, at a dose 5 mg/kg of body weight.
      On the tenth day of bendiorarb exposure we did not observed prominent changes in the rabbit liver. The size and shape of hepatocytes were not markedly changed. Their nuclei were centrally located, euchromatic. Intercellular contacts between adjacent cells showed no visible changes. Hepatocytes were located close to each other without extended intercellular spaces. The most numerous organelles in the hepatocytes were mitochondria. They were round or ovoid-shaped with visible cristae. Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) was closely associated with the mitochondria without visible dilatation. In some hepatocytes amount of glycogen was reduced. In these cells we observed dilatation of peripheral cisternae of RER was observed.
      Liver acts as a barrier or filter between the digestive system and the rest of the body and has essential role in metabolism of many chemicals and toxic substances entering the organism through the gastrointestinal system. Our study demonstrates that bendiocarb on day 10 caused less prominent ultrastructural changes in the rabbit´s liver. Inflammation, accumulation of Kupffer cells and necrotizing hepatocytes were frequently observed by light microscopy. The electron microscopy revealed less pronounced changes in ultrastructure of the hepatocytes.

      Keywords: bendiorarb, liver, ultrastructure, rabbit

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. EFFECT OF LIFETIME LOW DOSE EXPOSURE TO CADMIUM ON LIPID METABOLISM OF WISTAR RATS [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of the study was to assess the effects of exposure to low doses of cadmium dissolved in drinking water (at a concentration 200 times higher than the maximum permissible dose) on lipid metabolism in 20 Wistar rats. Animals were divided into two groups, control and experimental. Experimental animals were exposed to low doses
      of cadmium chloride in concentration of 20 μM of drinking water. The biochemical parameters determined in blood plasma included lipase, triglyceride, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in blood of rats. Lipase decreased; triglycerides, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were not changed in rats exposed to cadmium. The objective assessment of potential damage should consider not only the final results but also levels of the investigated parameters throughout the trial, i.e. in its individual stages.

      Keywords: cadmium, lipid metabolism, rats, toxicology

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sulaiman Alnaimat

    (1)
    1. ANTIBACTERIAL POTENTIAL OF HONEY FROM DIFFERENT ORIGINS: A COMPARSION WITH MANUKA HONEY [MB]

      Abstract: The antibacterial activity of honey is well documented, this activity is mainly due to its low pH, osmolarity and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Recently, more attention has been given to the importance of a unique extra antimicrobial activity, termed as a non-peroxide activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of selected honeys from different origins; specifically to evaluate their non-hydrogen peroxide derived activity, against Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus sphaericus, Bacillus subtilis, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli and S. epidermidis; manuka honey was used as the control. Antibacterial activity of the honeys was assayed using standard well diffusion methods. noticeable variations in the antibacterial activity of the different honey samples were observed. Most of tested honeys had broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, particularly Greek Pine, Scottish Heather, Chilean Ulmo, New Zealand Beech and Jarrah Honey. Unfortunately, none of the tested honey had a detectable non-peroxide activity.

      Keywords: Antibacterial activity, manuka honey, Non-peroxide activity, MRSA

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • A. Samir Alnori

    (1)
    1. THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS CITRUS AURANTIUM PEELS ON HUMAN COLORECTAL CARCINOMA CELL LINE (LIM1863) [BT]

      Abstract: Citrus essential oils (EOs) contain different terpens that have been shown to possess antitumor effects. We determined the cytotoxic effect of essential oils of Citrus aurantium L. subspamara peels on a colorectal cancer cell line (Lim1863). Three samples were harvested from three locations in Syria. EOs were extracted by hydrodistilation and analyzed by GC-MS. EOs content of Limonene was96-97.7 % while α-pinene and β-myrcenewere0.35-1% and 0.9-1.4% respectively. Various concentrations of EOs (0.25-48 µl/ml) were added to cultured cells and incubated for 72 h. Cell viability was evaluated using the MTT-based cytotoxicity assay. The obtained IC50 value range of C. aurantium Eos was 2.18-2.44 µl/ml. In conclosion, C. aurantium peels Eos obviously reduced the cell viability and it might have cytotoxic effect against colorectal cancer cell line.

      Keywords: Citrus aurantium, Peels, Essential oils, cytotoxicity, Lim1863

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Amanda Alonzo

    (1)
    1. PREVENTIVE TREATMENT TO COMPLEMENT INFECTION CONTROL FOR CANDIDEMIA: IDENTIFICATION OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS THAT EFFECTIVELY INHIBIT THE GROWTH OF Saccharomyces AND B. megaterium WHILE PROLIFERATING E. coli [MB]

      Abstract: Fungal infections have a crude mortality rate of 40% among immunocompromised patients, who are very susceptible due to drug resistant yeast strains and delayed diagnosis. In fact, in the United States alone, annual therapeutic treatments cost $2.8 billion. This study aims to develop preventive treatments to complement established infection control for fungal infections. The hypothesis was that the combination of probiotics with cinnamon would be the most effective treatment. Various combinations and concentrations of over-the-counter supplements were evaluated in their ability to inhibit yeast and detrimental bacterial growth while proliferating beneficial bacteria. Saccharomyces, E. coli, and B. megaterium were grown in petri dishes to represent detrimental yeast, beneficial bacteria, and detrimental intestinal bacteria respectively. By measuring the zone of inhibition, this study shows that probiotics recreate an oxygenated, nonacidic, and beneficial bacterial habitat without interfering with the antifungal. The combination of oil of oregano (Origanum syriacum var. bevanii) with acidophilus was the most effective treatment, not supporting the hypothesis. Overall, taking oil of oregano and acidophilus with the antibiotic regimen may reduce the risk of developing fungal infections. Further research into understanding the underlying mechanism of these results and evaluating the clinical implications of this combination is recommended.

      Keywords: Candidemia, antifungal, antibiotic regimen, oil of oregano, acidophilus

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mohd. Musheer Altaf

    (1)
    1. CHARACTERIZATION OF PAENIBACILLUS DURUS (PNF16) A NEW ISOLATE AND ITS SYNERGISTIC INTERACTION WITH OTHER ISOLATED RHIZOBACTERIA IN PROMOTING GROWTH AND YIELD OF CHICKPEA [MB]

      Abstract: Application of PGPR in crop production and protection is well known and can also contribute in reducing use of agrochemicals. However, the performance of PGPR is influenced by various biotic and abiotic factors. Isolating new efficient PGPR strain well adapted to local soil agroclimatic conditions is expected to perform with more consistency. In this study five selected rhizobacteria isolated previously were first tested in vitro for plant growth promoting (PGP) characteristics. One of the isolate PNF16 was identified as Paenibacillus durus by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. PNF16 alone and in combination with other rhizobacteria (Azotobacter (AZT3), Achromobacter (PNF11), Bacillus (Bc1), Pseudomonas (Ps5) and Mesorhizobium (IARI) were tested for plant growth promoting effect under pot conditions in two consecutive years. PNF16 was found to produce 21.7 µg ml-1 of indole acetic acid like substances, hydroxymate type of siderophores (Salicylate type 11 µg ml-1 and benzoate type 6.5 µg ml-1) and solubilized phosphate (405.33 µg ml-1). PNF16 -Mesorhizobium combination was found significantly better compared to other combinations for growth parameters, nodulation and yield of chickpea over control. Similar study was also performed for other tested strain. Significant increase in plant growth (32%), nodulation (43%) compared to untreated control was recorded. Co-inoculation also showed synergy and increased the number of pods per plant, 1000-grain weight, dry matter yield, grain yield and protein content by 23%, 22%, 21%, 18% and 4.4% respectively, compared to control. The results indicated the potential usefulness of PNF16 alone and in combinations in enhancement of nodulation and stimulation of plant growth in chickpea and adapted to soil condition of the region.

      Keywords: Paenibacillus; Mesorhizobium; PGPR, plant-microbe interaction, nodulation, chickpea

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Desirée Follana Álvarez

    (1)
    1. THE USE OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AS SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR PECTIN AND PECTIN SUBSTANCES OF DIETARY FIBERS [BT]

      Abstract: The peak of the unspecified compound of quantitative analysis of organic acids in biological materials by using high-performance liquid chromatography was identified. This peak corresponded to polygalacturonic acid. A High-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to identify and quantify of water soluble pectin fraction and insoluble pectin fraction, galacturonic acid and polygalacturonic acid. The method based on the extraction of free water soluble fraction with phosphate buffer (pH 4.8) or with 0.01 N phosphoric acid and on the acid hydrolysis of insoluble pectin fraction in presence 0.1 N HNO3. The pectin fractions were separated and determined on a C610H column using elution with 0.01 N phosphoric acids and ultraviolet detection at 210 nm. Galacturonic acid and polygalacturonic acid were used as internal standard. The calibration curves were presented for each of the standards. The determinations were performed in the linear range of 0.04÷0.17% w/v for both pectin fractions. Proposed procedure can considered as a rapid method for quantitative pectin determination in the food, food nutrition’s food, and pharmaceutical agents.

      Keywords: High-performance liquid chromatography method, water soluble pectin fraction, insoluble pectin fraction, polygalacturonic acid, dietary fiber, food, nutrition’s food, pharmaceutical agents

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Olga B. Alvarez-Pérez

    (1)
    1. PECTIN – CANDELILLA WAX: AN ALTERNATIVE MIXTURE FOR EDIBLE FILMS [FS]

      Abstract: Edible films and coatings have received special attention in recent years due to the advantages that represent their use as edible packaging over synthetics materials. This contributes in high degree to reduce the environmental pollution with non-biodegradable materials. By functioning as barriers, such edible films and coatings can improve the recycling and/or substitute some synthetic packaging materials. New packaging materials have been developed and characterized by some scientists from natural sources (biomaterials); however, it is necessary the manufacture tailor-made to every food. The main objective of this review is to provide basic and applied information and benefits that can be generate the use of two products with low cost (candelilla wax and pectin), but with great importance in the food industry and that can be used to manufacture edible films and coatings.

      Keywords: Pectin, candelilla wax, glycerol, edible films, foods

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sydney Hartz Alves

    (1)
    1. ANTIMICROBIAL EVALUATION OF SESQUITERPENE α-CURCUMENE AND ITS SYNERGISM WITH IMIPENEM [MB]

      Abstract: α-Curcumene was isolated from the fresh aerial parts of Senecio selloi Spreng. DC. and its activity against bacteria, yeasts and an alga was inspected by the applying the microdilution method. The strongest effect was manifested against Saccharomyces cerevisiae with estimated values of MIC and MFC 0.8 mg/mL. The α-curcumene synergism in the concentrations of 1 mM and 5 mM, respectively, with selected antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, imipenem, ceftazidim and a combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid) was investigated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Klebsiella pneumoniae by the disk diffusion assay. The results have shown the occurrence of synergism of α-curcumene with imipenem against the clinical isolate E. cloacae with a significance level of p> 0.05. Based on these informations it can be concluded that fungal strains are more sensitive for α-curcumene than the bacterial ones and the synergism of α-curcumene with imipenem can improve the antibiotic efficiency against the E. cloacae.

      Keywords: Senecio selloi; α-curcumene; antimicrobial activity; Enterobacter cloacae; imipenem, synergism

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • SAVADOGO Aly

    (1)
    1. IMPROVEMENT OF BORASSUS AKEASSII WINES QUALITY BY CONTROLLED FERMENTATION USING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAINS [FS]

      Abstract: Palm wine produced traditionally and consumed by many people around the world and specifically in Burkina Faso posed health risks because of questionable quality of wine produced by mix culture fermentation and the use of antiseptics for the stabilization. In order to improve its quality, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii wines and identified by amplification and RFLP analysis of the 5-8S-ITS region were used for in vitro fermentation of unfermented palm sap. The physicochemical characteristics of the sap were measured before and after fermentation process by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and the microbiological quality were also performed. HPLC analysis showed that glucose and fructose concentration in palm sap were 37.0 and 27.6 g/L respectively, ethanol content was ranged between 2.76 and 5.31 % (g/mL) for controlled fermentation and 2.20 % (g/mL) for spontaneous fermentation. Lactic and acetic acids were ranged between 0.1 and 0.3 g/L and 1.5 and 1.6 g/L for controlled fermentation versus 2.5 and 3.1 g/L and the spontaneous fermentation respectively. Coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were detected only in the unfermented palm sap and the wine fermented spontaneously.
      Principal component analysis showed a good separation between spontaneous and controlled fermentation. Sterilization and controlled fermentation of the unfermented sap with palm wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains led to the improvement of palm wine quality.

      Keywords: Borassus akeassii wine, Fermentation, improvement, quality, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, RFLP, HPLC

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Usama Aly

    (1)
    1. IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF MICRORHIZOMES IN GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSCO) [BT]

      Abstract: The present investigation was carried out to highlight an effective protocol for in vitro production of ginger microrhizomes. Microrhizomes were induced at the base of the in vitro derived shoots upon transfer to MS medium containing various concentrations of (30, 60 and 90 g/L), BAP: 6-benzylaminopurine (3, 6 and 9 mg/L) and grown under varying photoperiodism in addition to the MS medium supplemented with 9 mg/L BAP and 60-90 g/L sucrose under 16-h photoperiod within 10 weeks of cultivation were the best conditions for microrhizomes induction. Ginger microrhizomes formation in vitro was found to be controlled by many factors, including the concentrations of BAP and sucrose as well as photoperiodism during culturing period.

      Keywords: Ginger, Zingiber officinale, Ginger, Photoperiodism, Sucrose, BAP and Microrhizomes

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Benjamin A. Amadi

    (1)
    1. ANTI-NUTRIENTS, AMINO ACID QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF “NDUDUAGWORAGWO” TRADITIONAL DIET [FS]

      Abstract: A “nduduagworagwo” is a traditional food of Akokwa people in Imo State, South eastern, Nigeria. Based on the recent linkage of natural foods to health, the anti-nutrients, amino acid quality and performance characteristics of “nduduagworagwo” traditional food was studied. Low levels of cyanogenic glycoside (0.09±0.03mg/100g), phytate (0.04±0.00 mg/100g), and oxalate (0.29±0.05 mg/100g) anti-nutrients were observed in the studied food. Anti-nutrient/nutrient interactions; oxalate/calcium (0.73), phytate/calcium (0.01), and phytate/iron (0.02) in “nduduagworagwo” were lower than their critical values. Essential and non-essential amino acids were also obtained in the food. The chemical scores for observed amino acids compared favourably with those of reference food materials and some other existing traditional foods. The performance characteristics in this study indicated that “nduduagworagwo” could be an intermediate protein food that can enhance the body with good digestibility (96.00± 2.87%) and biological (58.06± 1.04%) values. The present study has revealed the anti-nutrients, amino acid quality, and performance characteristic of “nduduagworagwo” traditional food.

      Keywords: Amino acids, anti-nutrients, “nduduagworagwo”, performance characteristics, amino acids, chemical scores

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Tivkaa Amande

    (1)
    1. PRODUCTION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PECTINASES FROM MANGO PEELS BY Aspergillus tamarii [MB]

      Abstract: Pectinases are a group of enzymes that are able to breakdown or transform pectin. Sources of pectinase comprise a wide variety of bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungi, especially Aspergillus sp. In this study pectinases (polygalacturonase and pectin lyase) were produced from mango peels by Aspergillus tamarii in solid state fermentation and a fraction of the crude enzyme solution obtained by ultracentrifugation was used for partial characterization assay. The maximum polygalacturonase production was 141.0095 U/g at day 3, 6 and 9 of incubation while the maximum pectin lyase production was 5670.50 U/g obtained at day 6. The optimum temperature and pH for polygalacturonase activity was between 40 – 70oC and 5.0 respectively while that of pectin lyase was 60oC and 7.5 respectively. The polygalacturonase produced was stable between pH 3.6 – 10.0 and at a temperature range of 30 – 70oC while the pectin lyase was stable between pH 7.0 – 8.5 and at 40oC. Na+, Mn+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ caused a significant increase in the activity of polygalacturonase whereas Fe2+ and Mg2+ caused a significant decrease in its activity (P≤0.05). The activity of pectin lyase was significantly increased by Fe2+, Mn+ and Zn2+ but significantly decreased by Cu2+, Mg2+ and Na+ (P≤0.05). Mango peel is a cheap, available and valuable substrate for pectinase production which could be useful for industrial applications especially in the food industry for processing fruit juices.

      Keywords: Pectinase, polygalacturonase, pectin lyase, solid state fermentation, mango peels

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sonia Amariei

    (1)
    1. ROSEMARY, THYME AND OREGANO ESSENTIAL OILS INFLUENCE ON PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROBIOLOGICAL STABILITY OF MINCED MEAT [FS]

      Abstract: In this paper we have analysed the capacity of essential oils from aromatic plants in order to slow or stop down the physicochemical degradation and microbiological infestation of raw minced meat processes. Three essential oils: thyme, rosemary and oregano were chosen for the experimental study due to their acknowledged antiseptic effect and their flavour acceptance by consumers. The physicochemical and microbiological properties for a mixture of pork and beef meat were analysed throughout four days. Water content, total fat, total protein, easily hydrolysable nitrogen, pH and water activity were determined. The experimental measurements were performed considering the following concentrations: 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% for the essential oil incorporated into meat. The evaluation of microbiological stability was determined as well. The results indicated that essential oils have a significant influence on the physicochemical properties correlated with microbiological stability when prolonging the shelf - life of minced meat.

      Keywords: Essential oils, microbiological stability, minced meat, physicochemical analysis, shelf – life

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Andrew Kiri Amegovu

    (1)
    1. NUCLEOTIDE DEGRADATION PRODUCTS, TOTAL VOLATILE BASIC NITROGEN, SENSORY AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF NILE PERCH (LATES NILOTICUS) FILLETS UNDER CHILLED STORAGE [FS]

      Abstract: Degradation products of adenosine nucleotide and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) concentration provide means of ascertaining freshness of commercial fish products. A complementary sensory analysis has also been adopted by export markets for assessing the quality of fresh fish. Nucleotide breakdown products and TVBN was determined in fresh fillets from beach seined and gill netted Nile perch, a highly commercialized freshwater fish from Lake Victoria (Uganda), under chilled storage. Microbiological and sensory qualities were also evaluated. Total plate and Pseudomonas spp. counts positively correlated with TVBN. Basing on sensory, microbiological and biochemical attributes of the fillets, shelf-life of gill netted Nile perch was lower (13 days) than that of the beach seined (17 days). Fillets of beach seined Nile perch have a better keeping quality than that of the gill netted.

      Keywords: Nile perch, nucleotides, TVBN, microbiological, sensory, quality

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Bianca A. Amézquita-López

    (1)
    1. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF OZONIZED OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA L.) AND VENADILLO (SWIETENIA HUMILIS ZUCC.) OILS AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS [MB]

      Abstract: Ozonized oils are antimicrobial agents obtained from the combination of ozone and unsaturated fatty acids of vegetables oils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of ozonized olive oil (OOO) and ozonized venadillo oil (OVO) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was conducted by the agar dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the bacterial Log10 reduction. The lowest MIC (4.5 mg/mL) against E. coli was obtained when OOO and OVO were ozonized during 12 and 6 hours, with 2.5 Log10 of bacterial reduction, respectively; while, the lowest MIC against S. aureus (1.5 mg/mL) was obtained when OVO was ozonized during 6 hours, with 3.4 Log10 of bacterial reduction. The OOO reached peroxide values of 642.53 and 703.7 mmol-equiv/kg after 6 and 12 hours, respectively, while an 892.12 mmol-equiv/kg was obtained after 6 hours for OVO. Data reported here suggest that both ozonized oils are promising effective treatment for bacterial infections.

      Keywords: Bactericide; Ozonized oils; Venadillo oil; Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Tawheed Amin

    (1)
    1. MICROENCAPSULATION-THE FUTURE OF PROBIOTIC CULTURES [MB]

      Abstract: In the recent past, there has been an explosion of probiotic cultures based health products in Indian markets. The survival of the probiotic bacteria in gastro-intestinal gut is questionable, because of the poor survival of probiotic bacteria in these products. Basically the viability of probiotic cultures is very weak in these food products. Probiotic based products are health potentiators and are associated with many health benefits. Microencapsulation of the probiotic cultures is one of the recent, demanded and highly efficient techniques. Among the different approaches proposed to improve the survival of probiotics during food manufacturing process and passage in the upper part of gastrointestinal tratct (GI tract), microencapsulation has received considerable attention. Encapsulated probiotic cultures have longer shelf life of the products. This microencapsulation technology is used to maintain the viability of probiotic bacteria during food product processing and storage. This article reviews the principles, techniques and need for microencapsulation of probiotic cultures.

      Keywords: Microencapsulation, probiotics, viability, health potentiators

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kiumars Amini

    (1)
    1. AROMA PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS FROM ROOT, LEAF AND STALK OF NETTLE (Urtica dioica L.) [MB]

      Abstract: Medicinal plant can be considered as a great source of new antimicrobial agents due to their enormous therapeutic potential and limited side effects. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is a widespread and common medicinal plant widely used in traditional medicine. The present study investigates the antimicrobial potency of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Urtica dioica on some gram positive and negative bacteria and also a particular type of fungi and analyzes the extracts to find the active ingredients by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) method. Results from disc diffusion assay indicated that water extract of root, leaf and stalk had the highest antimicrobial activity respectively and caused significant inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, L. monocytogenes and K. pneumoniae cultures. Antimicrobial efficacy of ethanol extracts was higher in root extract which caused high growth inhibition zones in P. vulgaris, K. pneumoniae and S. aureus cultures. MBC and MIC experiments of the ethanol extract illustrated that the most powerful antimicrobial effect was related to the stem organ extract on K. pnuomonae and S. aureus bacteria. Highest level of antibacterial effects in root can be due to its higher concentration of contents compared to other organs. Based on these results it can be suggested that Urtica dioica and its water and ethanol extracts have noticeable antimicrobial effects against gram negative, positive and Candida albicans fungi that may be applicable as a prophylactic or therpeutic antimicrobial agent in both human and animals.

      Keywords: Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), alcoholic extract, aqueous extract, antimicrobial properties, GC-MS

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • El-Tahra M. A. Ammar

    (1)
    1. IMPACT OF FORTIFICATION WITH HONEY ON SOME PROPERTIES OF BIO-YOGHURT [FS]

      Abstract: The effect of supplementation with honey on yoghurt quality was studied. Five treatments of yoghurt were made from buffaloe's and cow's milk mixture (1:1). Control yoghurt was made using classic yoghurt culture, whereas the other four treatments were made by ABT culture and milk fortified with 0, 2, 4, and 6% honey. Changes in rheological, chemical, microbial and organoleptic properties of yoghurt were monitored during refrigerated storage (4°C) of yoghurt for 15 d. Results showed that addition of honey to milk had no significant effect on ABT starter activity. A curd tension increased, whereas curd syneresis decreased in bio-yoghurt fortified with honey. Acidity, TS, WSN and TVFA contents of yoghurt supplemented with honey were higher than those of control. The contents of fat, ash and TN were similar in both. Addition of honey to yoghurt improved the viability of bifidobacteria. Bifidobacteria counts were similar to accepted threshold (106 cfu g-1) for a probiotic effect. Also, addition of honey improved the body, texture and flavour of the yoghurt.

      Keywords: Yoghurt, bifidobacteria, acidophilus, ABT, honey

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mohammad Ali Amoozegar

    (1)
    1. DIVERSITY OF CULTIVABLE MICROORGANISMS IN THE EASTERN PART OF URMIA SALT LAKE, IRAN [MB]

      Abstract: In this study we employed culture techniques to study microbial diversity in Urmia Lake, a hypersaline lake in northwest of Iran. Water, soil and salt samples were taken from the Eastern part of Urmia Salt Lake in September 2011. A total of 11 water samples and 30 soil and salt samples were taken from 41 sites in the Lake. Bacterial isolates were cultured on different growth media and taxonomically affiliated based on their 16S rDNA gene sequence. Three hundred bacterial isolates were obtained from samples collected. Of these, 53 bacterial isolates were selected for sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, based on their growth characteristics and colony morphology. Results showed that these 53 isolates represented 39 species, belonging to 18 genera (Bacillus, Oceanobacillus, Thalassobacillus, Planomicrobium, Halobacillus, Planococcus, Terribacillus, Staphylococcus, Piscibacillus, Virgibacillus, Gracilibacillus, Ornithinibacillus, Halomonas, Pseudomonas, Providencia, Salicola, Psychrobacter, Kocuria) and they were from 9 families (Bacillaceae, Planococcaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Halomonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Moraxellaceae, Alteromonadaceae, Micrococcaceae) pertaining to three phyla (Actinobacteria 1.8%, Firmicutes 78.6%, Proteobacteria 21.4%). The present study showed that Urmia Lake is a rich source for moderately halophilic and halotolerant bacteria. The phylogenetic analysis of sequences from Urmia Lake had some common 16S rDNA sequences from other hypersaline lakes previously reported.

      Keywords: Halophilic bacteria, phylogenetic diversity, Urmia salt lake, 16S rDNA gene

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Nagoth Joseph Amruthraj

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING RHIZOBACTERIUM PAENIBACILLUS ILLINOISENSIS STRAIN NAGOTH JAR 007 FROM SEEDS OF CAPSICUM CHINENSIS BHUT JOLOKIA [BT]

      Abstract: The present study investigated the identities of endophytic bacteria isolated from the seeds of dry fruits of Capsicum chinensis Bhut Jolokia using PCR analysis with the view of food products quality. The bacteria were isolated from the seeds soaked in peptone broth followed by serial dilution. Standard molecular methods were used for DNA extraction (UniFlexTM DNA Isolation kit method), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), Amplification, Electrophoresis, Purification and Sequencing of generated PCR products. The partial sequences obtained were deposited in the database of National Centre for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Based on genotypic characteristics, these strains belonged to the genus Paenibacillus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison showed that they clustered with Paenibacillus illinoisensis (99 % similarity). It was assigned Paenibacillus illinoisensis strain Nagoth JAR 007 and was submitted to Genbank (KC886309). The research findings concluded that presence of the endophytic Paenibacillus are nonpathogenic and has a role in plant resistance to abiotic or biotic stress.

      Keywords: Paenibacillus illinoisensis, Capsicum chinensis Bhut Jolokia, endophytic, molecular characterization, phylogenetic tree

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Olukayode Amund

    (1)
    1. PYRENE BIODEGRADATION POTENTIALS OF AN ACTINOMYCETE, MICROBACTERIUM ESTERAROMATICUM ISOLATED FROM TROPICAL HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SOIL [MB]

      Abstract: A novel pyrene-degrading actinomycete, phylogenetically identified as Microbacterium esteraromaticum strain SL9 was isolated from a polluted hydrocarbon-contaminated soil in Lagos, Nigeria. Growth of the isolate on pyrene was assayed using total viable counts, pyrene degradation was monitored using gas chromatography (GC-FID) while UV-Vis spectrophotometry was used to detect metabolites of pyrene degradation. The isolate tolerated salt concentration of up to 6%, grew luxuriantly on crude oil and exhibited weak utilization of fluorene, acenaphthene and engine oil. It resisted cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and amoxicilin, but was susceptible to meropenem, linezolid and vancomycin. It also resisted elevated concentrations of heavy metals such as 1-5 mM lead and nickel. On pyrene, the isolate exhibited growth rate and doubling time of 0.023 h-1 and 1.25 h, respectively. It degraded 55.16 (27.58 mg L-1) and 89.28% (44.64 mg L-1) of pyrene (50 mg L-1) within 12 and 21 days respectively, while the rate of pyrene utilization was 0.09 mg L-1h-1. Catechol dioxygenase assay using UV-Vis spectrophotometry revealed the detection of meta cleavage compound, 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde in the crude cell lysate. The results of this study showed the catabolic versatility of Microbacterium species on hydrocarbon substrates and their potential as seeds for bioremediation of environments co-contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals.

      Keywords: Biodegradation; pyrene; Hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; Microbacterium esteraromaticum

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Olukayode Oladipo Amund

    (1)
    1. KRAFT LIGNIN DEGRADATION BY AUTOCHTONOUS STREPTOMYCES STRAINS ISOLATED FROM A TROPICAL LAGOON ECOSYSTEM [MB]

      Abstract: Kraft lignin contributes to the toxicity of the pulping plant effluent and is known to resist microbial treatment.The lignin component must be removed from lignocellulose biomass to enhance the release of fermentable sugars for the production of biofuel and other value-added end products. Lignin-degrading bacteria provide an advantage due to their ease of isolation,wider tolerance of environmental conditions and genetic manipulations compared with their fungal counterparts. There is no documented evidence on the degradation of kraft lignin by bacteria in the tropical estuarine ecological niche in Nigeria. Bacterial growth and assessment of kraft-lignin degradation in submerged fermentation was carried out for a period of 10 days using Streptomyces spp isolated from a tropical lagoon as the inocula. The organisms utilized 23 to 99 % kraft-lignin at the rate of 2.3×10-5 to 9.9×10-5 g.d-1cm-3 with specific growth rates of 0.020 - 0.084 h-1and doubling times of 8.3 - 35.1 h. Maximum values obtained for laccase and peroxidase activities were 9.5x10-2 and 400 μ mol mg -1min -1 respectively.
      The aim of this study was to obtain evidences for Kraft lignin degradation by indigenous tropical estuarine Streptomyces species from Lagos, Nigeria.
      The Autochthonous bacterial species of the Lagos lagoon utilize kraft lignin as a sole carbon source and may be good candidates for biotechnological purposes. The outcome of this study has bridged an information gap in the tropical environment and will complement existing global data because the information on the degradation of kraft lignin by marine Streptomyces is not common.

      Keywords: Kraft lignin, Streptomyces, biodegradation, enzyme, lignocellulose, estuarine, lagoon

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Anil K. Anal

    (1)
    1. MODULATION OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES AND LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM BY ALPHA MANGOSTEEN EXTRACTED FROM MANGOSTEEN (GARCINIA MANGOSTANA) FRUIT PEELS [BT]

      Abstract: The present work deals with the potential of Garcinia mangostana L. (Mangosteen, Clusiaceae) for modulation of digestive and plasma lipid transfer protein as an approach to discover novel inhibitors. Garcinia mangostana (in methanol, dicholromethane and hexane) extracts were screened for alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase and Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibition assays. TLC, HPLC, LC-MS analysis were performed and was compared with reference standard. Alpha amylase results obtained were 39.4 µg/ml, 11.87 µg/ml and 9.048 µg/ml respectively. For CETP inhibition assay the dose response was done only for the hexane extract as others were not showing potent inhibition. Thus an IC50 of 10.89 µg/ml was obtained and the hexane extract was taken for further analysis to discover the compound responsible for the activity. Alpha mangosteen was found to be the active compound in Garcinia mangostana responsible for the potent inhibitor activity of alpha amylase and CETP enzyme in plant raw material.

      Keywords: α-mangosteen, α-amylase, α-glucosidase, CETP inhibition, LC-MS

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • K. T. K. Anandapandian

    (1)
    1. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKALOPHILIC PROTEASE FROM PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA [MB]

      Abstract: Partial purification and characterization of alkalophilic protease production from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated from the gut of marine and coastal waters shrimp Penaeus monodon. The protease production was assayed in submerged fermentation to produce maximum protease activity (423 ± 0.09 U/ml). The enzyme was precipitated with ammonium sulphate and partially purified by ion exchange chromatography through DEAE Sephadex A-50 column. In 10th fraction showed maximum protease activity (734 ± 0.18 U/ml) with increase in purification fold. The molecular weight of protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was recorded as 60 kDa. The stability of protease was tested at various pH and temperature; it showed maximum protease activity at pH-9 and temperature 50ºC. Among the various surfactants tested for enzyme stability, maximum activity was retained in poly ethylene glycol. The compatibility of protease enzyme with various commercial detergents; the enzyme retained maximum protease activity in tide. The results are indicated that all these properties make the bacterial proteases are most suitable for wide industrial applications.

      Keywords: Alkalophilic Protease; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Penaeus monodon

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Abdulaziz Anas

    (1)
    1. EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC PROPERTIES OF CYANOBACTERIA, LIMNOTHRIX SP. AND LEPTOLYNGBYA SP. FROM ARABIAN SEA [MB]

      Abstract: The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC50=30/330 and 60/260 µg ml-1 respectively). Phytochemical analyses of the fractions indicated presence of carbohydrates, flavanoids and steroids in both organisms. The hexane fraction of Limnothrix sp exhibited higher UV-Vis (300-450 nm) absorption, indicating presence of aromatic antioxidant compounds like flavanoids. This fraction was relatively non-toxic towards mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells (IC50 400 µg ml-1) and in fact, protected live cells from UV induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress. On the contrary, the hexane fraction of Leptolyngbya sp. had lower UV-Vis absorption, richer in alkaloids and also more cytotoxic (IC50 200 µg ml-1) towards the mouse fibroblast 3T3 cells. In short the hexane fraction of Limnothrix sp. is a safe antioxidant additive for food and healthcare products. On the other hand, the hexane fraction of Leptolyngbya sp. is rich in alkaloids and was cytotoxic, with potential application in cancer therapy.

      Keywords: Marine cyanobacteria, Arabian Sea, antioxidant, UV, ROS, Cytotoxicity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Robin Anderson

    (1)
    1. EFFECTS OF BREED, SPERMATOZOA CONCENTRATION, AND STORAGE ON PROGRESSIVE MOTILITY OF EXTENDED BOAR SEMEN [BT]

      Abstract: The classic technology of artificial insemination (AI) often requires insemination doses to be kept for more than 24 hours, with a requirement that the degree of progressive motility at the moment of insemination not be below 65%. The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of breed, spermatozoa concentration, and storage time on the fertilization capacity of extended semen from native ejaculates of boars. The research included the following boar breeds: Duroc (n=34), Hampshire (n=30), Large White (n=42) and Swedish Landrace (n=32), from large pig farms in Vojvodina (Republic of Serbia). Two ejaculates were collected from each boar once monthly for 12 months (a total of 24 ejaculates per boar). There was statistically significant (p<0.01) influence of breed on the number of spermatozoa samples that maintained ≥ 65% progressive motility during 48 hours of storage in 1:4 dilution. There was also an influence of spermatozoa concentration on progressive motility. As spermatozoa concentration increased during storage, ≥ 65% progressive motility declined (P≤0.01) within 24 hours. The results show that it is necessary to determine the adequate dilution rate and storage time for each ejaculate, while taking into account spermatozoa concentration in the native semen.

      Keywords: breed, spermatozoa concentration, liquid extended semen, motility, storage time, boar

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Stephen Anderson

    (1)
    1. MOLECULAR AND EVOLUTIONARY INSIGHTS INTO YERSINIA PESTIS; HARBINGER OF PLAGUE [MB]

      Abstract: Plague has been the scourge of mankind for millennia; yet it was not until the late 18th Century that its causative agent was identified. Prokaryotic Y. pestis is responsible for plague; bacilli are consumed through arthropod feeding on infected rodential reservoirs. Arthropod uptake is essential for transmission as the bacilli proliferate within their gut before being refluxed into new mammalian hosts. Genomic analysis has elucidated the mechanisms facilitating this cycle along with the means by which bacilli acquire their characteristic virulence. Increasing our understanding of the evolution of Y. pestis provides putative avenues for future research. Whilst plague is considered a disease of the past by many, it interaction with humanity continues across various geographic foci. The rise of antibiotic resistant bacteria threatens to bring this ancient foe once again to the fore through the acquisition of drug resistance. This review will detail notable advances of the past decade enabling the elusive possibility of a universal vaccine for the three manifestations of plague. Development of suitable vaccines before drug resistant strains emerge is paramount. Researchers are pitted in an on-going race against bacterial evolution.

      Keywords: Evolution, Virulence, Plague, Yersinia Pestis, Yersinia enterocolitica, Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Marina Morena Pereira Andrade

    (1)
    1. THERMAL ANALYSIS, RHEOLOGY, X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETRY AND ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY IN THE EVALUATION OF BINARY MIXTURES OF “STARCH-HYDROCOLLOIDS” [FS]

      Abstract: Starch is arguably the most investigated biopolymer in the world and the cassava starch that is extracted from Manihot esculenta Crantz, represents an important vegetal crop in tropical countries, where its roots and derivatives serve as food and a source of energy. The main composition of these roots is 70-80% water, 16-24% starch and small quantities (<4%) of protein, lipids vitamins and minerals. Hydrocolloids, or gums, are substances consisting of a hydrophilic long-chain with colloidal properties that, in water-based systems, produce gels. Starches and hydrocolloids are often used together in food systems to provide texture, water mobility, control moisture, improve product quality and stability, facilitate processing and reduce costs. In this study, the interactions between cassava and starch-hydrocolloids (1% of the following gums: CMC, jatahy, pectin and xanthan) were investigated. The TG/DTG method made it possible to determine the thermal decomposition of each sample, which under air atmosphere occurs in three steps. Little difference was observed in the degree of relative crystallinity (XRD) and in the average roughness or average diameter of the starch granules (NC-AFM). The viscosity and pasting properties (RVA) increased, and were higher for starch treated with jatahy gum. A large decrease was observed in peak temperature and gelatinisation enthalpy for the treated samples (DSC).

      Keywords: Modified starches, hydrocolloids, thermal analysis, enthalpy, pasting properties

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Bebejová Andrea

    (1)
    1. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK [FS]

      Abstract: In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

      Keywords: raw cow milk, fat, fatty acids, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jaroslav Andreji

    (1)
    1. CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY CONTENTS IN FISHES – CASE STUDY [FS]

      Abstract: Fish meat is a perfect foodstuff which is up to standard of rational nourishment. It is source of healthy and good digestible material rich on proteins, minerals and vitamins. Fish muscles especially back and lateral muscles are the most important parts of fish organism consumed for escellent chemical composition. Proteins in fish meat are rich on high aminoacids content. The content of fish fat is usually low with the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Also minerals and B, A and D vitamins are very important components of this foodstuff. According to rational nourishment the fish meat should be consumed minimal 2 times weekly. Our research was focused on analysis of bottomn sediments in water reservoir Kolinany from the aspect of Cd, Hg and Pb contents, the determination of observed heavy metal contents in different parts of carp body and the evaluation of hygienic status and suitability of fish meat for the human consumption. Our results have confirmed the hygienic wholesomeness of bottom sediments in water reservoir Kolinany. The Cd, Pb and Hg contents in sediments represent no risk of their input into the fish organisms. The Cd content in fish meat was lower than maximal available amount given by legislative norms, but in selected parts of fish organism such as skin, gills and fins the Cd hygienic limit is 2.9 – 6.6 times exceeded. The Pb content in fish meat was under the hygienic limit, however in skin, gills and fins the content of this heavy metal was 1.31- 2.64 higher than maximal legislative given value. Fish skin, gills and fins belong to the non cosumed parts of fish body by people. The Hg content in fish meat was also lower than hygienc limit. The highest Hg content was observed in fish muscles (0.0544 mg.kg-1) and the lowest one in fish gonads (0.0058 mg.kg-1). The results of Cd, Pb and Hg content determination in carp body confirmed that fish muscles belong to suitable foodstuffs for the human consumption.

      Keywords: cadmium, lead, mercury, fish, carp, food hygiene

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Alena Andrejiová

    (2)
    1. DESIGN OF OYSTER (PLEUROTUS OSTREATUS) PRODUCTION UNIT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT ITS AGROTECHNIC OF GROWIGN AND QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF ITS PRODUCTION [FS]

      Abstract: According to influence of population increasing followed by agricultural soils decreasing there is noticed a necessity of individual food commodities production intensification. There is also needed to think about some new unconventional and alternative sort of food-stuff. An edible mushroom growing is one of the relatively new agricultural branches, whereby on a large scale there are grown species which belong to saprophytic group. The aim of task was the building – technological and equipment – technological proposal of oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus, Jacq. P. Kumm) production unit with taking account to its specific agro technical requirements and valid legislative. In the next part of task there were evaluated and compared qualitative and quantitative parameters of sporocarps from two variants which were collected in the first growth wave and accuracy of the proposed oyster production unit. In case of variant A there were used sacks with substrates, which have been exposed to cold shock by 6°C temperature for 4 days and in variant B were used substrates without cold shock. According to reached results the cold shock had almost neither influence on production quantity. There was found out an important fact that crop height from first growth wave wasn´t identical with well-known literature sources. The low crop is connected with high CO2 content in oyster production unit room, according to our opinion. Other equipment aimed to air humidity regulation, air temperature regulation and room lights was designed correctly.

      Keywords: Oyster mushroom , growing , oyster production unit

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF EDIBLE TOMATO VARIETIES INTENDED FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSING [FS]

      Abstract: Most of the global production of tomatoes is used for tomato products. The fruits to be processed are evaluated on the basis of important technological quality parameters, such as the content of dry matter and organic acids. Recently, among important qualitative characteristics of fruits has been included colorant content, especially lycopene. Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of selected tomato varieties for industrial processing. Tested were varieties Uno Rosso, San Marzano 4, Brixol, Strombolino, UG. 8168, Diana and Nemarock cultivated in very hot and dry agro-climatic region. The dry matter content was determined by the gravimetric method, the content of organic acid by titration and the content of colorants spectrophotometrically. The dry matter content of the samples ranged from 4.65% (Nemarock) to 5.93% (San Marzano 4). Content of organic acids ranged from 0.33% (Nemarock) to 0.59% (Strombolino), content of carotenoids in tomato samples ranged from 111.288 mg.100 g-1 DM (Nemarock) to 198.365 mg.100 g-1 DM (San Marzano 4). Lycopene was present in the amount of 99.438 mg.100 g-1 DM (Nemarock) to 192.687 mg.100 g-1 DM (San Marzano 4). In terms of treatment the best properties showed San Marzano 4, which is characterized by high dry matter content, low organic acids and high content of colorants.

      Keywords: Tomato, technological characteristics, dry matter, carotenoids, lycopene

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Berhanu Andualem

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AMYLASE PRODUCING YEASTS IN ‘TELLA’ (ETHIOPIAN LOCAL BEER) AND THEIR AMYLASE CONTRIBUTION FOR ‘TELLA’ PRODUCTION [MB]

      Abstract: ‘Tella’ is local beer which is used in most part of Ethiopia. It is made from cereals, such as barley, wheat, maize and other crops. Rhamnus prinoides is also used to provide a special aroma and flavor as well as antiseptic agent. The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of amylases from tella yeast isolates and compare with the role of amylase from malt. House hold ‘tella’ samples were collected and plated on starch agar and then amylase positive isolates of yeast were identified by folding iodine solution over the starch agar. Amylase assay and activities were investigated by standard methods and compared with amylase from malt. According to this study, the activity of amylases which was extracted from yeast isolates was very low and may have no contribution in the conversion of starch into fermentable sugars. Thus, it is better to avoid such organisms from ‘tella’ fermentation in order to discriminate unwanted bio-products. In conclusion, the substrates and ingredients should be sterilized and introduced into the fermentation system aseptically.

      Keywords: Amylase, malt, starch, tella, yeast isolates, enzyme activity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • K.R. Aneja

    (1)
    1. IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA AGAINST THE MICROBES ISOLATED FROM FRUIT JUICES [MB]

      Abstract: The present work has been conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Terminalia chebula against microorganisms associated with juices. Methanol, ethanol, acetone, and aqueous ( hot and cold) extracts from fruits of T. chebula were tested for their antimicrobial activity through agar well diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)/minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined through the macrodilution broth method against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp. and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa. Their total phenolic content and total tannin content were also evaluated. Organic and cold aqueous extracts displayed activity against all three tested microbes. There were highly positive relationship between antimicrobial activities and phenolic and tannin content of the tested extracts against each microorganism. Methanolic extract was found to be best against all tested microbes with lowest MIC of 0.78 mg/ml and MBC of 1.56 mg/ml and showed better antimicrobial activity than sodium benzoate. Therefore, methanolic extract of T. chebula has a biopreservative potential in fruit juices.

      Keywords: Terminalia chebula, preservative, MIC, MBC

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Lukáčová Anetta

    (1)
    1. CONCENTRATION OF SELECTED ELEMENTS IN RAW AND ULTRA HEAT TREATED COW MILK [FS]

      Abstract: The potential presence of toxic metals in food is being recognized as a priority by standards organizations and constitutes an analytical challenge. The toxic metal content of milk and dairy products is due to several factors: environmental conditions, the manufacturing process and the possible contamination during several steps of the manufacturing processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate samples of raw milk with fat contents 3.8% obtained at randomly from animal farms in around Nitra, western Slovakia region and ultra – heat treated cow milk (UHT) with fat contents 1.5% commercially available from local market in Nitra. Samples of milk were analysed for metal contents using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). UHT milk showed higher levels of cadmium, nickel and iron. Higher levels of zinc, copper were detected in raw milk. Significant differences in the concentration of copper between raw and UHT cow milk were found.

      Keywords: metals, raw milk, ultra – heat treated cow milk

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Latifa Anga

    (1)
    1. DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTEROVIRUS AND ADENOVIRUS IN SHELLFISH COLLECTED IN MOROCCO MEDITERRANEAN COAST [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was the screening for the presence of enteric human virus in shellfish (clam and cockle) collected from two production area in Moroccan Mediterranean coast. Between October 2006 and April 2008, forty four samples were collected and tested for viral contamination using cell culture (HEp-2 and Vero cells) and integrated cell culture PCR. Overall, 88.6 % of all analysed samples were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses, Adenovirus was detected in 52.3 % of the samples and Enterovirus in 36.3%. The presence of viruses in shellfish production area can represent a potential health risk by causing gastroenteritis. The procedure used in this study may be a tool for monitoring shellfish viral contamination in Morocco.

      Keywords: Enterovirus, Adenovirus, cell culture, ICC-PCR, shellfish

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mária Angelovičová

    (1)
    1. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT PLANT SUPPLEMENTS APPLIED IN CHICKEN NUTRITION ON QUALITY OF THEIR MEAT [FS]

      Abstract: Within the experiment, three groups were created (one control and two experimental groups). We studied the influence of following supplements: alfalfa (Medicago sativa) meal (4% - experimental group I) and origanum (Origanum vulgare), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.) oils together (0.05% - experimental group II) in mutual rate of 3:2:1, on technological and sensorial parameters of poultry meat in nutrition of chickens of Ross 308. Broilers were fattening for 36 days. Chickens were fed by the system ad libitum by the feed mixture HYD-01 from the 1st to the 18th day of age, by the feed mixture HYD-02 from the 19th to the 31st day of age and by the feed mixture HYD-03 from the 32nd day of age to the end of fattening (36th day of age) in loose form. By application of plant oils into the feed mixture, we recorded slightly positive influence on decrease of losses of cooling after 24 and 48 h, on decrease of losses of freezing and on shear force in mammary muscle and on overall sensorial evaluation of breast and thigh muscle (P≥0.05). Conversely, slightly negative influence was recorded on baking losses and on shear force in thigh muscle (P≥0.05) in compare with control group. In application of alfalfa meal, positive influence (P≥0.05) on losses of cooling (24 and 48 h), losses of freezing, baking losses, on shear force of breast muscle and on overall sensorial evaluation of thigh muscle was found. Conversely, shear force of thigh muscle and overall sensorial evaluation of breast muscle after application of alfalfa meal showed slightly negative values (P≥0.05) in compare with control group.

      Keywords: alfalfa meal, plant oils, poultry meat, technological and sensorial quality

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • I. Anibijuwon

    (1)
    1. FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH SPOILAGE OF DRIED COCOA BEANS DURING STORAGE IN EKTI STATE OF NIGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: Fungi associated with cocoa beans during storage were surveyed in some stores in Ado, Ise, Emure and Ikere in Ekiti State of Nigeria during July-December 2010. The following fungi were consistently isolated from mouldy cocoa bean samples, namely; Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium spp., Mucor spp., Neurospora spp., Penicillium spp., and Phytophthora palmivora. The various fungi were isolated using washing, direct and dilution plate methods respectively. At Ado, the following fungi; Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Mucor spp., Neurospora spp. Penicillium spp., Phytophthora palmivora, Rhizopus spp. were occasionally isolated from stores that were not properly ventilated. At Ise, Phytophthora palmivora, Mucor spp. and Penicillium spp. were commonly isolated, while Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus spp. were occasionally isolated in stores where the bags were kept on the bare floor. At Emure, Aspergillus spp. and Phytophthora palmivora were commonly isolated, while Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., Neurospora spp., Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium spp. and Mucor spp., were occasionally isolated from stores with leaking roofs. At Ikere, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Phytophthora palmivora, Fusarium spp., Mucor spp. and Penicillium spp. were consistently isolated while Rhizopus spp., and Botryodiplodia theobromae were occasionally isolated. Some of these fungi gain access to the beans during fermentation, drying, storage and shipment to the foreign countries. Some of these isolated fungi have been reported by many workers to produce toxic substances which have serious health implications in both man and animals.

      Keywords: Survey, fungi, spoilage, storage, cocoa bean

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sylvester P. Antai

    (1)
    1. INORGANIC NITROGEN SUPPLEMENTATION AND MICRO-FUNGAL FERMENTATION OF WHITE YAM PEELS (FLOUR) INTO SINGLE CELL PROTEIN [MB]

      Abstract: Solid state fermentation (SSF) technique was employed for the production of single cell protein (SCP) using white yam peels as a substrate. Commercial baker’s yeast (S. cerevisiae) and a local isolate of A. niger were used for the fermentation process to generate crude protein. The effect of supplementation by various inorganic sources of nitrogen on the crude protein yields was compared. Ammonium sulphate [(NH4)2SO4], one of the inorganic nitrogen source used, supported the highest crude protein yields of 16.78% and 21.30% respectively for A. niger and S. cerevisiae while the lowest yield of 13.92% and 18.00% were supported by potassium nitrate and sodium nitrate respectively.

      Keywords: fermentation, microscopic fungi, microbial proteins, nitrogn salts, white yam peels

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kováčik Anton

    (1)
    1. INTERNAL MILIEAU OF DAIRY COWS AT THE BEGINNING OF LACTATION AND ITS INFLUENCE ON COMPOSITION OF RAW MILK [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate selected blood biochemical parameters and milk composition of dairy cows at the beginning of lactation and to observe the correlations between blood and milk parameters. In total, 15 Holstein cows at the beginning of lactation were chosen. Blood and milk samples were collected. Energetic (glucose - GLU, d-beta-hydroxybutyrate - D-BHB, triglycerides - TG), nitrogenous (total proteins - TP, UREA), hepatic (aspartate aminotransferase - AST, alanine aminotransferase - ALT, gamma-glutamyltransferase - GGT, alkaline phosphatase - ALP, bilirubin - BILI, cholesterol - CHOL) and mineral (sodium - Na, potassium - K, chlorides - Cl-, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg) profiles were determined in the blood serum. Levels of lactose, fat, proteins and minerals (sodium - Na, potassium – K, calcium – Ca, phosphorus – P, magnesium - Mg) were determined in milk. Most of the parameters outside physiological limits were found among mineral and hepatic profile. Levels of calcium, phosphorus and sodium were decreased in comparison to reference values. Average concentration of urea was also lower. On the other hand, increase of aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase were observed. Levels of lactose (4.82 g.100g-1), fat (4.21 g.100g-1), protein (3.14 g.100g-1) and calcium (4.82 g.l-1) in milk complied with Slovak national standard (STN 57 0529). In our study, ratio of fat to protein lower than 0.75 was observed in 13 % of cows (risk of ketosis) and higher than 1.4 in 40 % (NEB). Strong negative correlation between serum cholesterol and milk fat (-0.716; P<0.01) and middle strong negative correlation between cholesterol and milk protein (-0.397; P<0.01) were observed.
      ALT affected negatively amount of phosphorus in milk (-0.417; P<0.001), which complied with demineralization of the organism and following restriction of liver detoxification activity. On the other hand, strong positive correlation was observed between serum ALT and milk sodium (0.738; P<0.05), what points to close relationship between hepatic enzymes and mineral composition of raw milk.

      Keywords: Dairy cows, metabolic test, milk quality, beginning of lactation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Zahid Anwar

    (1)
    1. AMINO ACID PROFILING OF YEAST CREAM; A POTENTIAL PROTEIN ENRICHED INGREDIENT FOR POULTRY FEED [FS]

      Abstract: Yeast cream, an extremely good source of single cell protein (SCP), is formed as a by-product after the fermentation of molasses by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in bioethanol industry. A huge amount of yeast cream is produced annualy but seldom has destined as protein source in food industry therefore, produced yeast cream, is discarded due to no utilization especially in under developed countries including Pakistan. The yeast cream can be utilized in various food and feed industries (espcially in poultry industry) in a promising way to solve the protein shortage problems. Although, in previous century, several attempts have been under taken at larger scale to opt SCP as a potential human food ingredient to combat the protein shortage but failed due to its potential hazardous ingredients. However, adopting SCP as a potential poultry feed ingredient can potentially alleviate the such effects. This current study was aimed at deciphering the amino acid level in yeast cream in order to investigate its potential usage in poultry industry . To meet the objectives, three different independent yeast cream samples of two different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Instant saf and Thermophilic yeast (Red) were collected from Shakarganj sugar mills distillery, Jhang and their amino acids profiling was determined with the help of HPLC. Our results pinpointed that yeast cream produced by Thermophilic yeast (Red) contains optimal level of essential amino acids. Thus, we hereby recommend that yeast cream produced by Thermophilic yeast (Red) can potentially be employed, as a protein source, in poultry feed. However, careful and sophisticated experimentation is required before adopting yeast cream as a protein substitute in poultry feed.

      Keywords: Yeast cream, Single cell protein, Sacchromycescerevisiae, HPLC, poultry feed

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Deborah Oluyinka Anwooko

    (1)
    1. BIOPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF BACTERIOCINS FROM SOME Lactobacillus species ISOLATED FROM FOODS [MB]

      Abstract: Lactobacillus species isolated from ogi, kunnu, yoghurt and palm-wine were found to produce bacteriocins. The bacteriocins had broad spectra of antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and negative bacteria. The effects of the bacteriocins on Escherichia coli infections in rats were evaluated. Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with E. coli and treated with 1280 AU/ml of the bacteriocins from L. plantarum MO21, L. plantarum MP12, L. casei MK21, L. casei MO11, L. brevis MK11 and L. buchneri MY21. Escherichia coli infection caused upregulation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total protein, globulin, cholesterol, bilirubin and glucose levels in sera of the infected rats which were down-regulated in the bacteriocin treated rats. Gastric and GIT damage caused by E. coli infection were reduced in the bacteriocin-treated groups. Therefore, it is concluded that these bacteriocins may have useful biomedical applications.

      Keywords: Lactobacillus species; bacteriocin; gastric tissue; total protein and globulin

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • A. Aparicio-Saguilán

    (1)
    1. USE OF ZEIN AND ETHYLCELLULOSE AS BIODEGRADABLE FILM ON EVALUATION OF POST-HARVEST CHANGES IN TOMATO (Lycopersicum esculentum) [FS]

      Abstract: The worldwide pollution index registered in the last decades has conducted to develop methods for biodegradation and reutilization of contaminant materials. From here rises the necessity to elaborate biodegradable packaging materials. In this study, a biodegradable zein and ethylcellulose based film was developed and used as a covering material to evaluate its effect on the enzymatic activity of pectinmethylesterase and polygalacturonase, texture, respiration rate and weight loss of tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum). Biodegradable film decreased the weight loss rate and softening of the fruits. However, enzymatic activity and respiration rate were not affected by the film application. The results showed that the changes in tomato are due to physical effects of water loss more than a metabolic change. By using this material, it was possible to lower tomato’s respiration rate in comparison with controls causing a lesser loss of weight. Biodegradable film delayed change in color as well as texture compared with controls. There was a significant difference in pectin methyl esterase activity in the covered tomato, but there was no difference in polygalacturonase activity.

      Keywords: Tomato, preservation, biodegradable film, modified atmosphere

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Igor Apić

    (1)
    1. ESTRUS INDUCTION IN THE SOWS WITH eCG INJECTION 24h AFTER WEANING WITHIN WARM AND COOL SEASON [BT]

      Abstract: Numerous studies show significantly reduced sows fertility in the warm period of the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sows treatment with eCG preparation, 24h after weaning, on the estrous reaction level in the cool and warm season of the year. A significantly (p<0.01) higher number of sows, treated in warm season with single eCG injection of 1,000IU (primiparous) or 1,500IU (older sows), manifested estrus within 7 days after weaning (83.7%) in comparison with the sows which were not treated (63.9%). In addition, the treatment with eCG results in a high level of estrus synchronization, both in the warmer and in the cooler season of the year. Namely, on day 4 and day 5 after weaning, estrus was detected in 81% of eCG treated sows within the cooler season, and in 78% of sows treated in the warmer season. These values were significantly (p<0.01) lower in the control (untreated) sows (41.1% in the cooler, vs. 33.3% in the warmer season). The obtained results show that the treatment with placental gonadotropin can be an effective method of increasing sow fertility in the wormer season of the year.

      Keywords: Estrus, induction, eCG, weaning, season, sow

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jelena Apić

    (2)
    1. EFFECT OF PROTEINE CONTENT IN BOAR SEMINAL PLASMA ON THE SPERM MOTILITY IN DILUTED SEMEN STORED FOR 3 DAYS [BT]

      Abstract: Recently, it was frequently demonstrated that fertility of sows after artificially inseminated is lower than after mating. This is associated with a reduced fertilization capacity of overdiluted insemination doses. The aim of this study was to investigate the sperm motility in the semen samples, forming from the ejaculates with high or low protein content, stored in vitro on 17oC for 3 days. Progressive motility was significantly higher (p<0.01) in the ejaculates with high, compared to the ejaculates with low protein content (82% vs. 76%). After 3 days of storage, in the1:4 dilution proportion, the average progressive motility was significantly (p<0.01) decreased in relation to this value in native semen from the boars with high (82% to64%), as well from the boars with low protein content in seminal plasma (76% to48%). However, the average diluted semen progressive motility was significantly greater (p<0.01) in the boars with high (64%), compared to the boars with low protein content in seminal plasma (48%). The number of good diluted semen samples (≥65% progressive motility), was also significantly (p<0.01) greater in the boars with high (41%), compared to the boars with low protein content in seminal plasma (12%). These results show that seminal plasma proteins play an important role in maintaining the sperm progressive motility of diluted semen in vitro stored for 3 days.

      Keywords: Semen, protein, dilution, storage, motility, boar

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. ESTRUS INDUCTION IN THE SOWS WITH eCG INJECTION 24h AFTER WEANING WITHIN WARM AND COOL SEASON [BT]

      Abstract: Numerous studies show significantly reduced sows fertility in the warm period of the year. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sows treatment with eCG preparation, 24h after weaning, on the estrous reaction level in the cool and warm season of the year. A significantly (p<0.01) higher number of sows, treated in warm season with single eCG injection of 1,000IU (primiparous) or 1,500IU (older sows), manifested estrus within 7 days after weaning (83.7%) in comparison with the sows which were not treated (63.9%). In addition, the treatment with eCG results in a high level of estrus synchronization, both in the warmer and in the cooler season of the year. Namely, on day 4 and day 5 after weaning, estrus was detected in 81% of eCG treated sows within the cooler season, and in 78% of sows treated in the warmer season. These values were significantly (p<0.01) lower in the control (untreated) sows (41.1% in the cooler, vs. 33.3% in the warmer season). The obtained results show that the treatment with placental gonadotropin can be an effective method of increasing sow fertility in the wormer season of the year.

      Keywords: Estrus, induction, eCG, weaning, season, sow

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi

    (1)
    1. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND CYTOTOXICITY EFFECTS OF SALVADORA PERSICA (MESWAK) EXTRACTS ON JURKAT T-CELLS [BT]

      Abstract: Salvadora persica (S. persica), Meswak, is an evergreen shrub to 6-7 m. It has many biological activities such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antifungal activities. This study evaluated in vitro cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of S. persica extracts on human oral Jurkat (T leukemia cells). Extracts from Meswak stick and leaves were tested in different concentrations for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities on human oral Jurkat T- cells. So treated cells viability with increasing concentrations of S. persica stick extract (0.008-0.2 μg/ml) and leaves extract (0.016-0.5 μg/ml) for 24, 48 or 72 hours was assessed by using the mitochondrial dependent reduction of yellow MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) to purple formazan. Also Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was performed on supernatants from treated Jurkat T-cells with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and both extracts to quantify IL-6, IL-8 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Statistically significant differences were indicated by p <0.05. Incubation of Jurkat cells with sterile distilled water, negative control, didn't show any mortality through the incubation period. Against PHA, positive control, both stick and leaves extracts of S. persica like resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of IL-6 and IL-8 secretion (p <0.01). Although both extracts significantly inhibited survival of Jurkat cells (p < 0.01) in a dose- and time-dependent manner, stick extract exerted more cytotoxic effects on Jurkat cells than leaves extract of S. persica (p <0.03). In conclusion, although with increasing concentrations of both extracts anti-inflammatory properties were boosted, S. persica extracts had dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on human oral Jurkat T-cells.

      Keywords: Salvadora persica, Jurkat T- cells, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory, MTT assay, ELISA

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sigurjón Arason

    (1)
    1. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF FRESH PACKAGED TILAPIA FILLETS STORED UNDER DIFFERENT CHILL TEMPERATURES [MB]

      Abstract: Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farmed in recirculation aquaculture system (RAS) was filleted and packaged in 100% air and 50% CO2: 50% N2 modified atmosphere (MA) prior to storage at 1˚C and -1˚C for up to 27 days. Fillets were sampled regularly and analysed for headspace gas composition, sensory and microbial changes. Shelf life varied with apparent relation to storage temperature, package atmosphere and microflora. Pseudomonads were reported as the main spoilage organisms in tilapia fillets during chilled storage conditions. Sensory analysis of cooked samples as well as microbial growth indicated fillets packaged in 100% air had a shelf life of 13-15 days during storage at 1˚C and 20 days at -1˚C. At the end of shelf life in 100% air packaged groups, TVC and pseudomonads counts reached log 7 colony-forming units g-1 in flesh. Whereas in 50% CO2: 50% N2 packaged fillets, the lag phase and generation time of bacteria was extended and recorded counts of < log 4 colony-forming units g-1 up to 27 days of storage at both 1˚C and -1˚C. However, 50% CO2 : 50% N2 conditions restricted fillets shelf life to 23 days based on sensorial changes mainly fillets colour characteristics.

      Keywords: Shelf life, tilapia fillets, microbial, modified atmosphere

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jayaseelan Aravind

    (1)
    1. A STUDY ON EFFECT OF MUTAGENIC AGENTS ON POLYHYDROXYALKANOATES (PHA) PRODUCTION [BT]

      Abstract: The effect of mutagenic agents on Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) accumulation was investigated in two micro-organisms Cupriavidus nectar and Kluyvera intermedia. Three mutagenic agents- ultraviolet light, heat, chemical mutagens (acriflavin and 5 bromouracil) were selected for the study. The cultures were treated at various time intervals and chemical at varying concentration and cultured using hydrolyzed grass (cyanodon dactylon) as a substrate. It was found that higher accumulation was obtained in C. nectar when treated at a concentration of 50µg/ ml acriflavin and 5 bromouracil (25µg/ ml). K. intermedia showed a higher accumulation at acriflavin concentration of just 25µg/ ml and 5- bromouracil at 50µg/ ml concentrations. It was observed that % PHA accumulation significantly decreased with increase in exposure to UV in both C. nectar (17 % - 1.18%) and K. intermedia (15 % - 7%). Exposure of culture to heat resulted in less PHA accumulation in C. nectar (16 % - 11%), K. intermedia (17 % - 19 %) compared to their parent strain C. nectar (17 %) and K. intermedia (25 %). FTIR spectra revealed the presence of characteristic medium chain length (mcl) PHA in the obtained sample.

      Keywords: PHA, mutation, mutagenic agents, FTIR

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Chetan Arekar

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF YEAST FROM ANTHOCYANIN RICH TROPICAL FRUITS AS WINE STARTER CULTURE [MB]

      Abstract: Tropical fruit wines are gaining importance for its health benefits. However, the potential is unexplored in India and this work of isolation of indigenous yeast strains from the tropical fruit was undertaken. 28 strains of yeasts were isolated from tropical fruits, Syzygium cumini (Linn.) Skeel (Jamun) and Garcinia indica (Choisy) (Kokum) on a selective medium. The screening parameters were glucose and ethanol tolerance. Three most glucose and ethanol tolerant cultures were selected by testing tolerance for glucose (10-25% w/v) and ethanol (6-15 % v/v). Further characterization of these 3 cultures was carried out using biochemical and molecular test by sequencing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Infer molecular phylogeny established that the three isolates viz, FJ 10, JR 01 and KF 01 were Saccharomyces sp. FJ 10, Candida tropicalis JR 01, Saccharomyces sp. KF 01 respectively. Till date to the best of our knowledge we are the first to report the isolation of tolerant Saccharomyces species from Jamun and Kokum fruits. Further studies on fruit wine production from the selected isolates showed promising results.

      Keywords: Jamun, Kokum, yeast isolation, internal transcribed spacer

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Musa Olusegun Arekemase

    (1)
    1. ASSESSMENT OF BITTER LEAF (Vernonia amygdalina) ON SOME SELECTED PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS FROM UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN TEACHING HOSPITAL [MB]

      Abstract: Vernonia amygdalina is a medicinal plant which is employed to cure various infections in traditional medicine. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of this plant were analyzed phytochemically and screened against different microorganisms responsible for various human infections. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of many secondary metabolites including tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phylobatannins, steroids and phenolics. The result shows that the ethanolic extracts showed more antibacterial activity than the aqueous extracts. The extracts displayed potent antimicrobial activity against the test organisms which were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger, the minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 2.5-15mg/ml in all the plant extracts. The results confirmed the potency of this plant in treating human infections.

      Keywords: Aqueous, bitter leaf, chemotherapy, extracts, incubation, phytochemicals

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Arbakariya B. Ariff

    (1)
    1. COMPARISON OF HYALURONIC ACID BIOSYNTHESIS BY THE RECOMBINANT Escherichia Coli STRAINS IN DIFFERENT MODE OF BIOREACTOR OPERATION [MB]

      Abstract: Recombinant E. coli was used as a host to explore the biosynthesis of Hyaluronic acid (HA) in Gram-negative strain using the optimized medium. In addition, measurement of HA molecular weight produced by the recombinant strains in shake-flask and 2 L stirred tank bioreactor (batch and fed-batch cultivation) were compared too .In this study, the hasA and hasE genes expressed together in a plasmid in recombinant E. coli strains were successfully produced HA using glucose as a carbon source under aerobic condition. Production of 127 mg/L HA was observed in a batch fermentation process with the highest HA molecular weight (70056 Da) using strain sAE in 2 L stirred tank bioreactor with controlled DO at 30%. The fed-batch culture with constant feeding of glucose was favorable for cell growth and the highest OD600 achieved at 1.923. However, the HA biosynthesis and molecular weight in fed-batch culture were lower than that observed in the batch culture.

      Keywords: Recombinant, Hyaluronic acid, Batch cultivation, Fed –batch cultivation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Burhan Arikan

    (1)
    1. CHARACTERIZATION OF TYROSINASE ENZYME FROM NATIVE BACILLUS MEGATERIUM SP. STRAIN M36 [MB]

      Abstract: Tyrosinase is a type 3 copper-containing enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of l-tyrosine to L-DOPA and finally to melanin. In this study tyrosinase enzyme from native Bacillus megaterium sp. strain M36, was produces, characterized and used to produce L-DOPA. The M36 tyrosinase enzyme showed optimum monophenolase and diphenolase activity at pH 7.5 and conserved its maximum activity over than 95 % at pH ranging from 6.5 to 8.0. The M36 tyrosinase enzyme showed optimum monophenolase and diphenolase activity at 40 °C also, the enzyme conserved 100% of its original activity at 4-45 °C. The M36 tyrosinase enzyme was inhibited strongly by β-mercaptoethanol and about 90% by 5mmol of EDTA (a chelating agent). Although the enzyme was activated at the presence of 1mM SDS, it was strongly inhibited at high concentration of SDS (above 15mM). In TLC analysis, the transformation of L-tyrosine to L-DOPA was conspicuously detected.

      Keywords: Melanin, monophenolase, diphenolase, TLC

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Yahya Mat Arip

    (1)
    1. THE PREVALENCE OF Salmonella sp., Listeria sp. AND Aeromonas spp. IN CATFISH (CLARIAS (Clarias gariepinus) AND TILAPIA (Tilapia mossambica) BY PELLETING METHOD [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to modify the isolation methods of Aeromonas sp., Salmonella spp., and Listeria sp. in catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) obtained from wet markets and ponds in Malaysia by pelleting the sample. A total of 108 samples (32 catfish intestines, 32 tilapia intestines, and 44 water samples) were obtained from nine wet markets and eight ponds. The modified method was employed by pelleting the samples and followed by either implementing pre-enrichment or without pre-enrichment on the isolation of Salmonella and Listeria spp. The modified method (by pelleting the sample in combination with pre-enrichment) was the most efficient for Salmonella and Listeria isolation. The sensitivity of the modified Salmonella isolation method was 0.53 and 0.73 for fish and water samples, respectively. The sensitivity of the modified Listeria method was 1 and 0.92 for fish and water samples, respectively. However, the sensitivity of the method by pelleting the sample was similar to those of non-pelleting the sample on Aeromonas isolation. Five species of Aeromonas spp., seven serovars of Salmonella sp., and four species of Listeria sp. were observed in catfish, tilapia and water samples. Overall, by pelleting the sample offered the beneficial to isolate Aeromonas spp., Salmonella sp. and Listeria spp. in catfish, tilapia and water.

      Keywords: Aeromonas, Listeria, pelleting, Salmonella

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kaifee Arman

    (1)
    1. MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL THERMOSTABLE LIPASE FROM SHEWANELLA PUTREFACIENS AND USING ENZYMATIC BIODIESEL PRODUCTION [BT]

      Abstract: A novel thermostable lipase from Shewanella putrefaciens was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, characterized and used in biodiesel production. Enzyme characterization was carried out by enzyme assay, SDS-PAGE and other biochemical reactions. The recombinant lipase was found to have a molecular mass of 29 kDa and exhibited lipase activity when Tween 80 was used as the substrate. The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 80°C. The recombinant lipase was used for the transesterification of canola oil and waste oil. The enzyme retains 50% of its activity at 90°C for 30 minutes. It is also able to retain 20% of its activity even at 100 °C for 20 minutes. These properties of the obtained new recombinant thermostable lipase make it promising as a biocatalyst for industrial processes.

      Keywords: Cloning, lipase, thermostable, Shewanella putrefaciens, biodiesel production

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Leonardo Arosemena

    (1)
    1. INCIDENCE OF FILAMENTOUS FUNGI WITH TOXIGENIC POTENTIAL ON SAMPLES OF FEED AND RAW MATERIALS FOR THEIR MANUFACTURE [MB]

      Abstract: The presence and/or accumulation of mycotoxins in foods intended for human and animal nutrition is a constant concern for the harmful health effects resulting from ingestion. The aims of this communication were to analyze samples of feed and raw materials for manufacturing and to determine the presence of strains of filamentous fungi with toxigenic capacity. The values of frequency in the total samples (N = 422), indicated 63% of contamination, where A. flavus represented the most common (29.8%), while in feed and raw materials separately, indicated A. flavus has the highest value in both categories. In the analysis of different type of raw materials, A. flavus contaminated all types of samples, with the bran and soybean meal substrates having higher values for this Aspergillus, and corn substrate more fungal contamination. These results would demonstrate that the presence of mycobiota with toxigenic potential in food for animal feed is a disturbing reality.

      Keywords: Aspergillus flavus, feed, filamentous fungi

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Daniel Juwon Arotupin

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL [MB]

      Abstract: An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of bacteria ranged from 3.0 × 105 to 5.0 × 105 cfu/g in uncontaminated soils and 1.0 × 105 to 3.0 × 105 cfu/g in contaminated soils. The isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium variabilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens. The contamination had no significant effect on pH, potassium, sodium, organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soils, while the moisture, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the contaminated soils were significantly different (P < 0.05) compared with the uncontaminated soils. The ability of Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to utilize the refined petroleum products suggest that these bacteria had potential to bioremediate petroleum contaminated soils.

      Keywords: Refined petroleum, contamination, clean-up, bacteria, bioremediation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Henrieta Arpášová

    (5)
    1. EFFICACY OF PROBIOTICS INTAKE ON INTERNAL MILIEU OF HENS [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of present study was to evaluate the functional efficiency of probiotic preparation on selected blood biochemical parameters of ISA Brown hens. Feed in the experimental group of hens was enriched with a probiotic preparation in the dose of 500g.t-1 consisted of freeze-dried cultures: Lactobacillus bulgaricus LAT 187, L. acidophilus LAT 180, L. helveticus LAT 179, L. delbrueckii ssp. Lactis LAT 182, Streptococcus thermophiles LAT 205, Enterococcus faecium E-253 with concentration of 5.109 (CFU LAB) living organisms in 1 gram. Blood samples were collected in 25 and 48 week of hens’ age. Biochemical parameters of mineral profile (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorides), energetic profile (plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, bilirubin, glucose), and activities of serum liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase AST, alanine aminotransferase ALT, alkaline phosphatase ALP) were analysed using Ecoline kits and a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyser Microlab 300 (Vilat Scientific, Dieren, The Nederland). Probiotic preparation reduced (P<0.05) serum cholesterol and triglycerides content. No significant effects of probiotic on remaining parameters were confirmed.

      Keywords: Probiotics, laying hens, blood biochemistry, cholesterol

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. EFFECT OF THYME ESSENTIAL OIL ADDITION ON PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS [FS]

      Abstract: Essentialoils areintensivefragrant, oilyliquidsubstances containedindifferent parts of theplant. Their function is based on organoleptic effect and stimulation of organism to the production of digestive juices. Result is ahigherdigestibilityandabsorption of nutirents. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral,antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied.Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10) and fed for 23 weeks on diets with thyme essential oil supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition in a dose 0.5 g/kg, in the second one some essential oil in a dose 1g/kg. The results suggest that all of qualitative parameters of egg internal content (yolk weight (g), yolk index, percentage portion egg yolk (%), yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR), albumen weight (g), percentage portion of albumen (%), Haugh Units (HU), albumen index) were with thyme essential oil addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05). The number of coliforms, enterococci, fungi and yeasts decreased with increasing dose of oil. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

      Keywords: laying hens, thyme essential oil, egg yolk, egg albumen, microbiological quality

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. THE INFLUENCE OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL AND BEE PRODUCTS ON QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS AND MICROBIOLOGICAL INDICATORS OF TABLE EGGS CONTENT [FS]

      Abstract: Phytobiotics are a new group of natural products. They are defined as products derived from plants, which may have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with oregano essential oil, propolis and pollen extract addition on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=40) were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=10) and fed for 23 weeks with diets with oregano essential oiland propolis or pollen supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first experimental groups was supplemented with 0.5 g/kg oregano essential oil. The feed for second and third experimental groups of birds consisted of basal diet supplemented with propolis extract and pollen extract of the same dose at 0.5 g/kg. The results suggest that the most of qualitative parameters of egg internal content were not significantly influenced with oregano oil or bee products addition (P>0.05). A statistically significant differencein favor of the experimental groups compared with the control group was observed in two indicators of albumen quality. In the index of albumen and in the Haugh Units was significantly higher difference in favor of the experimental group with addition of oregano essential oilat a dose of0.5 g/kg and in the group with pollen supplement (P<0.05). The highest total number of bacteria and count of coliforms bacteria was found in the control group. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

      Keywords: oregano essential oil, propolis, pollen, table egg, physical quality, micobiological quality

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIRADICALS ACTIVITY OF ORIGANUM VULGARE L. AND THYMUS VULGARIS ESSENTIAL OILS [MB]

      Abstract: The objective of our study were antioxidant properties of oregano and thyme essential oil by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities and antibacterial activities against one Gram-positive strain (Bacillus cereus CCM 2010) and two Gram-negative strains (Pseudomonas aeruginosa CCM 1960; Escherichia coli CCM 3988) was also performed. The thyme EOs showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli CCM 3988 in 0.75 and 0.375 ml.ml-1 concentration of EOs. Very strong antibacterial activity was found in thyme and oregano EOs against Bacillus cereus CCM 2010 in 0.75, 0.375, 0.188 and 0.094 ml.ml-1 concentration of EOs. In comparison to BHT (5.60 µg.ml-1 after 30 min; 2.82 µg.ml-1 after 60 min) and ascorbic acid (7.48 µg.ml-1 after 30 min; 4.79 µg.ml-1 after 60 min), O. vulgare oil shows significantly higher DPPH activity (2.99 µl.ml-1 after 30 min; 2.02 µl.ml-1 after 60 min). From the other side, T. vulgaris essential (9.69 µl.ml-1 after 30 min; 5.84 µl.ml-1 after 60 min) oil shows lower antiradical activity in comparison to BHT, and higher activity in comparison to ascorbic acid.

      Keywords: antimicrobial activity, DPPH assay, essential oils, oregano, thyme

      article details | fulltext pdf

    5. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CHICKEN MEAT AFTER POLLEN EXTRACT APPLICATION IN THEIR DIET [FS]

      Abstract: In the experiment were evaluated the effect of feeding the pollen extract (group I – 400 mg and group II - 800 mg) in feed mixtures for feeding Ross 308 chickens for 42 days on the oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles stored for 6 months at -18 °C. Malondialdehyd (MDA) values were in the breast muscle in the control group from 0.065 to 0.137 in Ist group 0.61 to 0.111 and in IInd group 0.075 to 0.96 mg.kg-1 respectivelyfrom 1stday to 6thmonth of storage. In the thigh muscle were noted MDA values from 0.105 to 0.137 mg.kg-1 (control group), from 0.083 to 0.111 mg.kg-1 (Ist group) and 0.114 to 0.120 mg.kg-1 (IInd group). We observed lower levels of MDA mg.kg-1 (0.095 to 0.099 - IInd EG, 0.103 to 0.111 - Ist EG) than in the control group (0.120 to 0.137). Feeding with pollen extract had a significant effect (P ≤ 0.05 to P ≤ 0.001) to reduce oxidation processes in the breast muscle from 5th month of storage (freezing). In the thigh muscle, were release the oxidation processes (P ≤ 0.01) recorded after 6th months of storage and freezing in the Ist group (MDA 0.111 mg.kg-1) with the addition of 400 mg pollen nutrition extract in Ross 308 chickens compared to control (MDA 0.137 mg.kg-1). The results show that pollen extract has a positive effect on shelf life and oxidative stability of the most valuable parts of the carcass Ross 308 chickens, but statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05 to P ≤ 0.001) after 5th, 6th months of storage, freezing at -18 °C, respectively.

      Keywords: broiler chicken, meat, oxidative stability, frozen storage, malondialdehyd

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • L. Arul

    (1)
    1. AN EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS FROM A TROPICAL INDIAN MAIZE INBRED LINE [BT]

      Abstract: Tropical Indian maize inbreds are known for their recalcitrance in tissue culture which is a prerequisite for development of transgenic lines from such cultivars. In the present study, particle bombardment-mediated transformation of a tropical Indian maize inbred line, UMI29 was attempted. Parameters that infulence transforamation efficiency such as size of embryo (1.5 mm and 2.0 mm), micro-carrier flying distance (6 cm and 9 cm) and post-bombardment resting period (2, 7 and 10 days) on transient and stable expression of transgene were investigated. The greatest transformation efficiency of 2.67% was obtained using immature embryos of 1.5 mm at 6 cm of microcarrier flying distance with a resting period of 2 days. Stable inheritance of transgenes, viz., gusA and bar was confirmed in T1 lines.

      Keywords: Maize, particle bombardment, gusA, bar, transgenic plants

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Rajendran Arumugam

    (1)
    1. METAL TOLERANCE ANALYSIS OF MICROFUNGI ISOLATED FROM METAL CONTAMINATED SOIL AND WASTE WATER [MB]

      Abstract: The influence of Cr6+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ on the development of 24 fungi was investigated for Metal Tolerance Index (MTI) at 1mg ml-1 Cr6+, Pb2+, Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ concentrations and also for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). The MIC ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mg ml-1 depending on the isolate Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium sp. were tested for their metal tolerance index. Out of these Aspergillus flavus (ED4) shows a better tolerance index of 0.80 Cr6+, 0.72 for Pb2+ , 0.63 for Cu2+, 0.58 for Ni2+, 0.46 for Zn2+ and 0.60 Cd2+ for MIC value for the removal of heavy metals from contaminated soil and wastewaters.

      Keywords: Bioremediation, Contaminated soil, Fungi, Metal resistance, Metal tolerance

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Július Árvay

    (19)
    1. MERCURY IN EDIBLE WILD-GROWN MUSHROOMS FROM HISTORICAL MINING AREA – SLOVAKIA: BIOACCUMULATION AND RISK ASSESSMENT [FS]

      Abstract: In the present paper, we focused on assessment of the contamination levels of five species (n = 33) of edible wild mushrooms (Macrolepiota procera, Boletus reticulatus, Suillus grevillei, Russula xerampelina and Xerocomellus chrysenteron). We collected samples of above-ground parts of the macroscopic fungi species in historical mining and processing area surrounding Banská Bystrica (Central Slovakia) in 2014. Within 2 m radius of the samples, we also took samples of underlying substrate. On the basis of the substrate, along with the monitored contaminant – mercury, we calculated bioaccumulation factors for individual species and their anatomical parts (cap and stipe). From the obtained results of the mercury content in the edible mushrooms, we then determined provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). The limit value for mercury (0.350 mg Hg kg-1 for an individual with average weight of 70 kg) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our results suggest that despite the relatively low level of Hg in the underlying substrate, the species Macrolepiota procera (1.98 mg kg-1 ± 68.2 (0.41 - 3.20 mg kg-1 DW)) is characterized by extremely high bioaccumulation ability, as confirmed by the bioaccumulation factors (BAFc = 15.3; BAFs = 8.02). PTWI value was exceeded by almost 20%. In case of the other studied edible wild mushroom species, we did not record any increased risk of mercury intake by consumers. Generally it can be stated that consumption of wild mushrooms represents a relatively small but significant risk of negative impact on the consumer´s health.

      Keywords: Mercury, mushroom, contamination, bioaccumulation, human health risk

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. COLOUR, PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE SLOVAK ALIBERNET RED WINE SAMPLES [FS]

      Abstract: Sixteen Alibernet wine samples, originated from three most important Slovak vineyard regions, were evaluated spectrophotometrically for the content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and wine colour density. The determined total polyphenol contents in observed wines ranged from 2141 to 4274 mg gallic acid per liter (average content was 3057 mg gallic acid/L) and total anthocyanin contents ranged from 73.4 to 791.2 mg/L (average content was 403.4 mg/L). Determined values of antioxidant activity were within the interval 54.8 – 86.8% (average value was 74.5%) and the values of wine colour density varied between 0.944 and 4.592 (average value was 2.317). The statistical evaluation of the obtained results confirmed only weak linear correlation between total polyphenol content and total anthocyanin content, however strong linear correlations between total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity, resp. wine colour density were observed. Our results also confirmed very highly significant linear relationship between wine colour density and total polyphenol content, resp. antioxidant activity and between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

      Keywords: Polyphenols, anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, red wine, Alibernet

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. THE CONTENT OF Cd, Pb AND Hg IN THE GRAIN OF MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.) HARVESTED IN THE ALLUVIAL SOILS OF THE UPPER REACHES OF THE RIVER NITRA [FS]

      Abstract: The region of Upper Nitra has been influenced for several decades by the intensive activity of the industry. The Nitra is a river with the most polluted water ecosystems. It was caused by anthropogenic activities in the past decades. In the upper reaches of the river in the cadastral territory of the village Zemianske Kostoľany is located the thermal power plant. There is the sedimentation reservoir, which caused the ecological disaster in 1965. During this accident there was a bursting of the dam and the downstream sedimentation of sludge spill, which contaminated the entire water catchment area of the Nitra river. As a result of an ecological accident occurred to a long-term contamination of the stream but also the adjacent alluvial areas by heavy metals (Hg, As, Pb and others). In the present work, we have focused on ascertaining the level of contamination the adjacent plot of land and seeds of corn in the cadastral territory of Malé Kršteňany. We ascertained the excess of the limit values in the case of Hg on the south side of the agricultural land in Malé Kršteňany, which borders with the stream of the river. The Cd content has exceeded the limit value at the five sampling places, in the case of lead, content does not exceed the limit value. The average mercury concentration in the grain of maize was 0.095 mg.kg-1, which exceeds the limit value by 90.5%. The average cadmium content in maize grain reached the value of 0.06 mg.kg-1. This value does not exceed the limit value. Average lead accumulation in the grain of maize was 0.54 mg.kg-1, which exceeds 2.7 times the limit value. The results of analyzes indicate an increased level of land contamination by mercury and cadmium, which was reflected in an increased level of contamination by monitored metals of crops.

      Keywords: Heavy metals, alluvial soils, maize

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. COULD MUSHROOMS ACT AS CONCENTRATION PATHWAYS TO INTERNAL CONTAMINA-TION OF SOME MARGINALIZED COMMUNITIES BY 137CS IN SLOVAKIA? [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to obtain some preliminary data necessary for the assessment of the possible existence of small-area local sources of contaminated mushrooms in forested areas with comparatively low inventory of man-made 137Cs. On the study plot near Čierne-Svrčinovec (North-western Slovakia) 31 samples were collected during periodic sampling in the years 2012-2013 and analysed by gamma-spectrometry. Activities 137Cs in mushrooms from entire sampling plot followed the lognormal distribution with extremely high variation and high positive skew, with projected three-sigma (99.75%) range from 0.49 Bq.kg-1 to 1537 Bq.kg-1 (dry weight, d.w.) and with geometrical average of 27.4 Bq.kg-1 (d.w.). Another 11 samples were collected or bought from roadside vendors living in Roma slums near villages Richnava and Kluknava (Spiš region, eastern Slovakia). Obtained edible wild mushrooms were in a good shape despite prolonged drought indicating existence of well hidden forested sites in slum surroundings. Highest activity of 137Cs in this set was recorded in Boletus edulis (263.3 ± 20.3) Bq.kg-1 (d.w.). Both geometric mean (49.0 Bq.kg-1) and expectation value (91.2 Bq.kg-1 d.w.) of lognormal distribution were higher than that of the study plot on NW Slovakia. No sample exceeded the legal radiohygienic limit for radiocesium contamination. The limited extent of presented study only slightly indicates the possibility of slow changes in spatial redistribution of bioavailable 137Cs in forest ecosystem. However, available data on this subject from different sources suggest that there is no reason for massive occurrence of highly contaminated fruiting bodies in small areas surrounding settlements, where some critical groups of individuals, who are used to consume large amounts of mushrooms from limited geographical area could in such case develop significant internal contamination.

      Keywords: 137Cs, mushrooms, contamination, marginalized communities

      article details | fulltext pdf

    5. THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN SEED OF FLAX UNDER MODEL CONDITIONS [FS]

      Abstract: In this work the level of risk of enhanced heavy metal contents in selected crop cultivated in model conditions of the pot trial after different Pb doses addition and in real conditions (Považie area) was evaluated. We also investigated the effect of accumulation of heavy metals content (mainly lead content) on total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity. Four variants of the experiments: control (without Pb addition, only fertilisation) and next three variants were realised. Lead in the form of water-soluble salt of Pb(NO3)2 was applied in gradual specific doses with 5 (variant B), 10 (variant C), 15 (variant D) multiple as the limit value by the Law no. 220/2004 Z.z. to assess the state of soil contamination. For the experiment the flax seeds cultivar Electra were used.
      The flame AAS (AAS Varian AA Spectr DUO 240 FS/240Z/UltrAA) was used for the determination of heavy metal contents in soil and plant materials. The total polyphenol content (TP) was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay and the total antioxidant capacity of legume extracts was measured using the DPPH spectrophotometrically.
      All determined Pb (with exception C variant) and Cd contents were higher than maximal allowed amounts given by the Food Codex of the Slovak Republic.In all variants with Pb addition the TP value was lower than those in the control variant. Higher levels of polyphenolic compounds in flax seeds showed a higher antioxidant capacity values due to increased doses of lead.

      Keywords: heavy metals, flax, polyphenols, antioxidant capacity

      article details | fulltext pdf

    6. THE HEAVY METALS CONNTENT IN VEGETABLES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA [FS]

      Abstract: In the middle area of Spiš, it is significantly burden by heavy metals what is documented by radical content of Hg in soil from Rudňany 58.583645 mg.kg -1. On the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in this soil it has the same effect. 61.5% samples exceeded the limit value of heavy metals. The most dangerous vegetables were Lactuca sativa L. The limit value was exceed in all determine heavy metals - Hg, Cd, Pb and Cu in this vegetables. In the case of Hg, the limit value exceed 93.86 times. For relatively safety is growing of Pisum sativum L., where there was no exceed any limits values. The root vegetables are dangerous, where the sample of Raphanus sativus L. exceed 6.71978 times the limit values for Pb although the content of lead in the soil was under hygienic limits. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by high content of humus into soil. Transfer of heavy metals into consume parts of vegetables was no limited by weakly alkaline soil reaction. These factors are considered for factors limited mobility and input heavy metals into plants. We determined heavy metals by AAS method on a Varian 240 FS and method AMA 254.

      Keywords: mercury, cadmium, lead, cooper, soil

      article details | fulltext pdf

    7. THE LEVEL OF CROP PLANTS CONTAMINATION BY HEAVY METALS FROM THE HISTORICAL MINES AREA [FS]

      Abstract: In the present work, we focused on monitoring the total content of heavy metals ( Cd , Pb , Cu , Cr ) in selected crops (spring barley, wheat, oilseed rape, maize and oats), grown on contaminated land in an iron-ore mining company in Spišská Nová Ves, plant Rudňany. Samples of plant material were collected at the stage of technological maturity with well-defined sampling points using the GPS. In mineralized samples we used the F - AAS on a VARIAN 240 FS performed analyzes to determine the content of heavy metals monitored. The results observed contents of risk elements point to a relatively high level of contamination of harvested agricultural production, which is used for food purposes. Exceeding the maximum levels was recorded fot Cd, Pb and Cr using the Codex Alimentarius. In the case of Cu, we exceeded HPL for each crop group recorded.

      Keywords: soil, crop plants, heavy metals, contamination

      article details | fulltext pdf

    8. THE MONITORING OF MERCURY CONTENT IN BABY FOODS [FS]

      Abstract: Children's nutrition is very important for the healthy growth and development of the child, but it affects the health of the individual as well later in adulthood. For the production of baby food, commonly available on the market are used raw materials consistently grown under very strict supervision of specially designated for children's nutrition. It shall also apply to the more stringent standards on fertilizer, soil treatment during growth, harvesting, storage and process for the production of baby food. At work, we have focused on monitoring the content of Hg in the 12 samples of baby food, available in the sales network of the Slovak Republic and comparing it with the Highest permissible quantity (0.05 mg.kg-1). On the basis of the findings shows that the content of Hg in the one sample exceeded the HPQ, the content of Hg was in the range 0.6 - 20.4% of the HPQ.

      Keywords: mercury, baby food, baby food safety, food contamination by heavy metals

      article details | fulltext pdf

    9. CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN CANNED SEA FISH [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of presented paper was to point on quality and healthiness of canned seafood considering the quantity of monitored hazardous elements, which are commonly available in Slovak trade network. We specified 19 types of sample for use in this paper that represent different locations of fish outs as well as different species baseline. We realized analyses to determine quantity of Cd, Pb, Hg and Cu in our samples. We compared obtained results of heavy metals quantity with adequate highest permitted levels defined by legislation effective in EU and SR. Obtained results show that the excess of maximum amounts we recorded for Cd and Pb, while on samples for which we did not exceed the values defined by legislation, we found similarity of content of heavy metals. In general we can come to conclusion, despite breaching the HPL, that monitored products do not represent any health risk due to consummation of this food.

      Keywords: sea fish, heavy metals, food, contamination

      article details | fulltext pdf

    10. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS [FS]

      Abstract: Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of marine fish and animals. We analyzed mainly frozen or otherwise preserved marine fish and animals that were purchased in retail network in Slovakia. Mercury content in samples was analyzed by cold vapor AAS with mercury analyser AMA254. The contents of mercury in analysed samples were in the interval 0.0057 – 0,697 mg.kg-1. Our results shows, that no analyzed samples of marine fish and animals had over-limit concetration of Hg, so they are safe for human nutrition.

      Keywords: AAS, marine fish, mercury

      article details | fulltext pdf

    11. THE CONTENT OF MERCURY IN EDIBLE MUSHROOMS FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA [FS]

      Abstract: Accumulation of total mercury by mushrooms, was studied in midle spiš area. This area is laden high contents of mercury in the soil. To determine of the contamination of edible mushrooms in the middle Spiš, we used samples of different types of edible mushrooms (Macrolepiota procera, Lecinum piceinum, Lycoperdon pyriforme, Russula sp. Suillus And Grevillea). These fungi were collected in Spišsko Gemerské-rudohorie. Here at the sampling point GPS coordinates are. We also carried out the determination of the exchange soil reaction: pH (CaCl2), soil humus content and the content of total mercury in the soil horizon A (0-15 cm). The concentration of mercury in edible mushrooms was more extreme. The highest amount of mercury 176.409821 mg.kg-1. dry matter was determined in Macrolepiota procera. Contrast, the lowest measured concentration was 0.091684 mg.kg-1. dry matter for species Lecinum piceinum. To determine the concentration of mercury in the samples, we used the device AMA 254 (Advanced Mercury Analyser).

      Keywords: mercury, mushrooms, soil, contamination

      article details | fulltext pdf

    12. CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN SOIL AND CROP FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA [O]

      Abstract: The aim of this work is to show the importance of monitoring and soil hygienic quality evaluation in the eastern Slovakia area. In the past, when no emphasis was put on ecology, as it is nowadays, there was an uncontrolled emission of pollutants from different fields of anthropogenic activities. The consequences are manifested also nowadays, but immediate and expensive solutions are needed. In this work the results of the research of soil heavy metals contamination degree as well as their plant availability depended on soil reaction in the area of “middle Spiš” have been presented. The choice of this area is related to specific of mentioned the areas above are characteristic by anthropogenic (emission), but also natural (geochemical) contamination and intensive agricultural activity, too.

      Keywords: soil, mercury, emission, contamination

      article details | fulltext pdf

    13. THE CONTENTOFHEAVY METALS IN PASTURES FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA [O]

      Abstract: The aim of this work is to show the importance of monitoring and soil hygienic quality evaluation in the eastern Slovakia area. In the past, when no emphasis was put on ecology, as it is nowadays, there was an uncontrolled emission of pollutants from different fields of anthropogenic activities. The consequences are manifested also nowadays, but immediate and expensive solutions are needed. In this work the results of the research of soil heavy metals contamination degree as well as their plant availability depended on soil reaction in the area of “middle Spiš” have been presented. The choice of this area is related to specific of mentioned the areas above are characteristic by anthropogenic (emission), but also natural (geochemical) contamination and intensive agricultural activity, too.

      Keywords: soil, mercury, emission, contamination

      article details | fulltext pdf

    14. YEAR COMPARISON OF CONTENTS OF THE RISK ELEMENTS IN STREAM-SIDE SEDIMENTS IN THE UPPER FLOW OF THE RIVER NITRA [O]

      Abstract: The aim of the work was to compare the content of Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co and Hg in Upper Nitra riverside in years 2011 and 2012. The samples of riverside sediments were collected from 9 sites along the upper flow of Nitra river. Distance between the starting site Opatovce upon Nitra and end point site Topoľčany was about 50 km. Risk metals contents in the soil samples were determined and evaluated according Law 220/2004. The flame atomic absorption spectrometry was the used analytical method for heavy metal levels determination. The average values of pH/KCl were 7,32 (2011) and 7,19 (2012), it means 1,8 % decreased value in comparison to 2011. In 2012 the average Cd sediment content was by 6% higher and the Hg content up to three times higher than those in 2011. The improvement of present situation would be to take effective measures such as better cleaning of waste water from the industrial enterprises and urban agglomeration as well as new waste water treatment plants building.

      Keywords: heavy metals, riverside sediments, environment

      article details | fulltext pdf

    15. SOIL CONTAMINATION DESIGNED FOR CULTURE OF SOLANUM TUBEROSUM, L. AS AN RISK FOOD PHENOMENON [O]

      Abstract: The aim of this work is to show the importance of monitoring and soil hygienic quality evaluation in the Slovak Republic area. In the past, when no emphasis was put on ecology, as it is nowadays, there was an uncontrolled emission of pollutants from different fields of anthropogenic activities. The consequences are manifested also nowadays, but immediate and expensive solutions are needed. In this work the results of the research of soil heavy metals contamination degree as well as their plant availability depended on soil reaction in the area of “Žitný ostrov” have been presented. The choice of this area is related to specific of mentioned the areas above are characteristic by anthropogenic, but also natural (geochemical) contamination and intensive agricultural activity, too. All the soil samples were analyzed to give changeable soil reaction. Analyses on heavy metal in the aqua regia extract (total content), humus content according Tjurin were conducted and bioavailable macronutrients in Mehlich II. leach.

      Keywords: soil, crop plants, potatoes, heavy metals

      article details | fulltext pdf

    16. INFLUENCE OF VARIETY, LOCALITY AND SOIL CONTAMINATION ON TOTAL POLYPHENOL CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF FABABEAN GRAINS [FS]

      Abstract: Polyphenolic compounds are secondary metabolites present in many plant species, including legumes. Their content depends on various factors, such as cultivar, pedo-climatic and cultivation conditions. The influence of cultivar, locality and soil contamination on the total polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fababean was studied. Fababean cultivars were cultivated under different climatic conditions in Iraq and Slovak Republic. The value of polyphenol content was in the range 1583.54 - 3374.91 mg.kg-1 and their antioxidant activity from 16.62 - 38.40 % of DPPH inhibition. The locality and variety were significant factors in explaining differences between the total polyphenols values in fababean. In fababean (cv. Saturn, Zobor) grown under model conditions of vegetation pot trial using the soil (Čakajovce locality, Slovakia) with graduated loading by Zn, the influence of soil contamination on TP content and AOA was not confirmed, only the correlation between cumulated Zn content and TAC in cv. Zobor (at the highest contamination) was strongly negative (r= -0,99).

      Keywords: fababean, polyphenols, antioxidant activity, zinc

      article details | fulltext pdf

    17. HEAVY METALS IN PRODUCTIVE PARTS OF AGRICULTURAL PLANTS [FS]

      Abstract: The contents of heavy metals in plants were not in relation to contents of heavy metals in soil. Increased content of heavy metals in soils was not in consistency with content in plants. Usually content of heavy metals in plants according to our results were lower than their content in soil. Only the over limit contents of copper and cadmium were assessed in grain of barley and oat. The results of heavy metals content showed that dominant part on content of elements in plants have their mobile forms what depends on pH, content of organic matter in soil and portion of clay parts.

      Keywords: agricultural crops, soil type, heavy metals, AAS, highest acceptable amount

      article details | fulltext pdf

    18. CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY CONTENTS IN FISHES – CASE STUDY [FS]

      Abstract: Fish meat is a perfect foodstuff which is up to standard of rational nourishment. It is source of healthy and good digestible material rich on proteins, minerals and vitamins. Fish muscles especially back and lateral muscles are the most important parts of fish organism consumed for escellent chemical composition. Proteins in fish meat are rich on high aminoacids content. The content of fish fat is usually low with the high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. Also minerals and B, A and D vitamins are very important components of this foodstuff. According to rational nourishment the fish meat should be consumed minimal 2 times weekly. Our research was focused on analysis of bottomn sediments in water reservoir Kolinany from the aspect of Cd, Hg and Pb contents, the determination of observed heavy metal contents in different parts of carp body and the evaluation of hygienic status and suitability of fish meat for the human consumption. Our results have confirmed the hygienic wholesomeness of bottom sediments in water reservoir Kolinany. The Cd, Pb and Hg contents in sediments represent no risk of their input into the fish organisms. The Cd content in fish meat was lower than maximal available amount given by legislative norms, but in selected parts of fish organism such as skin, gills and fins the Cd hygienic limit is 2.9 – 6.6 times exceeded. The Pb content in fish meat was under the hygienic limit, however in skin, gills and fins the content of this heavy metal was 1.31- 2.64 higher than maximal legislative given value. Fish skin, gills and fins belong to the non cosumed parts of fish body by people. The Hg content in fish meat was also lower than hygienc limit. The highest Hg content was observed in fish muscles (0.0544 mg.kg-1) and the lowest one in fish gonads (0.0058 mg.kg-1). The results of Cd, Pb and Hg content determination in carp body confirmed that fish muscles belong to suitable foodstuffs for the human consumption.

      Keywords: cadmium, lead, mercury, fish, carp, food hygiene

      article details | fulltext pdf

    19. HEAVY METALS IN MIDDLE NITRA RIVERSIDE [O]

      Abstract: Present state of environment is widely affected by various impacts of man which significantly eliminate negative affecting of its influence on the environment. In the past this fact was not so implemented and thus there was uncontrolled escape of contaminants of organic, but also inorganic origin into various components of environment. The most sensitive component is water ecosystem and its close plates (base sediments, banks sediments and biosphere near the flows).
      River Nitra ranks among the most affected water ecosystems in SR that was in 1965 the recipient of sludge, that was by accident in Zemianske Kostoľany uncontrolled spilled into the river with aftermath of long-term contamination of all sub-components in ecosystem, mainly by heavy metals (Hg, As, Pb, etc.).
      Soil contamination by Cd and Hg was analytically confirmed. The contents of these risk elements in soil extract of aqua regia 1.85 - 3.7 fold (Cd) and 4.57- 36.3 fold (Hg) exceeded the limit values (0.4 mg.kg-1 and 0.15 mg.kg-1 respectively) given by the legislative. Other metals exceeding limit values were lead (1.064 - 1.072 fold), zinc (1.096 - 1.192 fold) and chromium (1.172 – 1.644 fold).
      From assessed soil content of heavy metals only bioavailable forms of Pb determined in soil extract by NH4NO3 2.0 - 3.3 fold exceeded the limit value 0.1 mg.kg-1.

      Keywords: Nitra river, heavy metals, soil contamination, pollution

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Shalini S. Arya

    (2)
    1. IMPACT OF FIBER MIXTURE ON DOUGH AND CHAPATTI QUALITY USING D-OPTIMAL RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY [FS]

      Abstract: Demand for health oriented products such as sugar-free, low calorie and high fiber products are increasing. One such recent trend is to increase the fiber content in food products to overcome health problems such as hypertension, diabetes, and colon cancer, among others. Chapatti is an important staple food consumed by majority of the population in the Indian subcontinent hence it can be a very good vehicle for fiber fortification. Fiber from natural sources such as wheat, soy fiber and type III resistant starch (RS) were used to study their impact on rheological characteristics of whole wheat flour dough and chapatti singly and in associated mixtures at different levels. D-optimal response surface methodology mixture design was applied to a mixture containing three ingredients: x1, wheat fiber, x2, soy fiber and x3, type III RS. The variation selected to each variable was based on values which were optimized on the basis of sensory properties and textural properties of chapatti, where x1, x2, x3 were changed from 2.5 to 5 g/100 g of whole wheat flour. For each of the response variables, model summarized F-tests and lack of fit tests which were then analyzed for linear or quadratic models. Three-dimensional response surface plots were generated for all quality parameter. Calculation of optimal processing conditions for optimum stickiness, strength, tear force and extensibility of dough and chapatti were performed using a multiple response method called desirability. Addition of wheat, soy fiber and type III RS in wheat flour mixture decreased dough stickiness and improved dough strength. Dough containing wheat fiber (2.5%), soy fiber (5.0%) and type III RS (2.5%) yielded highly acceptable chapattis in terms of textural properties such as low tear force values and high extensibility.

      Keywords: Chapatti, fiber, response surface methodology

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. USE OF JAMBHUL POWDER IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF BIOACTIVE COMPONENTS ENRICHED MILK KULFI [FS]

      Abstract: Jambhul (Syzygium cumini L) is an indigenous minor fruit of India which is especially available in summer season and is very good source for medicinal purpose. In the present investigation jambhul was preserved by using infrared drying technology and jambhul powder was utilized to develop Kulfi which is popular Indian frozen dessert. The infrared jambhul powder showed TPC (27.61 mg/g), TF (28.75 mg/g), Anthocyanins (2.59 mg/g), ABTS (27.19 µM/g), and DPPH (375.32 µM/g). Kulfi prepared by using 3% of jambhul powder which was optimized on the basis of 9- Point Hedonic Scale. Milk kulfi showed enhancement in TPC (78.68%), TF (13.98%) anthocynin (0.31%), ABTS capacity (66.20%), DPPH (91.22%) by incorporation of 3% of jambhul powder. Freezing showed significant decrease (p < 0.05) in nutraceutical component (phenolic, flavonoid, anthocynin and antioxidant capacity by ABTS and DPPH). Anthocynin and flavonoids were additional to milk kulfi. Thus, Jambhul powder could be used as functional ingredient in the development of Kulfi.

      Keywords: Kulfi, jambhul powder, total phenolic, flavonoid, anthocynin, ABTS, DPPH

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Merry Joy J. Arzaga

    (1)
    1. OPTIMIZATION, PRODUCTION, PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NEUTRAL AND ALKALINE PROTEASES PRODUCED BY BACILLUS SUBTILIS [MB]

      Abstract: Different strains of Bacillus subtilis (Ehrenberg) Cohn, BIOTECH 1056, 1333, 1573 and 1679, UPCC 1295 and USTCMS 1011 from various culture collections in the country were characterized morphologically, biochemically, and assayed for proteolytic activity. Fermentation parameters like pH, temperature, and incubation time were optimized for the production of proteases that were used as gauges to select the best bacterial isolates for possible commercial application. Among the six isolates studied, USTCMS 1011 gave the highest neutral protease activity of 0.647 U/mg protein at pH 7 and at 37oC for72 hours. The same strain yielded the highest alkaline protease activity of 0.495 U/mg protein at pH 9 and at 30oC for 72 hours. Various beans and fruit extracts or honey were tested as possible protein or carbohydrate sources in the medium. Dextrin produced the highest protease activity with 0.647U/mg protein for neutral protease and 0.495 U/mg protein for alkaline protease as carbohydrate source. Garbanzos (chickpea) as protein source, supplemented with yeast extract, gave the highest protease activity at 0.548 U/mg protein for neutral protease and 0.475 U/mg protein for alkaline protease. Both crude proteases were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by desalting and gel filtration chromatography. Optimal activity of the neutral protease was found at pH 8 and 30oC with an incubation time of 90min while optimal activity of the alkaline protease was at pH 11 and 40oC with only 30min incubation period. Neutral protease showed a single band with molecular weight of 65.4kDa in SDS-PAGE while alkaline protease showed single band with molecular weight of 8kDa.

      Keywords: USTCMS 1011, Gel Filtration Chromatography, Bacillus subtilis, Neutral Protease, Alkaline Protease

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Stephen Boahen Asabere

    (1)
    1. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION IN HERBAL PLANTS FROM SOME GHANAIAN MARKETS [FS]

      Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the magnitude of heavy metals (arsenic [As], copper [Cu], cadmium [Cd] and mercury [Hg]) contamination that may be present in some Ghanaian medicinal herbs/plants available in local markets and also to compare the levels with recommended levels by the International Organization. A total of 267 samples of herbal plants representing 18 different plants collected from several markets in Ghana were tested for heavy metals contamination. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was used for the analyses, and content of metals per sample was expressed as percent µg/g. The study showed differences in metal concentrations according to the parts analysed (leaf, fruit, root bark and crown). The obtained results which showed the predominance of Cd in almost all the analysed parts of the samples followed by Zn, Cu, As and Hg. However, Hg was the least predominant metal detected in the analyzed samples. All the monitored metals in the herbal plants were within the safe limit approved by Codex Alimentarius Commission and FAO/WHO limit for spices. The findings generally suggest that consumers of these herbal products would not be exposed to any risk associated with the intake of herbal plant products for the management of diseases.

      Keywords: Herbal plants, contamination, heavy metals, maximum residue limit, Ghana

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mohammad Ali Asadollahi

    (1)
    1. OPTIMAZTION OF GAMMA-DECALACTONE PRODUCTION BY YEAST YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA USING THE TAGUCHI METHOD [MB]

      Abstract: The γ-decalactone is one of the lactones with peachy aroma which has been approved as food additive by FDA. The aim of this study was to optimize media composition and conditions for microbial biotransformation of ricinoleic acid and castor oil as substrates to γ-decalactone using the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The Y. lipolytica DSM 3286 strain was used as biotransformation agent in different trails designed by Taguchi method. The highest concentration of γ-decalactone was 62.4 and 52.9 mg/L from 1.5% ricinoleic acid and 2.5% castor oil, respectively. Nitrogen sources exhibited significant effect on the biotransformation. The maximum γ-decalactone production occurred at pH 6. The results showed that the composition of biotransformation medium composition is important for γ-decalactone production.

      Keywords: γ-Decalactone, Yarrowia lipolytica, Ricinoleic acid, Castor oil, Biotransformation, Taguchi method

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • A.K.M. Asaduzzaman

    (1)
    1. ANTIBACTERIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF BACILLUS METHYLOTROPHICUS-SCS2012 ISOLATED FROM SOIL [MB]

      Abstract: The strain Bacillus methylotrophycus-SCS2012 (Bacillus sp. SCS2012) identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing was isolated from soil. Ethyl acetate extract of B. methylotrophycus-SCS2012 showed antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The crude metabolite extracted from B. methylotrophycus-SCS2012 exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Streptococcus agalactae, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Shigella dysenteriae with the zone of inhibition range 28.33 to 32.16 mm at 100μg/disc. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the extract against Streptococcus agalactae, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei and Shigella dysenteriae was found to be 156, 156, 312, 312 and 625µg/ml respectively. The ethyl acetate extract also exhibited cytotoxic effects on brine shrimp lethality bioassay with LC50 value of 10.78 g/ml. Thus the ethyl acetate extract of Bacillus methylotrophycus-SCS2012 has broad spectrum activity with moderate cytotoxicity.

      Keywords: Bacillus methylotrophycus-SCS2012, antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration, cytotoxicity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mona S. Ashour

    (1)
    1. BIOSECURITY FOR REDUCING OCHRATOXIN A PRODUCTIVITY AND THEIR IMPACT ON GERMINATION AND ULTRASTRUCTURES OF GERMINATED WHEAT GRAINS [MB]

      Abstract: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary metabolite of some fungi that causes very serious problems for plants, animals and humans. Various microorganisms such as bacteria and microscopic fungi have been tested for their abilities to prevent ochratoxin A contamination or detoxify foods. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus bulgaricus reduced OTA production by Aspergillus ochraceus to 40.88 µg/ml ( productivity 60.69% ) and 13.80 µg/ml (productivity 20.48% ) respectively compared with the control (67.35 µg/ml) (productivity 100%). The results clearly indicated that the seed germinibility in the presence of OTA was decreased with increasing concentration, whereas the germinibility was uncompletely ceased at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml) of OTA. The maximum amount of germination was observed in control (without OTA treatment) and at low concentration (13.80 µg/ml) within 4 days. Antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase decreased in germinated grains treated with OTA. Catalase was 18.12 U/ml in grains treated with low concentration (13.80 µg/ml) of OTA while at high concentration (67.35 µg/ml), it was 12.23 U/ml compared with the control (20.33 U/ml). On the other hand, peroxidase decreased only in germinated grains treated with high concentration of OTA. The ultrastructural studies indicate that there were dramatic differences between the cells of root system of wheat seedlings of grains treated and untreated with the OTA. Cell ultrastructures of treated grains with OTA showed that the cytoplasmic membrane collapses away from the cell wall. Plasmodesmata threads were appeared in untreated cells but not formed in treated cells.

      Keywords: Biosecurity, ochratoxin A, productivity, wheat grains

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kamran Ashraf

    (1)
    1. RECOMBINANT PROTEIN PRODUCTION OF ABUNDANT LARVAL TRANSCRIPT (ALT-2) IN ESCHERICHIA COLI [BT]

      Abstract: Lymphatic filariasis is a major tropical disease caused by mosquito born nematodes Brugia malayi and Wuchereria bancrofti. Vaccine against filariasis must generate immunity to infective mosquito derived L3 stage. Two highly expressed genes designated abundant larval transcript-1 and -2 (alt-1 and alt-2). ALT-1 and ALT-2 represent closely related protein (79%) it. Now, expression of this alt gene in E. coli BL21plysS for the production of vaccine is major challenge as no vaccine is available against this disease. Work was carried out to express this protein at laboratory scale bioreactor. At first optimization of different parameter like suitability of media, inducer concentration, induction time was done for getting maximum amount of recombinant protein. In shake flask studies, after induction (max cell density and max specific growth rate stage) good expression of ALT-2 protein was found. However, at laboratory scale production done in bioreactor, expression level drastically decreased. Plasmid stability analysis was done in reactor and was found to be cause for decreased productivity. The stability was improved by increasing antibiotic concentration in the medium and also by pulsing antibiotic during induction. This led to better plasmid stability and increased expression levels in reactor similar to expression levels in shake flask studies.

      Keywords: Lymphatic filariasis, IPTG, plasmid stability, abundant larval transcript, shake flask

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • James Yaw Asibuo

    (1)
    1. MOLECULAR AND PHENOTYPIC RESISTANCE OF GROUNDNUT VARIETIES TO LEAF SPOTS DISEASE IN GHANA [BT]

      Abstract: Groundnut yield is constrained in most cases by early and lateleaf spots diseases. Selection and breeding for resistance will enhance yields. Therefore, this study was conducted in Crop Research Institute, Fumesua-Kumasi, Ghana to screen 20 groundnut varieties for leaf spots resistance using both molecular and phenotypic tools. Differences in disease incidence among individual plants, severity score, lesion diameter and defoliation across the 20 genotypes were highly significant (p<0.01) under phenotypic screening. Fourteen genotypes were moderately resistant while six genotypes were susceptible. The SSR markers pPGseq2F5280, pPGseq2B10280/290, pPGPseq17F6120/140/150, PMc588180/220 and PM384100 confirmed most resistant genotypes at the molecular level. The resistant genotypes confirmed by the markers were ‘ICG7878’, ‘Obolo’, ‘Oboshie’, ‘Jenkaar’, ‘Adepa’, ‘Nkosour’, ‘Azivivi’, ‘Nkatekokoo’, ‘Behenase’, ‘Manipinta’, ‘Otuhia’, ‘GK7’, ‘Nkatiesari’ and ‘Sumnut22’. Genotypes ‘55-437’, ‘Yenyawoso’, ‘Bremawuo’, ‘Kumawu’, ‘Konkoma’ and ‘Shitaochi’ were susceptible. Hence, resistance to leaf spots exists among commercially grown groundnuts in Ghana. Both morphological descriptors and DNA molecular could be used for identification of resistant genotypes.

      Keywords: Arachis hypogaea, Cercospora, Phenotypic, Resistance, SSR Markers

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Hesamaddin Shirzad Aski

    (1)
    1. CHARACTERIZATION OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM Β-LACTAMASE-PRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM DAIRY PRODUCTS [MB]

      Abstract: Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes that hydrolyze the β-lactam ring, and ESBL-producing E. coli has rapidly spread worldwide with pose a serious hazard for humans. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli and molecular evaluation of four ESBL-associated genes among E. coli strains isolated from milk and cheese in southern Iran. Antibiotic susceptibility test was carried out for a total of 150 isolates of E. coli, previously collected from dairy products. ESBL production was screened using a double-disc synergy test (DDST) and presence of four ESBL genes (PER, VEB, TEM and CTX-M) was tested using PCR. Among 150 E. coli strains 57 (38%) isolates were identified as ESBL-producing strains. All ESBL positive isolates could be typed for one or more genes and the most prevalent ESBL-associated gene was CTX-M (80.7%). The PER gene was not present among isolates. Isolates showed high susceptibility to imipe¬nem and cefoxitin. The results showed the high prevalence of ESBL producing E. coli strains among dairy products and high occurrence of CTX-M-associated ESBL activity among isolates indicating the hazards of increasing the strains with antibiotic resistance which can transfer to human trough the dairy food products.

      Keywords: ESBL, Escherichia coli, antibiotic susceptibility, dairy products

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ahmad Asmat

    (1)
    1. ANTIBIOTICS RESISTANCE AND PUTATIVE VIRULENCE FACTORS OF AEROMONAS HYDROPHILA ISOLATED FROM ESTUARY [MB]

      Abstract: This study aim to investigate antibiotics resistance profile and putative virulence factors of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from estuary. Bacteria used for this study were isolated from water and sediment samples obtained from Sungai Melayu, Johor, Malaysia. Serially diluted 100 µL water and 1g sediment were inoculated on modified Rimler - Shott (mRS) agar. Colonies with distinct cultural characteristics were picked for further studies. Isolates were tested for biofilm productions, protease enzyme and antibiotics resistance profile using agar well diffusion method against 10 commercial antibiotics. Congo Red Agar (CRA), Microplate and Standard Tube (ST) methods were used for assessment of biofilm formation among the isolates while Skim Milk Agar was used for protease production. Sw.KMJ 3 and Sw.KMJ 9 produced black crystalline colonies on CRA. Six of the isolates were biofilm producers in ST method. Result of Microplate method, helped in grouping the isolates into weak (n = 8), moderate (n = 3) and strong producers (n = 4) at 540 nm wavelength. All the isolates were classified as weak ODc  ODi 0.1, moderate ODi = 0.1  0.12 and strong producers ODi  0.12 respectively at 540 nm wavelength. Antibiotics susceptibility test also revealed that all the isolates were resistant to between 6 and 10 antibiotics. Two isolates each were resistant to 6 (60 %), 7 (70 %) and 9 (90 %) antibiotics respectively. Eight of the isolates showed resistance to 8 (80 %) antibiotics while only isolate Sw.KMJ-7 showed resistance to all the tested antibiotics. Sw.KMJ-3, Sw.KMJ-8 and Sw.KMJ-9 produced protease enzyme on SMA. The isolates were also found to be resistant to both antibiotics and heavy metals.

      Keywords: Antimicrobial, Inhibition, Biofilm production, Virulence factor

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jacob Asomaning

    (2)
    1. MARKET BASKET SURVEY FOR SOME PESTICIDES RESIDUES IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM GHANA [FS]

      Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Ghana. For this purpose, a total of 309 fruits and vegetable samples, were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The obtained results showed that the predominance of organochlorine followed by organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in most of the analyzed samples. The detected concentrations of them were most significant in vegetable samples. The results obtained showed that 39.2 % of the fruits and vegetable samples analyzed contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides, 51.0 % of the samples gave results with trace levels of pesticide residues below the maximum residue limit (MRL), while 9.8 % of the samples were above the MRL. The findings point to the urgent need to establish reliable monitoring programs for pesticides, so that any exceedance in concentration over environmental quality standards can be detected and appropriate actions taken.

      Keywords: Pesticide residues, fruits, vegetables, maximum residue limit, Ghana

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION IN HERBAL PLANTS FROM SOME GHANAIAN MARKETS [FS]

      Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the magnitude of heavy metals (arsenic [As], copper [Cu], cadmium [Cd] and mercury [Hg]) contamination that may be present in some Ghanaian medicinal herbs/plants available in local markets and also to compare the levels with recommended levels by the International Organization. A total of 267 samples of herbal plants representing 18 different plants collected from several markets in Ghana were tested for heavy metals contamination. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was used for the analyses, and content of metals per sample was expressed as percent µg/g. The study showed differences in metal concentrations according to the parts analysed (leaf, fruit, root bark and crown). The obtained results which showed the predominance of Cd in almost all the analysed parts of the samples followed by Zn, Cu, As and Hg. However, Hg was the least predominant metal detected in the analyzed samples. All the monitored metals in the herbal plants were within the safe limit approved by Codex Alimentarius Commission and FAO/WHO limit for spices. The findings generally suggest that consumers of these herbal products would not be exposed to any risk associated with the intake of herbal plant products for the management of diseases.

      Keywords: Herbal plants, contamination, heavy metals, maximum residue limit, Ghana

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Muzaffar I. Asrarov

    (1)
    1. THE EFFECTS OF ISOLATED FRACTIONS OF RED PEPPER CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. ON THE MITOCHONDRIAL PERMEABILITY TRANSITION PORE AND LIPID PEROXIDATION [BT]

      Abstract: Fruit proteins, seed proteins and capsaicinoids fractions were isolated from red pepper of Capsicum annum L. plants family and their effects on mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and lipid peroxidation of rat liver were studied in vitro. Seed proteins did not influence to MPTP; however fruit proteins caused MPTP to open and led to mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Opening of the MPTP causes massive swelling of mitochondria; capsaicinoids fractions inhibited the swelling process of mitochondria and caused the closed state of the MPTP. Fruits and seeds protein fractions from red pepper did not reduce the effect of Fe2+/ascorbate-induced mitochondrial swelling and had no effect on the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the membranes of mitochondria. Capsaicinoid fraction had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the Fe2+/ascorbate-dependent swelling of mitochondria and of lipid peroxidation. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) on the swelling of mitochondria fraction was 2 µg/ml. Сapsaicinoids fraction prevented the effect of Fe2+/ascorbate on mitochondria and reduced the accumulation of MDA in membrane. Complete inhibition of lipid peroxidation was shown at a 50 µg/ml capsaicinoids concentration. Capsaicinoids, reducing the membrane destructive effects of Fe2+/ascorbate, had antioxidant properties and a protective effect on mitochondria. The obtained results showed the presence of different compounds in red pepper differently affecting MPTP and lipid peroxidation.

      Keywords: Red pepper, proteins, capsaicinoid, mitochondria, MPTP, lipid peroxidation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Akmal Asrorov

    (1)
    1. AGROCHEMICALS AFFECT THE ANTIOXIDATIVE DEFENSE POTENTIAL of COTTON PLANTS [BT]

      Abstract: Application of insecticides used in cotton fields is often associated with secondary biotic stresses. One of possible reasons of such phenomenon is explained by decreased contents of plants’ defense components. As peroxidase (POD) and polyphenoloxidase (PPO) are typical oxidoreductase enzymes scavenging cell oxidative damage, we studied their change levels in cotton leaves in response to the application of three insecticides field experiment. Moreover, the concentration of proline (Pro), methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys) was studied. The plants were treated with Carbophos, Lannate and Sumi-alfa in early blooming stage at commonly used doses in. Leaf samples were taken on the 10thand 13th days of the treatment. A pyrethroid insecticide Sumi-alfa appeared to negatively impact activities of both POD and PPO (P≤0.05), contrasting the other two insecticides examined. On the other hand, levels of amino acids with antioxidative properties increased after application of all three insecticides at the end of experiment. Our results show that the oxidative balance of treated plants was interrupted by insecticides (especially Sumi-alfa) with potential impact on vulnerability to secondary stresses. Effects of these insecticides on cotton should be considered and/or studied in more detail for efficient application in agriculture.

      Keywords: Cotton plant, Insecticides, Peroxidase, Polyphenoloxidase, Proline, Methionine, Cysteine

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Akmal M. Asrorov

    (1)
    1. THE EFFECTS OF ISOLATED FRACTIONS OF RED PEPPER CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. ON THE MITOCHONDRIAL PERMEABILITY TRANSITION PORE AND LIPID PEROXIDATION [BT]

      Abstract: Fruit proteins, seed proteins and capsaicinoids fractions were isolated from red pepper of Capsicum annum L. plants family and their effects on mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) and lipid peroxidation of rat liver were studied in vitro. Seed proteins did not influence to MPTP; however fruit proteins caused MPTP to open and led to mitochondrial membrane permeabilization. Opening of the MPTP causes massive swelling of mitochondria; capsaicinoids fractions inhibited the swelling process of mitochondria and caused the closed state of the MPTP. Fruits and seeds protein fractions from red pepper did not reduce the effect of Fe2+/ascorbate-induced mitochondrial swelling and had no effect on the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the membranes of mitochondria. Capsaicinoid fraction had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on the Fe2+/ascorbate-dependent swelling of mitochondria and of lipid peroxidation. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) on the swelling of mitochondria fraction was 2 µg/ml. Сapsaicinoids fraction prevented the effect of Fe2+/ascorbate on mitochondria and reduced the accumulation of MDA in membrane. Complete inhibition of lipid peroxidation was shown at a 50 µg/ml capsaicinoids concentration. Capsaicinoids, reducing the membrane destructive effects of Fe2+/ascorbate, had antioxidant properties and a protective effect on mitochondria. The obtained results showed the presence of different compounds in red pepper differently affecting MPTP and lipid peroxidation.

      Keywords: Red pepper, proteins, capsaicinoid, mitochondria, MPTP, lipid peroxidation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Daniela Atanasova

    (1)
    1. PHYLOGENETIC RELATEDNESS CLUSTERING THRESHOLDS OF POTENTIALLY BACTERIOCINOGENIC CLINICAL AND DAIRY ENTEROCOCCUS SPP. STRAINS WITH RESPECT TO THEIR GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGINS IN BULGARIA [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of the study is to examine different thresholds of similarity coefficients for reliable clustering of clinical and dairy enterococci originating from various geographical regions in Bulgaria, based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis. For creating subsets of different strains on a relatively independent basis, was created a selection based on the presence of some bacteriocin genes. A collection of 110 Enterococcus faecalis and 51 Enterococcus faecium nosocomial strains from in-patients in five hospitals, covering the major cities of Bulgaria, and additional 11 Enterococcus faecalis and 15 Enterococcus faecium strains isolated from home-made and artisanal cheeses in different mountain regions of the country was screened for the presence of five commonly found bacteriocin genetic determinants – enterolysin A (EntlA) and bacteriocin AS-48 for E. faecalis and enterocin A (EntA), enterocin B (EntB) and enterocin P (EntP) for E. faecium. Strains carrying the same bacteriocin gene were subjected separately to RAPD-PCR, followed by UPGMA analysis. The obtained results showed that clustering should be performed with similarity coefficients above 95% in order to separate the starins based on cheeses’ or clinical origin and according to their geographical origins. Our findings indicate that the largely accepted similarity coefficient of 70% for clonal relatedness should be reconsidered and the threshold raised up.

      Keywords: Dairy and clinical Enterococcus spp., RAPD-PCR, UPGMA, clustering thresholds

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Lyubomir M. Atanassov

    (1)
    1. PHENOLIC COMPOUDNS IN TRADITIONAL BULGARIAN MEDICAL PLANTS [BT]

      Abstract: A number of plants and plant products have medicinal properties that have been validated by recent scientific developments throughout the world, owing to their potent pharmacological activity, low toxicity and economic viability. In recent years, the use of natural antioxidants present in traditional medicinal plants has become of special interest in the scientific world due to their presumed safety and nutritional and therapeutic value. In this present study, comparative phenolic compounds in traditional Bulgarian medical plants. The medical plants were analyzed for their tannins content by titrimetric method; rutin was determined spectrophotometrically by using ammonium molybdate; the total phenolics content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the total flavonoids were used the colorimetric reaction with aluminum (III) chloride. The present paper shown by the results of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and rutin and tannins in medical plants that they must be relatively safe for the patient.

      Keywords: chicory(Cichoriumintybus L.),white birch (Betula pendula),Cotinuscoggygria, Geranium sanguineumL. and rose hip fruits (Rosa caninaL.), total phenolics, total flavonoids, rutin and tannins

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Maria S. Atanassova

    (1)
    1. PHENOLIC COMPOUDNS IN TRADITIONAL BULGARIAN MEDICAL PLANTS [BT]

      Abstract: A number of plants and plant products have medicinal properties that have been validated by recent scientific developments throughout the world, owing to their potent pharmacological activity, low toxicity and economic viability. In recent years, the use of natural antioxidants present in traditional medicinal plants has become of special interest in the scientific world due to their presumed safety and nutritional and therapeutic value. In this present study, comparative phenolic compounds in traditional Bulgarian medical plants. The medical plants were analyzed for their tannins content by titrimetric method; rutin was determined spectrophotometrically by using ammonium molybdate; the total phenolics content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay and the total flavonoids were used the colorimetric reaction with aluminum (III) chloride. The present paper shown by the results of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents, and rutin and tannins in medical plants that they must be relatively safe for the patient.

      Keywords: chicory(Cichoriumintybus L.),white birch (Betula pendula),Cotinuscoggygria, Geranium sanguineumL. and rose hip fruits (Rosa caninaL.), total phenolics, total flavonoids, rutin and tannins

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Shirin Atarod

    (1)
    1. A REVIEW ON BIODEGRADABLE STARCH BASED FILM [FS]

      Abstract: In recent years, biodegradable edible films have become very important in research related to food, due to their compatibility with the environment and their use in the food packaging industry. Various sources can be used in the production of biopolymers as biodegradable films that include polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Among the various polysaccharides, starch due to its low price and its abundance in nature is of significant importance. Several factors affect the properties of starch films; such as the source which starch is obtained from, as well as the ratio of constituents of the starch. Starch films have advantages such as low thickness, flexibility and transparency though; there are some downsides to mention, such as the poor mechanical properties and water vapor permeability. Thus, using starch alone to produce the film will led to restrictions on its use. To improve the mechanical properties of starch films and also increases resistance against humidity, several methods can be used; including the starch modifying techniques such as cross linking of starch and combining starch with other natural polymers. Other methods such as the use of lipid in formulations of films to increase the resistance to moisture are possible, but lipids are susceptible to oxidation. Therefore, new approaches are based on the integration of different biopolymers in food packaging.

      Keywords: Biodegradable films, biopolymers, starch

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Joao Rocha Magareth Athayde

    (1)
    1. ANTIOXIDATIVE PROPERTIES OF ETHYL ACETATE FRACTION OF UNRIPE PULP OF CARICA PAPAYA IN MICE [BT]

      Abstract: Unripe Carica papaya fruits were extracted with methanol in Soxhlet apparatus and later with a liquid-liquid extraction with the aim of identifying and quantifying secondary metabolite fraction of this plant. Quercetin and β-sitosterol have been isolated from the fruit and the quantities detected were 120.2±0.16 mg/g (dry fruit) and 279.1±0.09mg/g respectively. In addition, the extracts were evaluated in vivo for their effects on activities of some antioxidant enzymes which includes Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), Glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione transferase (GST), Catalase (CAT) and metabolizing enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) in mice treated orally with a daily dose of extracts (100mg/kg) for 7 days. Results showed that ethyl acetate fraction caused significant increase(p<0.05) in the activities of GR, GPx, GST, and G6PDH. Significant decrease (p<0.05) in GPx activity was observed in kidney following administration of ethyl acetate fraction. It is likely that quercetin and β-sitosterol may be responsible for the antioxidant potential demonstrated by the ethyl acetate fraction from unripe fruit.

      Keywords: antioxidant, Carica papaya, quercetin, β-sitosterol, antioxidant enzymes

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Margareth Athayde

    (1)
    1. CHEMICAL PROFILE AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF TWO EDIBLE MUSHROOMS (Termitomyces robustus and Lentinus squarrosulus) [MB]

      Abstract: The methanol extracts of two edible mushrooms; Termitomyces robustus (ewe) and Lentinus squarrosulus (erirokiro) were screened for phytochemicals of medicinal importance and the chemical profile investigated using standard analytical methods with the aim of assessing their health promoting properties. Both mushrooms tested positive to flavonoids, saponin, tannin and terpenoid but negative to steroid, anthraquinone and phlobatannin. The results of proximate compositions in % were; moisture contents (7.22 ± 0.07; 11.03 ± 0.21), crude protein (31.34 ± 0.01; 42.77 ± 0.57), ash (7.07 ± 0.04; 10.45 ± 0.43), crude fibre (4.07 ± 0.18; 9.48 ± 0.04), crude fat (3.71 ± 0.16; 6.76 ± 0.22), carbohydrate by difference (24.90 ±0.11; 41.27 ± 0.19), calorific value in kcal (331.55±3.41; 342.35±3.09), and total dietary fibre (10.21 ± 0.00; 11.68 ± 0.00). The anti-nutrient factors in mg/g were; tannin (3.25 ± 0.80; 7.40 ± 0.14) oxalate (1.53 ± 0.00; 1.71 ± 0.07), and phytate (1.48 ± 0.06; 1.94 ± 0.05). Mineral elements, vitamins, essential and non-essential amino acids in substantial quantities were detected in the mushrooms. The phenolic compounds identified and quantified were gallic acid, catechin,chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid, epicatechin, rutin, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin and kaempferol.The mushrooms exhibited various antifungi and antimicrobial activities. The two mushrooms possessed good nutritional and chemical qualities and could be sources of many different nutraceuticals.

      Keywords: Phytochemicals, proximate, flavonoids, Polyphenols, Termitomycesrobustus, Lentinussquarrosulus

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Brian Aufderheide

    (1)
    1. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF SINGLE CELL PROTEIN FROM M. capsulatus (BATH) GROWING IN MIXED CULTURE [BT]

      Abstract: The growing global demand for nutritional protein means that a sustainable source such as Single Cell Protein from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) can become a potential replacement for fishmeal and other animal feeds. Improving biomass concentrations using statistical optimization during synergistic fermentations with a mixed consortium of the three heterotrophic bacteria Alcaligenes acidovorans, Aneurinibacillus danicus, and Brevibacillus sp. can increase the feasibility of the industrial process. The medium components Mg2+, Ca2+, Fe3+, Cu2+, PO42-, NO3-, MoO42-, trace metals, and process temperature were screened using a two-level Plackett-Burman Design in shake flasks which resulted in Cu2+ being the only significant factor. The optimum level of CuSO4.5H2O was found to be 40 μM using One Factor Response Surface Methodology, which was three times higher than the typical values of Cu2+ used previously. These combined strategies led to a 265% increase in biomass, with final cell concentration of 10.3 g/L, up from 2.8 g/L in fed batch fermentations over 48 hours. The heterotrophic bacteria did not grow on NMS or methane but increased biomass concentration when added to M. capsulatus (Bath) cultures.

      Keywords: Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), Heterotrophic bacteria, Single Cell Protein, Plackett-Burman, Response Surface Methodology

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jeena Augustine

    (1)
    1. PHYSICO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A T5-LIKE SALMONELLA PHAGE ΦSP-3 [MB]

      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is a problem faced by humanity for quite some time now. Search for an intelligent alterative to antibiotics led the scientific community to join hands with an age old foe of pathogenic bacteria - bacteriophages. The present study elaborates the potential of a previously isolated phage with biocontrol capability, to survive and adsorb in various physicochemical environments . ΦSP-3, a Salmonella specific lytic phage capable of infecting host in nutrient deprived states with an added advantage of high host specificity and absence of virulence genes as previously reported was chosen for the study. Salmonella Enteritidis was used as host. Basic growth parameters like time taken for phage adsorption, optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) and one step growth curve, were determined, followed by physicochemical characterization. Various parameters studied include temperature, pH, salinity and presence of sugars and CaCl2. 25 minutes of exposure time was required for 100% adsorption and optimal MOI was calculated as one. The latent period and the rise period was 30 minutes each with a subsequent burst size of 60 phages per bacterium. ΦSP-3 could survive upto 70ºC. 1M NaCl was optimal for phage viability while 0.25M favored maximal adsorption. The optimum pH for ΦSP-3 viability and adsorption was 8. Among the sugars,Arabinose was most influential in inactivating ΦSP-3. 100% adsorption was achieved at both 37ºC and at 40ºC. 10mM of CaCl2 to be optimum for ΦSP-3. Thus the present study substantiates the candidature of ΦSP-3 as a sturdy biocontrol agent capable of thriving well in diverse physicochemical environments.

      Keywords: Lytic phages, Salmonella

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Grażyna Augustyn

    (2)
    1. HEALTH BENEFITS OF KVASS MANUFACTURED FROM RYE WHOLEMEAL BREAD [FS]

      Abstract: Kvass based on traditional technology completely disappeared from polish market. It was replaced by drinks, prepared from malt concentrates, wrongly named kvass. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain traditional bread kvass (by fermentation), using the mash prepared from commercial wholemeal rye bread, produced by 5-phase dough fermentation method, and to determine the quality of this kvass in terms of consumer acceptance, chemical composition and antioxidant activity. It has been demonstrated that based on the traditional wholemeal rye bread, it is possible to produce good quality bread kvass, with similar organoleptic qualities to the commercial kvasses, which contain several added flavours and preservatives. Natural bread kvass can be consumed by consumers of all ages, since it contains only trace amounts of alcohol, and it has almost double the dietary fibre content and three times lower content of reducing sugars as compared to the commercial kvasses. Laboratory made kvasses by natural fermentation also showed an increase in antioxidant activity by 60%, when compared to commercial kvasses.

      Keywords: Bread kvass, consumer acceptance, antioxidant activity, chemical composition

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. IMPACT OF OATS β-GLUCANS ON PROPERTIES OF GLUTEN-FREE BREAD [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of the study was to check the potential usability of innovative oats β-D-glucan preparation in the production of gluten-free bakery products. The preparation was used as a partial replacement of hydrocolloid mix used for baking of standard bread. Quality determination included volume, bread yield and total baking loss, and organoleptic assessment by a group of 15 trained panelists. Texture profile analysis was performed using texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. AOAC methods (2006) were used to measure moisture content of the crumb, and contents of β-D-glucan, protein, dietary fiber and its soluble and insoluble fractions.

      Keywords: gluten-free bread, β-glucans, quality, nutrition

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Dafe Kpigere Gboriavhien Ayanru

    (1)
    1. DOMINANT MESOPHILIC ACTINOMYCETES IN OREDO SOILS [MB]

      Abstract: Investigations were carried out on dominant mesophilic actinomycetes in soil samples from eight different farmlands in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Actinomycetal isolates were characterized and identified using their morphological, biochemical traits and ability to utilize various carbon sources. The physical and chemical properties of the soil samples were also carried out, using qualitative and quantitative means of analysis. Total actinomycete counts ranged from 0.8 x 104 cfu/g to 3.8 x 104cfu/g. Four genera of actinomycetes were isolated regularly. They included Streptomyces, Nocardia, Micromonospora and Oerskovia spp. of which Streptomyces and Nocardia spp. were the most abundant in all sampling sites. Particle size soil analysis showed a sand, silt and clay fraction of 82.6 – 92%, 1.2 - 10.8%, and 5.3-11% respectively. The pH of all soil samples ranged between 5.37 – 5.99. Percentage organic matter ranged from 0.51 – 1%. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents of the soil samples may influence the prevalence of actinomycetes in the soil.

      Keywords: Actinomycetes, Oredo, mesophilic, soil, farmlands

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Naim Deniz Ayaz

    (1)
    1. COMPARISON OF PREVALENCE AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 IN CATTLE AND SHEEP [MB]

      Abstract: In this study the prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) based cultivation technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in feces and/or colon tissue of cattle (n= 282) and sheep (n= 218) at slaughterhouse. The major virulence genes, intimin variants, Shiga toxin variants and antibiotic resistance genes of the isolates were examined by PCR and genomic diversity of the cattle and sheep E. coli O157:H7 isolates were assessed using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In the present study the prevalence of E.coli O157:H7 was found higher in sheep (6.4 %) than in cattle (3.9 %). All the E.coli O157:H7 isolates were detected as positive for at least one stx gene and positive for other virulence genes. Twelve (29.3 %) and one (2.4 %) of the cattle isolates carried stx2 and stx1 gene, respectively. However 11 (17.7 %) of the sheep E. coli O157:H7 isolates carried stx2 and five (8.1 %) of the isolates harbored stx1 gene only. At least one antibiotic resistance gene was detected from 35 isolates. E. coli O157:H7 isolates from four sheep and three cattle harbored tetB gene. From three cattle and one sheep samples strA carrying E. coli O157:H7 were isolated. Among them, isolates from 2 cattle and one sheep samples were carried both tetB and strA. Isolates were grouped into six different clusters. From a cattle and a sheep, two different E. coli O157:H7 which have different PFGE patterns, were isolated. It can be concluded that sheep pose a risk as cattle for STEC O157:H7 contamination in Turkey.

      Keywords: E. coli O157:H7; virulence genes; stx variants; antibiotic resistance; PFGE

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Aynur Aybey

    (1)
    1. EFFECTS OF PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AS BACTERIAL EFFLUX PUMP INHIBITORS ON QUORUM SENSING REGULATED BEHAVIORS [MB]

      Abstract: Psychotropic drugs are known to have antimicrobial activity against several groups of microorganisms. The antidepressant agents such as duloxetine, paroxetine, hydroxyzine and venlafaxine are shown to act as efflux pump inhibitors in bacterial cells. In order to the investigation of the effects of psychotropic drugs were determined for clinically significant pathogens by using standart broth microdillusion method. The anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS) activity of psychotropic drugs was tested against four test pathogens using the agar well diffusion method. All drugs showed strong inhibitory effect on the growth of S. typhimurium. Additionally, quorum sensing-regulated behaviors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production were investigated. Most effective drugs on swarming, swimming and twitching motility and alkaline protease production, respectively, were paroxetine and duloxetine; duloxetine; hydroxyzine and venlafaxine; paroxetine and venlafaxine; venlafaxine. Accordingly, psychotropic drugs were shown strongly anti-QS activity by acting as bacterial efflux pump inhibitors and effection on motility and alkaline protease production of P. aeruginosa.

      Keywords: Anti-quorum sensing activity, efflux pump, motility, psychotropic drugs, P. aeruginosa

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Biruk Ayenew

    (3)
    1. ENERGY SOURCES AFFECT IN VITRO PROPAGATION AND SUBSEQUENT ACCLIMATIZATION OF ANANAS COMOSUS, VAR. SMOOTH CAYENNE PLANTS [BT]

      Abstract: Plant tissue culture is an inevitable technique to overcome healthy and limited planting materials problems using suitable energy sources. Different carbohydrates have diverse effect on in vitro growing plantlets in terms of growth performance, acclimatization and cost used for micro-propagation. Hence, this paper reports the effects of sucrose, fructose, glucose, table sugar and starch on pineapple in vitro mass propagation and acclimatization as well as the analysis of energy source required cost per a medium. A complete randomized design was used to compare analytic grade sucrose with other four energy sources at 2 and 3 % (w/v). The results revealed that the energy sources with varied concentration strongly influenced the in vitro growth and subsequent acclimatization of pineapple plantlets. Analytic grade sucrose and table sugar at 3 % performed well for in vitro survival rate (100%), shoot amplification (15.3-16.5 shoots), rooting ability (2.5cm long and 12 roots) and acclimatization (95.4-97%). However, fructose and glucose required high importation cost (229.1% and 121.9% over analytic grade sucrose, respectively), and have low growth and acclimatization performance next to starch and energy free medium. Thus, table sugar has found to be a suitable alternative energy source for pineapple mass propagation, which saved about 95-97% cost from that of laboratory grade sucrose.

      Keywords: Acclimatization, Ananas comosus, cheap alternative, energy sources, in vitro mass propagation

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. EFFICIENT USE OF TEMPORARY IMMERSION BIOREACTOR (TIB) ON PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus L.) MULTIPLICATION AND ROOTING ABILITY [BT]

      Abstract: Pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) is one of the most potential fruit crop growing in Ethiopia due to suitable agro-ecology and economic importance. However, it is difficult to meet the demand for planting materials using the conventional propagation techniques due to production inefficiency and disease transmission. The experiment is laid in Completely Randomized Design with three treatments of vessels used along its media type, Temporary Immersion Bioreactor, TIB (RITA®, Vitropic, France) , Glass jam jar and plastic jars , replicated six times on MS medium. A highly significant difference (p<0.001) was observed between culturing vessels with the same media supplement. From this study, it was found that pineapple explants cultured on TIB having full strength MS media supplemented with 2 mgl-1BA and 30gl–1 sucrose was found to be better which gave an average multiplication of 13.17 shoots per explant within six weeks of culture. Similarly plantlets cultured on TIB with half strength MS media supplemented with 3mgl-1 IBA and 40 g l-1 sucrose developed on average 16.33 roots having 6.27 cm length with well developed hairy root in four weeks of culture period that performed better in acclimatization facility and open field too.

      Keywords: Ananas comosus L.; micropropagation; Temporary Immersion Bioreactor (TIB); growth regulators

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. Ensete ventricosum (WELW.) CHEESMAN: A CHEAP AND ALTERNATIVE GELLING AGENT FOR PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus VAR. SMOOTH CAYENNE) IN VITRO PROPAGATION [BT]

      Abstract: Different mechanisms are tried so far to reduce the production cost of plant tissue culture through increasing multiplication rate and/or substituting expensive components for wider usage of the technology. Subsequently, replacing the most common gelling agent, agar, took an attention since higher proportion of media cost comes from it. Up to now different alternatives were tried though they have drawbacks due to their inherent chemical characteristics. Therefore the search for new alternatives like Enset ventricosum is important. Enset flour, ‘Bulla’, has been tried in this study for the first time to substitute agar and showed no significant difference for shoots number, root number, shoot height, leaf number and an associated fresh weight of the plantlets besides good gelling ability than Agar. Subsequently, ‘Bulla’ at 80g L-1 gelled well and gave 11.8 shoots with 0.95g and 13.33 roots having 1.37 cm length. This rate can also save up to 76 % cost of gelling though significant difference was found for root length of 3.23 cm with Agar, 8 g L-1. This indicates further study on biochemical and/ or hormonal activity and across crop genotypes to use ‘Bulla’ as a cheap alternative commercial gelling agent.

      Keywords: Ensete ventricosum; Gelling agents, Bulla; Low cost tissue culture, Ananas comosus

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mehdi Azami

    (1)
    1. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES, ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF ZATARIA MULTIFLORA ENCAPSULATED IN GELTIN NANOFILMS [MB]

      Abstract: Development of biodegradable and biocompatible films based on the proteinpolymer with strong antibacterial activities is gradually obtained extensive concern in the world. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of gelatin nano films merged with different concentrations of Zataria multiflora essential oil. Gelatin films were prepared from gelatin solutions (10% w/v) containing Zataria multiflora essential oil [ZMO] (2, 4, 6 and 8% w/w), glycerol (25% w/w) as plasticizer, and glutaraldehyde (2% w/w) as cross-linker. The mechanical, water solubility, water swelling, water vapor permeability, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the films were measured according to the American Society for Testing and Materials. Gelatin films exhibited good tensile strength and elongation at break, water solubility, swelling, and water vapor permeability. Incorporation of ZMO into the gelatin films caused a significant decrease in tensile strength and swelling, and a significant increase in elongation at break, water solubility, water vapor permeability and whiteness of the films. Gelatin films exhibited low antioxidant activity while gelatin films incorporated with ZMO exhibited excellent antioxidant properties. The films incorporated with ZMO also exhibited excellent antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our results suggest that the gelatin/ZMO films could be used as a very attractive alternative to traditional materials for different biomedical applications.

      Keywords: Gelatin film, zataria multiflora, essential oil, antioxidants, antibacterial

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Djalaliddin Azimov

    (1)
    1. FAUNA, ECOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF CYPRINIFORMES FISH HELMINTHS IN UZBEKISTAN [MB]

      Abstract: The purpose of the research was to study helminthofauna of fish Cypriniformes order in comparative aspect in artificial and natural water bodies and the clarification ways of formation of faunal assemblages and development of scientific bases of prevention of helminthiasis of fish. An extensive and systematic research of helminthofauna of fish water bodies of the order Cypriniformes of the northeast of Uzbekistan has realized and taxonomic and faunal analysis of detected parasites has also been carried out. Fauna of parasitic worms of Cypriniformes in ponds of diverse Syrdarya river shows 49 species, 18 species belongs to the class Trematoda, Cestoda class represents 13 species, class Acanthocephala 4 species and the class Nematoda 14 species. Analysis of biological properties and ecological specialty of Cypriniformes parasitic worms allows three types of helminth communities: 25 species parasitizing Cypriniformes as definitive hosts; 19 species parasitizing as intermediate hosts and 6 species parasitizing as a reservoir (paratenetic) hosts. Dioctophyme renale was registered first time in roach for the water bodies of the Syrdarya river. Ordinary carp, in our research, according to as host a new host Nematode of the Raphidascaris acus larvae. On the basis of factual data the environmental factors of the quantitative and qualitative composition of cyprinids helminthofauna in the northeast of Uzbekistan is reported.

      Keywords: Helminths, trematode, cestode, nematode, acanthocephale, parasite fauna, ecology, taxonomy

      article details | fulltext pdf

 

  B

  • Jasim B.

    (1)
    1. EXPLORATION OF ACTINOMYCETES ENDOPHYTICALLY ASSOCIATED WITH PIPER NIGRUM FOR POTENTIAL BIOACTIVITY [MB]

      Abstract: Piper nigrum is well known for its metabolite richness. So endophytic microorganisms that reside within such environments can be expected to have promising biosynthetic potential. The current study identified three endophytic actinomycetes with broad bioactivity which can have applications in natural product related pharmacological research. The Verrucosispora sp identified in the study was found to have promising anticancer and antimicrobial activities and Streptomyces sp. was found to have antioxidant activity. The results obtained are supported by many previous reports and this suggests the isolates obtained in the study to have the possible presence of potential known or novel compounds with broad spectrum of activity.

      Keywords: Endophytic actinomycetes, MTT assay, DPPH assay, 16S rDNA sequencing, Streptomyces sp., Verrucosispora sp.

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Riswan Ali S. B.

    (1)
    1. STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF MEDIUM COMPONENTS FOR HEMICELLULASE PRODUCTION USING TAPIOCA STEM [BT]

      Abstract: In the present work the production of xylanase by Cellulomonas fimi in submerged fermentation (SmF) using tapioca stem as a sole carbon source was enhanced by medium optimization. A Plackett-Burman based statistical screening procedure was used to identify the most significant nutrient components which influence the xylanase production. From the experiments, twelve nutrient components were screened and the results revealed that peptone, yeast extract, KH2PO4 and CaCl2.2H2O were the most significant nutrient components. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimal concentrations of these four screened nutrients components and the experimental results were fitted with a second-order polynomial model at 95% level (P < 0.05), the combined effects of these nutrients on production of xylanase was also studied. The optimum concentrations are peptone–0.957g/L, yeast extract–2.5g/L, KH2PO4–3.09g/L, and CaCl2.2H2O –0.409g/L. Under these conditions, the production of xylanase was found to be 4.12 IU/ml. The results show a close agreement between the expected and obtained activity level.

      Keywords: Xylanase, Plackett-Burman design, Tapioca stem, Cellulomonas fimi, central composite design,response surface methodology

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mbatia B.Nyambura

    (1)
    1. ANTI-OXIDATIVE POTENTIAL OF HONEY AND ASCORBIC ACID IN YOGHURT FORTIFIED WITH OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS [FS]

      Abstract: Processing of Nile perch (Lates niloticus), a commercial fish in Eastern Africa; results in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) rich by-products. Oil derived from such by-products can be incorporated in commonly consumed foods; however, these fatty acids are highly susceptible to oxidation. Honey and ascorbic acid are natural anti-oxidants that could play a role in preventing lipid oxidation. In the current study, omega-3 rich oil was extracted from L. niloticus viscera and added to yoghurt samples. The aim of the study was to investigate the biochemical and anti-oxidative parameters in honey and lemon juice and use them as antioxidants in the fortified yoghurt samples. Stability of the fortified yoghurt was monitored over one month storage period. Ascorbic acid Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (AEAC) of lemon juice and honey were 312 ± 2.34 and 197 ± 3.65 mg/L, respectively. The DPPH radical scavenging activity showed that honey (86.16± 1.43%) tended to be highly active in the reaction with DPPH compared to lemon juice (71.29± 3.52%).After four weeks of storage, the peroxide value (PV), anisidine value (AV) and (free fatty acid) (FFA) contents were within the acceptable range with the honey fortified sample being most stable. The ascorbic acid content was highest in lemon juice fortified samples (30 mg/100g) while in honey fortified samples were below 1mg/100g. The pH in all the samples decreased slightly over time. Honey and lemon juice are therefore good natural anti-oxidants and their anti-oxidative potential can be utilized in the prevention of lipid oxidation in omega-3 fortified yoghurts.

      Keywords: Omega-3 fatty acids, honey, ascorbic acid, yoghurt, antioxidants

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Aguilar-Uscanga B.R.

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF PLASMA ENERGY ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, TOTAL POLYPHENOLS AND FUNGAL VIABILITY IN CHAMOMILE (MATRICARIA CHAMOMILLA) AND CINNAMON (CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM) [FS]

      Abstract: The plasma energy is a collection of free particles with positive and negative charges and has demonstrated to be a good prospect for food preservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of plasma energy on the antioxidant activity, total polyphenol content and yeasts and molds counts in chamomile and cinnamon powder samples treated at 650, 750 and 850 volts for 0, 1, 3 ,5 7 and10 min. Total counts of yeasts and molds in chamomile and cinamon powder samples were determined before and after each treatment with plasma energy. The enumeration was conducted on potatoe dextrose agar suplemented with 0.6% Bengal rose and 2% ampicillin. The antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content were also analyzed. The results showed that plasma exposure on chamomile and cinnamon powder at 850V for 10 minutes significantly reduced (p<0.05) the concentration of yeasts and molds reduced to <1.0 log CFU/g, and only 0.68±0.19 log CFU/g, respectively. Regarding the antioxidant activity and the total polyphenol content, we observed a reduction of 55% in the antioxidant activity in chamomile, while in cinnamon; there was an increase of 21.4% at 750 V. The highest total polyphenol content was observed after 10 min of treatment at 650 V and 750V, with concentrations of 3.3 ± 0.05 mg GAE/g in chamomile and 1.7 ± 0.01 mg GAE/g in cinnamon. We conclude that treatment with plasma at 750 Volts and 10 minutes of exposure was the best treatment to significantly reduce (p<0.05) yeasts and molds counts without affecting the total polyphenol content in chamomile and cinnamon powder.

      Keywords: Plasma, antioxidants, phenolic content, yeasts and molds, food safety

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sathish Kumar B.Y

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PEPTIDES/PROTEINS FROM DUNG BEETLE, ONTHOPHAGUS TAURUS IMMUNE HEMOLYMPH [MB]

      Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides are important in the first line of the host defense system of all insect species. In the present study antimicrobial peptide(s) were isolated from the hemolymph of the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. Both non induced and immune induced hemolymphs were tested for their antimicrobial activity against different bacterial strains and C. albicans. Induction was done by injecting E. coli into the abdominal cavity of the O. taurus. The non induced hemolymph did not show activity against any of the tested fungal and bacterial strains where as induced hemolymph showed activity against all tested bacterial strains but no activity against C. albicans. The induced hemolymph was subjected to non reducing SDS-PAGE and UV wavelength scan was performed to detect the presence of peptides. The immune induced hemolymph was purified by gel filtration chromatography to separate the proteins responsible for the antibacterial activity. The fractions within the peak were tested against those bacteria which previously showed sensitivity to the crude immune induced hemolymph. All fractions were found to be active against all tested bacteria with difference in zone of inhibition. The peptides are active against prokaryotes & not against eukaryotes. These properties reveal its unique characteristics and therapeutic application.

      Keywords: Antimicrobial peptides/protein, immune induced hemolymph, SDS-PAGE, Gel filtration chromatography (GFC), UV wavelength scan

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Farid Baba-Moussa

    (1)
    1. KIT RELIABILITY FOR CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF OILS IN FOOD FRYING [FS]

      Abstract: In Benin, West Africa, frying is one of the major ways of cooking. However, the chemical composition of the oil used in the food frying process contains unsaturated fatty acids and other by-products that compromise the oil quality making it toxic and often carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to check the reliability of kits in controlling three frying yams oil quality. The food frying was performed using oil in a discontinuous heating period of 15 min followed by three hours of cooling period for two experimental days. The temperature, and the oil chemical samplings were assessed with the kit every thirty minutes. In addition, selected oil chemical characteristics were determined to quantitatively and qualitatively appreciate the chemical modifications during the fast food versus the rapid food processing methods. Our findings indicate that water and volatile chemical compounds vary significantly for the first day of analysis from 0.18% to 1.6% for groundnut oil; from 0.14% to 1.4% for palm oil and from 0.17% to 1.6% for cotton oils. We detected a decrease of iodine index to 25%; 35.31% and 27.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. However, the peroxide index increases to 55.33%; 61.90% and 57.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. The increases of acid and saponification indices were also observed. Under conjugated effect of water temperature contained in the yam and air contact, the chemical characteristics of oil vary with the frying time. Our results reveal concordance consistent data with both the rapid methods and laboratory data set analysis.

      Keywords: Kits, frying oils, chemical characteristics, Benin

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Lamine Baba-Moussa

    (1)
    1. KIT RELIABILITY FOR CONTROLLING THE QUALITY OF OILS IN FOOD FRYING [FS]

      Abstract: In Benin, West Africa, frying is one of the major ways of cooking. However, the chemical composition of the oil used in the food frying process contains unsaturated fatty acids and other by-products that compromise the oil quality making it toxic and often carcinogenic. The aim of this study was to check the reliability of kits in controlling three frying yams oil quality. The food frying was performed using oil in a discontinuous heating period of 15 min followed by three hours of cooling period for two experimental days. The temperature, and the oil chemical samplings were assessed with the kit every thirty minutes. In addition, selected oil chemical characteristics were determined to quantitatively and qualitatively appreciate the chemical modifications during the fast food versus the rapid food processing methods. Our findings indicate that water and volatile chemical compounds vary significantly for the first day of analysis from 0.18% to 1.6% for groundnut oil; from 0.14% to 1.4% for palm oil and from 0.17% to 1.6% for cotton oils. We detected a decrease of iodine index to 25%; 35.31% and 27.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. However, the peroxide index increases to 55.33%; 61.90% and 57.78% for groundnut, palm and cotton oils respectively. The increases of acid and saponification indices were also observed. Under conjugated effect of water temperature contained in the yam and air contact, the chemical characteristics of oil vary with the frying time. Our results reveal concordance consistent data with both the rapid methods and laboratory data set analysis.

      Keywords: Kits, frying oils, chemical characteristics, Benin

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Funmilayo Bose Babalola

    (1)
    1. BIOPROTECTIVE POTENTIAL OF BACTERIOCINS FROM SOME Lactobacillus species ISOLATED FROM FOODS [MB]

      Abstract: Lactobacillus species isolated from ogi, kunnu, yoghurt and palm-wine were found to produce bacteriocins. The bacteriocins had broad spectra of antimicrobial activities against both Gram-positive and negative bacteria. The effects of the bacteriocins on Escherichia coli infections in rats were evaluated. Sprague-Dawley rats were infected with E. coli and treated with 1280 AU/ml of the bacteriocins from L. plantarum MO21, L. plantarum MP12, L. casei MK21, L. casei MO11, L. brevis MK11 and L. buchneri MY21. Escherichia coli infection caused upregulation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total protein, globulin, cholesterol, bilirubin and glucose levels in sera of the infected rats which were down-regulated in the bacteriocin treated rats. Gastric and GIT damage caused by E. coli infection were reduced in the bacteriocin-treated groups. Therefore, it is concluded that these bacteriocins may have useful biomedical applications.

      Keywords: Lactobacillus species; bacteriocin; gastric tissue; total protein and globulin

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Olga M. Babinets

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF LOW TEMPERATURE STORAGE ON THE THERAPEUTIC PROPERTIES OF THE IMMOBILIZED ON ADSORBENTS AND FREE CELLS OF SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII [MB]

      Abstract: Probiotic S. boulardii cells were immobilized on adsorbents "Sorbex" (activated carbon pellets) and "SCMS-1" (granules of aluminum dioxide with deposited film of activated carbon). The experimental probiotics were the "carrier-cells" systems, wherein on the carrier surface different amounts of yeast cells were absorbed. The safety of the "carrier-cells" systems was assessed on the number of macrocolonies formed by certain systems. During freezing down to low temperatures bigger number of immobilized cells if compared to free cells in the cell suspensions has been shown to dye. The safety of the complexes during freezing is affected by cooling mode and preserving medium composition. Experimental intestinal dysbiosis was induced in mice by oral administration of ampicillin and metronidazole. There has been found a longer persistence of yeast cells and higher levels of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacilus spp. bacteria in the colon mucin of the mice treated with immobilized S. boulardii. In the groups of animals treated with free cells and the mixtures of free cells with adsorbents, the terms of persistence of yeast cells and the recovery rates of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacilus spp. in colon mucin were lower. Storage for one year at –80C, –196C did not affect therapeutic properties of immobilized and free S. boulardii cells.

      Keywords: Dysbiosis, probiotics, adsorbents, immobilization, low temperatures

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • István Bácskai

    (1)
    1. EXAMINATION OF ENERGY RECOVERY OF BREWERS' SPENT GRAIN I. - CHEMICAL PROCESS [FS]

      Abstract: Production rate of technologies applied in the food industry can only be of economical nature if energy consumption is specifically reduced in parallel with increasing the capacities and/or utilization of alternative energy sources gains higher ratio during production. In food manufacturing technologies usually a high proportion of waste/byproduct forms; transportation, recovery and recycling of which involves costs in many cases and simultaneously it also means environmental issues.
      Beer brewing industry’s most important byproduct is the brewers' spent grains (BSG) which forms during mashing. Utilization of this product is theoretically solved, it is most frequently sold as animal fodder but usage in energy sector also holds promising possibilities. Our study examines the possibilities of energetical recovery of brewers' spent grains by means of chemical processes – such as combustion or pyrolysis – seeking for the economical and environmental advantages.

      Keywords: Brewers' spent grains (BSG), burning, pyrolysis, energy recovery

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ariola Bacu

    (1)
    1. PRIMARILY RESULTS OF PHYTOPLANKTON DNA AND VARIATION TO ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS IN DURRES`S BAY COASTAL WATERS (ALBANIA) [MB]

      Abstract: After isolation of phytoplankton DNA in coastal waters of Durres Bay, Albania, quantification and analysis of quality were investigated with spectrophotometric analysis. Analysis of UV absorption by the nucleotides provides a simple and accurate estimation of the concentration of nucleic acids in a sample. This method is however limited by the quantity of DNA and the purity of the preparation. Also biotic environment factors as Chlorophyll a and abiotic environment factors as temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate were investigated to assess DNA quantities in different environment conditions. The Chlorophyll a was studied also to access the level of trophy. The sample stations were: Golem Beach (GB), Channel of Plepa (ChP), Hekurudha Beach (HB), Ex-Fuel Quay in Marine Durres Harbour (EFQ), Water Channel of Durres City (WChDC) and Currila Beach (CB). Samples are taken in one meter depth from the water surface. Water samples were collected monthly from April to October 2011. The most abundant stations with phytoplankton DNA are Channel of Plepa and Water Channel of Durres City. This confirms that there are spills of fresh waters, sewage or agricultural water spills, often discharge in coastal waters. Referring Mutliple Regression Analysis and single regression analysis, the association between phytoplankton DNA and environment factors was strong (R2 = 0.75). Basing in single correlation and statistically significance (p-value ≤ 0.05), the enviroment factors that correlated to phytoplankton DNA were pH, salinity and phosphate; explaining thus the variation of total phytoplankton in Durres Bay coastal waters.

      Keywords: Phytoplankton DNA, Chlorophyll a, environment factors, trophy

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Grigori Badalyan

    (1)
    1. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE BASED DISINFECTANT BIOXIL [MB]

      Abstract: Antifungal activity of the Bioxil containing hydrogen peroxide as an active agent has been studied. The mentioned species act as indicators of microbiological quality of fruit juices and hygienic condition of juice processing industry. Inhibition activity of the mentioned disinfection agent has been studied in vitro against different yeast strains: Rhodotorula rubra J-120 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae J-200 and their mix culture. For the evaluation of antifungal efficacy of the Bioxil suspension and surface tests were used. Relation between antifungal activity of Bioxil, its concentrations, yeast species and contact times was established. Bioxil containing 1% and 3% of H2O2 has shown unequal inhibition activity against different yeast strains. Influence of washing and disinfection steps on the level of contamination of conveyor and working surfaces by yeasts and has been investigated. In the processing conditions, after treatment of conveyors and working surfaces, without preliminary washing, lower inhibition activity of the Bioxil has been occurred.

      Keywords: Yeast, hydrogen peroxide, antifungal activity, Bioxil

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Pallavi Badhe

    (1)
    1. BIOSCOURING OF WOOL USING PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS SUBTILIS ISOLATED FROM ABATTOIR WASTE [MB]

      Abstract: Bioscouring refers to the enzymatic removal of impurities from fibres/fabrics, which endows it with improved hydrophilicity for further wet processes. Enzymatic scouring preserves the fibre’s structure and strength, avoids high energy consumption and severe pollution problems that are associated with conventional alkaline treatments. In the present study, protease enzyme was extracted from Bacillus subtilis which was isolated from abattoir (slaughter house) waste. Different medium parameters were optimized for maximal enzyme production. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation followed by dialysis bag method. Partially purified protease enzyme was used in the bioscouring of wool fibres. Different parameters such as pH, temperature, time, enzyme concentration were optimized to achieve an efficient scouring. Comparison of enzymatic process for wool fibre with conventional alkaline soap process in terms of weight loss, whiteness index, tensile strength and FTIR studies confirmed that bioscouring could be as effective as the conventional process.

      Keywords: Bioscouring, Protease, Bacillus subtilis, Abattoir waste, Wettability, Alkali solubility, Whiteness index

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Essghaier Badiaa

    (1)
    1. SYNTHESIS, CRYSTAL STRUCTURE, SPECTROSCOPY PROPERTIES AND POTENTIAL ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIALITIES OF A NEW SYNTHETIC COMPOUND: AMINO- CHLOROPYRIDINIUM DIAQUA DIOXALATO IRON(III) [BT]

      Abstract: We report herein the synthesis and the physicochemical characterization of a new mixed-ligand iron(III) complex of formula (C5H6ClN2)[Fe(C2O4)2(H2O)2].2H2O. This compound has been prepared by slow evaporation at room temperature and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. It has been characterized by IR and UV-VIS spectra and thermal analysis (TG and DTA). In this compound, the iron ion has a slightly distorted square bipyramidal environment, coordinated by two chelating oxalate ion and two water molecules. Structural cohesion is established essentially by π-π interactions between the rings of pyridine groups and intermolecular hydrogen bonds connecting the ionic entities and uncoordinated water molecules.
      In vitro antimicrobial activities of the amino- chloropyridinium diaqua dioxalato iron (III) against pathogenic fungi, yeast and bacteria were studied in this work. On the whole, our new compound has high antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria innocua. The amino- chloropyridinium diaqua dioxalato iron (III) used at 200µg m-1, can reduce Candida albicans survival of about 45.45%, and destruct hyphe mycelial of Trichophyton rubrum. High lysozyme activities were expressed especially against Listeria innocua with 17 times more than Staphylococcus aureus. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) are ranging from 16 µg ml-1 for bacteria to 256 µg ml-1 for yeast and IC50 values varying from 1.44 to 10.45 µg ml-1 for bacteria and 45.8 for yeast.

      Keywords: Iron (III) complex, antifungal antibacterial activity, spectroscopy studies, single crystal structure

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Milla Alves Baffi

    (1)
    1. INVERTASE FROM A CANDIDA STELLATA STRAIN ISOLATED FROM GRAPE: PRODUCTION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION [MB]

      Abstract: Invertases are enzymes which hydrolyze the sucrose and are widely employed in food and pharmaceutical industries. In this work, the screening of autochthonous grape yeasts from Brazil was carried out in order to investigate their invertase production potential. Yeasts belonging to Saccharomyces, Hanseniaspora, Sporidiobolus, Issatchenkia, Candida, Cryptococcus and Pichia genera were analyzed by submerged fermentation (SbmF) using sucrose as substrate. Among them, Candida stellata strain (N5 strain) was selected as the best producer (10.6 U/ml after 48 hours of SbmF). This invertase showed optimal activity at pH 3.0 and 55°C, demonstrating appropriate characters for application in several industrial processes, which includes high temperatures and acid pHs. In addition, this invertase extract presented tolerance to low concentrations of ethanol, suggesting that it could also be suitable for application at the beginning of alcoholic fermentation. These data provide promising prospects of the use of this new invertase in food and ethanol industry.

      Keywords: Grape yeasts, non-Saccharomyces, invertase, food industry

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Emilia Bagnicka

    (1)
    1. ANALYSIS OF THE CAEV INFECTION IMPACT ON THE MILK YIELD AND MILK SCC OF POLISH DAIRY GOATS [FS]

      Abstract: Goats’ milk is an attractive product for producers and consumers, because of its health benefits and chemical composition. But there arestill no strict regulations according to specific hygienic rules for this milk safety. Somatic cells number, which is the basic parameter for bovine milk (SCC) vary in goats and it is affected by many factors, e.g. age, estrous phase, type of milking, but also by infectious factors. In our experiment we had analyzed the potential influence of CAEV infection on dairy goats productivity and milk SCC. The experiment was conducted on 24 individuals (12 seropositive/12 seronegative) , with milk samples analysis during subsequent lactations (from 2nd to 5th). The results have shown the impact of viral infection on early and late lactations, with decreased milk yield & increased number of somatic cells in milk. We conclude that it could be correlated with infection progression and the efficiency of goats’ immune system.

      Keywords: Goat, milk, milk somatic cells, CAEV

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Touwendsida Serge Bagré

    (1)
    1. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIARRHEAGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM RAW BEEF, MUTTON, AND INTESTINES SOLD IN OUAGADOUGOU, BURKINA FASO [MB]

      Abstract: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli are zoonotic bacteria commonly present in animal gut. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from raw meats and intestines in open markets of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 450 samples were collected from beef, mutton, beef intestine and sheep intestine, in respective number 175, 175, 50 and 50. Diarrheagenic E. coli were isolated by using standard microbiological methods and then Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction was used for characterization. Among the pathotypes, enteropathogenic E. coli was identified by serotypage (slide agglutination). A 30% (135/450) were E. coli. 30% (40/135) of E. coli strains provided the virulence genes. 14% of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, 13% of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli-enterotoxinogenic Escherichia coli, 1% of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, 2% of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and 1% of enterotoxinogenic Escherichia coli. 41% (55/135) were enteropathogenic Escherichia coli belong to serotypes: (5%), O119 (3%), O127 (16%), O125 (9%), O126 (18%), O128 (5%), O114 (5%), O124 (5%), O142 (7%). This study show contamination of slaughter animal with diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes in Burkina Faso. Precaution can take of mutation breeding level.

      Keywords: Beef, Mutton, Raw intestines, Diarrheagenic E. coli, Burkina Faso

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Zahra Bahari

    (1)
    1. THE IN VITRO EFFECTS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES ON BACTERIAL BIOFILMS [MB]

      Abstract: Biofilm formation is one of the most important bacterial virulence factors that plays a key role in infections. In the present study, effects of silver nanoparticles were evaluated in vitro against bacterial biofilm. Ninety bacterial isolates were selected for study. The Congo Red agar, tube and microtitre assays were used for the detection of biofilm. Antimicrobial effects of silver nanoparticles were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and microdilution methods. The microtitre assay was used to study the biofilm inhibition activity. The most common biofilm producing bacteria was Staphylococcus aureus. The power of biofilm production is different among bacteria, and the effect of silver nanoparticles against Escherichia coli was less than Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The silver nanoparticles are effective against planctonic and biofilm forms. Because of the importance of biofilm in infectious diseases and the development of drug resistance, silver nanoparticles may be an appropriate way for the control and the prevention of biofilm.

      Keywords: Bacteria, Biofilm, Silver nanoparticles

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Behnaz Bahrami

    (1)
    1. THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT POTENCIES OF SATUREJA KHUZISTANICA ESSENTIAL OIL FOR PRESERVING OF VEGETABLE OILS [MB]

      Abstract: In recent years, the use of natural preservatives for protection of vegetable oils against microbial and chemical deterioration is one of the interesting issues. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the preservative activity of Satureja khuzistanica essential oil (SKEO) against microbial and chemical deterioration in sesame and flaxseed vegetable oils. Chemical composition of SKEO, chemical profiles, antioxidant and preservative potencies of inoculated vegetable oils with different concentration of SKEO were determined. Carvacrol was the main component of SKEO. The chemical profile of vegetable oils in presence of SKEO had no changes. Sesame and flaxseed vegetable oils had the IC50 equal to 26 and 22 µg/ml, respectively. Inoculation the SKEO (1%v/v) in vegetable oils decreased the IC50 for vegetable oils. SKEO showed promised antimicrobial activity against food microorganisms. Inoculation the SKEO (0.75%v/v) in sesame oil inhibited completely the bacteria and fungi after 14 days. Flaxseed oil inoculated with SKEO (1% v/v and lower concentrations) decreased the bacteria and fungi populations after 28 days. Therefore, the use of SKEO as natural preservative can protect vegetable oils from deterioration; also it gives the vegetable oils the other pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects with applications in different industries.

      Keywords: Preservative, Essential oil, Satureja khuzistanica, Antioxidant, Vegetable oil

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Victor Dooslin Mercy Bai

    (1)
    1. EVALUATION OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING MICROORGANISMS (PSMs) FROM RHIZOSPHERE SOIL OF DIFFERENT CROP PLANTS AND ITS ANTAGONISTIC ACTIVITY [MB]

      Abstract: Indigenous rhizosphere soil samples were collected during study period (October 2011 – March 2012) of different crop plant from Thiruvannamalai District, Tamilnadu, India for the enumeration of Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (PSMs). Efficient phosphate solubilizing bacteria, fungi and heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated. Maximum heterotrophic bacterial populations (19.4 X105), phosphate solubilizing bacteria (4.7 X 105) were recorded in the month of February and phosphate solubilizing fungi (3.9 X 102) were documented in the month of December in rhizosphere soil of ground nut. Minimum bacterial populations (14.3 X 105) were observed in rhizosphere soil of chilli in the month of March. Lowest phosphate solubilizing bacteria (1.2 X105) and phosphate solubilzing fungi (1.2 X 102) were observed in rhizosphere soil of paddy during the month of October. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria Pseudomonassp. - BS1, Bacillus sp. – BS2, Micrococcus sp. – BS3 and fungi Aspergillus sp. – FS1, Penicillium sp. – FS2.and Trichoderma sp. – FS3 were identified. Pseudomonas sp. - BS1. exhibited maximum solubilizing efficiency (SE) and solubilizing index (SI) of 300.0 and 4.0 respectively. In fungi Aspergillus sp. – FS1 showed a maximum solubilizing efficiency (SE) and solubilizing index(SI) of 283.3 and 3.8 respectively. Antagonistic activity of P-solubilizing Pseudomonassp. - BS1 was deliberated against selected fungal plant pathogens. Among pathogens studied Aspergillus sp. showed a maximum inhibition activity (16 mm) and minimum activity (12 mm) was observed against Fusarium sp. Moreover inhibition efficiency (IE) and inhibition index (II) of Pseudomonas sp. - BS1. also calculated base on the antagonistic activity. Aspergillus sp. exhibited highest inhibition efficiency and inhibition index of 166.6 and 3.6 respectively.

      Keywords: Phosphate solubilization, microorganisms, antagonistic activity, plant pathogens

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Bijender Kumar Bajaj

    (2)
    1. PROBIOTIC ATTRIBUTES OF THE NEWLY ISOLATED LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM INFANTS’GUT [MB]

      Abstract: The gut microbiota intimately interacts with the host and influences physiological, metabolic, genetic, and immunological attributes. In the current study, analysis of fecal samples from healthy breast fed infants showed that lactic acid bacteria constitute the most abundant bacterial spp. in the infant gut (Lactobacillus plantarum being the most predominant) contrary to the established reports that Bifidobacterium spp. are mostly predominant in the infants’ gut. Evaluation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates for important probiotic characteristics showed that several of the isolates were well equipped with desirable probiotic attribute viz. ability to grow at the gut pH, and at high NaCl, bile and phenol concentrations. Some of the LAB isolates expressed functional properties like high hydrophobicity, cholesterol lowering ability, exopolysacharide producing ability, and antimicrobial potential against human pathogens. Three LAB isolates found to be superlative on probiotics attributes were identified as Enterococcus faecium FS-1.1, E. faecium FS-2.0, and E. faecium FS-4.0, based on 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Furthermore, the fecal samples of breast fed infants showed lower level of β-glucuronidase and higher level of β-glucosidase as compared to the formula fed infants, thus, reflecting the importance of breast-feeding towards general health and well being of infants.

      Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, breast/formula fed infants, hydrophobicity, exopolysaccharide, β- glucuronidase, β-glucosidase

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. FUNCTIONAL MECHANISMS OF PROBIOTICS [MB]

      Abstract: Probiotics are the live microorganisms which when ingested in adequate amounts confer health benefits. The strains most frequently used as probiotics include Lactic acid bacteria, bifidobacteria and yeast Saccharomyces boulardii. However, several other bacterial strains are being investigated for potential probiotic value viz. Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, among others. Significant therapeutic potential of probiotics has been demonstrated in several in vitro studies and that involving animal models and humans. Despite intense focus on probiotics research the mechanisms responsible for health benefits are not yet completely understood. Several important mechanisms have been proposed such as improvement of gut epithelial barrier function, Immunomodulatory effects, degradation of toxin receptors, competition for nutrients, production of inhibitory substances, antiproliferative effects, blocking of adhesion sites and modulation of gut microbiota. Bacterial cell components such as DNA or peptidoglycan may also be involved in functional mechanism of probiotics. Effectiveness of a probiotic for potential application as prophylactic or treatment agent for certain ailment is determined by its ability to possess all or most of these characteristic features. The current article describes the general functional mechanisms of probiotics.

      Keywords: Probiotics, health benefits, functional mechanisms

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Vivek Bajapai

    (1)
    1. ESTIMATION OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPOLYTIC ENZYME ACTIVITY BY THERMOPHILIC BACILLUS SP. ISOLATED FROM ARID AND SEMI-ARID REGION OF RAJASTHAN, INDIA [MB]

      Abstract: Thermophilic organisms can be defined as, micro-organisms which are adapted to survive at high temperatures. The enzymes secreted by thermophilic bacteria are capable of catalyzing biochemical reactions at high temperatures. Thermophilic bacteria are able to produce thermostable lipolytic enzymes (capable of degradation of lipid) at temperatures higher than mesophilic bacteria. Therefore, the isolation of thermophilic bacteria from natural sources and their identification are quite beneficial in terms of discovering thermostable lipase enzymes. Due to great temperature fluctuation in hot arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan, this area could serve as a good source for new thermophilic lipase producing bacteria with novel industrially important properties. The main objective of this research is the isolation and estimation of industrially important thermophilic lipase enzyme produced by thermophilic bacteria, isolated from arid and semi-arid region of Rajasthan. For this research purpose soil samples were collected from Churu, Sikar and Jhunjunu regions of Rajasthan. Total 16 bacterial strains were isolated and among only 2 thermostable lipolytic enzyme producing bacteria were charcterized. The thermostable lipolytic enzyme was estimated by qualitative and quantitative experiments. The isolates were identified as Bacillus sp. by microscopic, biochemical and molecular characterization. The optimum enzyme activity was observed at pH 8, temperature 60°C and 6% salt concentrations at 24 hrs time duration. Lipolytic enzyme find useful in a variety of biotechnological fields such as food and dairy (cheese ripening, flavour development), detergent, pharmaceutical (naproxen, ibuprofen), agrochemical (insecticide, pesticide) and oleochemical (fat and oil hydrolysis, biosurfactant synthesis) industries. Lipolytic enzyme can be further used in many newer areas where they can serve as potential biocatalysts.

      Keywords: Thermophiles, Thermostable enzyme, Lipolytic enzyme, Arid region, Semi-arid region, Bacillus sp.

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Daniel Bajčan

    (9)
    1. COLOUR, PHENOLIC CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF THE SLOVAK ALIBERNET RED WINE SAMPLES [FS]

      Abstract: Sixteen Alibernet wine samples, originated from three most important Slovak vineyard regions, were evaluated spectrophotometrically for the content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins, antioxidant activity and wine colour density. The determined total polyphenol contents in observed wines ranged from 2141 to 4274 mg gallic acid per liter (average content was 3057 mg gallic acid/L) and total anthocyanin contents ranged from 73.4 to 791.2 mg/L (average content was 403.4 mg/L). Determined values of antioxidant activity were within the interval 54.8 – 86.8% (average value was 74.5%) and the values of wine colour density varied between 0.944 and 4.592 (average value was 2.317). The statistical evaluation of the obtained results confirmed only weak linear correlation between total polyphenol content and total anthocyanin content, however strong linear correlations between total anthocyanin content and antioxidant activity, resp. wine colour density were observed. Our results also confirmed very highly significant linear relationship between wine colour density and total polyphenol content, resp. antioxidant activity and between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content.

      Keywords: Polyphenols, anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, red wine, Alibernet

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. THE INFLUENCE OF LEAD ON THE CONTENT OF POLYPHENOLS IN SEED OF FLAX UNDER MODEL CONDITIONS [FS]

      Abstract: In this work the level of risk of enhanced heavy metal contents in selected crop cultivated in model conditions of the pot trial after different Pb doses addition and in real conditions (Považie area) was evaluated. We also investigated the effect of accumulation of heavy metals content (mainly lead content) on total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity. Four variants of the experiments: control (without Pb addition, only fertilisation) and next three variants were realised. Lead in the form of water-soluble salt of Pb(NO3)2 was applied in gradual specific doses with 5 (variant B), 10 (variant C), 15 (variant D) multiple as the limit value by the Law no. 220/2004 Z.z. to assess the state of soil contamination. For the experiment the flax seeds cultivar Electra were used.
      The flame AAS (AAS Varian AA Spectr DUO 240 FS/240Z/UltrAA) was used for the determination of heavy metal contents in soil and plant materials. The total polyphenol content (TP) was estimated using Folin-Ciocalteau assay and the total antioxidant capacity of legume extracts was measured using the DPPH spectrophotometrically.
      All determined Pb (with exception C variant) and Cd contents were higher than maximal allowed amounts given by the Food Codex of the Slovak Republic.In all variants with Pb addition the TP value was lower than those in the control variant. Higher levels of polyphenolic compounds in flax seeds showed a higher antioxidant capacity values due to increased doses of lead.

      Keywords: heavy metals, flax, polyphenols, antioxidant capacity

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. CONTENT OF MERCURY AND LEAD IN LEAVES OF SPINACH (SPINACIA OLERACEA, L.) [FS]

      Abstract: Spinach is one the most nutritious leafy vegetable. Only 22 calories per 100 grams, a high amount of protein, carbohydrate and fat make it very suitable ingredient in reduction diets. For a wealth of minerals and vitamins in addition it has an extraordinary nutritional value. 100 g contains two-thirds of its daily requirement of vitamin A, virtually the entire daily need for folic acid, half the dose of vitamin C, almost a quarter of the daily needs of more than a quarter of the needs of iron and magnesium.
      According to some studies, it is a good remedy for cancer prevention. In spinach are found in high concentrations of carotenoids, which protect cells from destruction, and so help to antiaging. Lutein-carotenoided pigment, an adequate supply may delay the emergence of degenerative diseases of the retina of the eye. In the framework of monitoring, we have focused on the analysis of the levels of lead and mercury in 7 samples of spinach from the commercial network of the Slovak republic. The lead content in all samples was 0.00 mg.kg-1, mercury content was in the range of 0.0019 – 0.0054 mg.kg-1. From the point of view of the sanitary evaluation of the HPQ for the content of lead and Hg was not exceeded in either sample.

      Keywords: mercury, lead, spinach, food contamination

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. EVALUATION OF TOTAL MERCURY CONTENT IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF MARINE FISH AND ANIMALS [FS]

      Abstract: Nowdays, a degree of contamination by heavy metals can be observed in the environment. Heavy metals have serious effects on all living organisms because they can accumulate in lethal or sublethal concentrations in the various parts of food chain and so they can cause different health problems like cardiovascular and cancer diseases. Marine fish and animals are one of the bigges source of mercury in human food. Therefore this work is focused to the rate of mercury content in muscle tisuues of marine fish and animals. We analyzed mainly frozen or otherwise preserved marine fish and animals that were purchased in retail network in Slovakia. Mercury content in samples was analyzed by cold vapor AAS with mercury analyser AMA254. The contents of mercury in analysed samples were in the interval 0.0057 – 0,697 mg.kg-1. Our results shows, that no analyzed samples of marine fish and animals had over-limit concetration of Hg, so they are safe for human nutrition.

      Keywords: AAS, marine fish, mercury

      article details | fulltext pdf

    5. OPTIMIZING CONDITIONS FOR SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF TOTAL POLYPHENOLS IN WINES USING FOLIN-CIOCALTEU REAGENT [FS]

      Abstract: Wine is a complex beverage that obtains its properties mainly due to synergistic effect of alcohol, organic acids, arbohydrates, as well as the phenolic and aromatic substances. At present days, we can observe an increased interest in the study of polyphenols in wines that have antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and many other beneficial effects. Moderate and regular consumption of the red wine especially, with a high content of phenolic compounds, has a beneficial effect on human health. The aim of this work was to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for spectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in winwas to optimize conditions for pectrophotometric determination of total polyphenols in wine
      using Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent. Based on several studies, in order to minimize chemical use and optimize analysis time, we have proposed a method for the determination of total
      polyphenols using 0.25 ml Folin-Ciocaulteu reagent, 3 ml of 20% Na2CO3 solution and time of coloring complex 1.5 hour. We f

      Keywords: determination, Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, method, polyphenols, spectrophotometry, wine

      article details | fulltext pdf

    6. CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS IN SOIL AND CROP FROM MIDDLE SPIŠ AREA [O]

      Abstract: The aim of this work is to show the importance of monitoring and soil hygienic quality evaluation in the eastern Slovakia area. In the past, when no emphasis was put on ecology, as it is nowadays, there was an uncontrolled emission of pollutants from different fields of anthropogenic activities. The consequences are manifested also nowadays, but immediate and expensive solutions are needed. In this work the results of the research of soil heavy metals contamination degree as well as their plant availability depended on soil reaction in the area of “middle Spiš” have been presented. The choice of this area is related to specific of mentioned the areas above are characteristic by anthropogenic (emission), but also natural (geochemical) contamination and intensive agricultural activity, too.

      Keywords: soil, mercury, emission, contamination

      article details | fulltext pdf

    7. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF THE BESTSELLING SLOVAK RED WINES [FS]

      Abstract: Antioxidants are specific substances that oxidize themselves and in this way they protect other sensitive bioactive food components against destruction. At the same time they restrict the activity of free radicals and change them to less active forms. Large group of antioxidants are polyphenols, which affect sensory properties of fruit, vegetable and some drinks, like colour (anthocyans), taste (flavonoids) or odour (phenols). The significant source of polyphenolic compounds are wines. Polyphenols (in optimal amount and combination), found mainly in red wines, have very complex (positive) effects on organism. The aim of this work was to determine chosen antioxidant properties of the best-selling quality red wines - Blaufränkisch and St. Laurent, originating from different Slovak vineyard areas. Total polyphenols content was determined with phenol Folin-Ciocalteau´s reagent and antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH stable free radical. Both parameters were determined by UV-VIS absorption spectrometry. The determined total polyphenol contents in observed wines were within the interval 1579 – 2734 mg.L-1 (Blaufränkisch), respectively 1409 – 3276 mg.L-1 (St. Laurent). Antioxidant activity in wines was within the interval 80.2 – 86.4 % (Blaufränkisch), respectively 71.0 – 84.8 % (St. Laurent). The differences between results of measured antioxidant properties (total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities) of the wines originating from some vineyard Slovak areas were statistically significant.

      Keywords: phenolic compound, antioxidants, antioxidant activity, red wine

      article details | fulltext pdf

    8. PHENOLIC COMPOUNS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF MONOVARIETAL RED WINES PRODUCED IN LIMBACH REGION [FS]

      Abstract: Chosen antioxidant properties as content of total polyphenols, content of total anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of the red wines, originating from winery region Limbach, were determined. Three types of mono-varietal wines – Cabernet Sauvignon, Blaufränkisch and St. Laurent, originating from 3 local producers were analysed. Total polyphenols content was determined with phenol Folin-Ciocalteau´s reagent, total anthocyanins content was determined by pH differential method and antioxidant activity was determined using DPPH stable free radical. All three parameters were determined by UV-VIS absorption spectrometry.
      The determined total polyphenol contents in observed wines were within the interval 1908 – 3276 mg gallic acid.l-1, total anthocyanin contents within the interval 96 – 334 mg.l-1 and antioxidant activity within the interval 65.5 – 84.1 %. This result indicates high antioxidant properties of the Limbach´s wines. The differences between total polyphenol contents of the wines originating from different producers were not statistically significant. However, we found significant differences between results of the rest analysed parameters (total anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity) of the wines originating from different producers. The differences between results of all analysed properties of the wines of different variety were not statistically significant.

      Keywords: polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant activity, red wine, Limbach

      article details | fulltext pdf

    9. IMPACT OF BIOSLUDGE APPLICATION ON HEAVY METALS CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER [FS]

      Abstract: The application of decomposed substrate after continual biogas production is one of the possible ways how to use alternative energy sources with following monitoring of its complex influence on the hygienic state of soil with the emphasis on heavy metal input. The substances from bilge and drain sediments from water panels, also biosludge gained by continual co-fermentation of animal excrements belong to these compounds. The biosludge application is connected with possible risk of cadmium and lead, also other risky elements input into the soil. The analyses of applicated sludge prove that the determined heavy metals contents are compared with limitary value. These facts - hygienic state of soil, pH influence this limitary value and biosludge is suitable for soil application. The total heavy metals content in soil is related to the increased cadmium, nickel, chromium and cobalt contents. The analyses of heavy metals contents in sunflower seeds show that the grown yield does not comply with the legislative norms from the stand point of heavy metals content due to high zinc and nickel contents. Copper, cadmium, lead, chromium contents fulfil limitary values, for cobalt content the value is not mentioned in Codex Alimentarius. The nickel value in the control variant seeds is 2.2 times higher than the highest acceptable amount, then in variant where the sludge was applicated the nickel content was increased by 1.6 times. In the case of zinc there was increasing content in individual variants 4.7, or 4.8 times. The direct connection with the higher accumulation of zinc and nickel in soil by the influence of biosludge application is not definitely surveyed, the increased heavy metals contents in sunflower were primarily caused by their increased contents in soils.

      Keywords: biosludge, sunflower, heavy metals

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Marcin Bajcar

    (2)
    1. METHOD FOR DETERMINING FRUIT HARVESTING MATURITY [FS]

      Abstract: Accurate identification of fruit harvest timing is quite a complicated issue. We know several methods of determining harvest maturity in climacteric fruits; these include measurement of: firmness, total solids contents, respiration rate, ethylene emission measurement as well starch tests. On the other hand non-climacteric fruits (no collective maturity phase) are identified as suitable for harvesting by evaluating their colour. The first three aforementioned basic methods can be combined into a single tool, the so-called Streiff index. All the characteristics identified herein, i.e.: starch assay, total solids (including sugars, tannins, vitamins, organic acids, etc.), as well as firmness, corresponding to protopectin-pectin conversion, produce caloric response. Hence, the correlation between fruit maturity and the caloric response of the material provides the basis for an innovative test enabling assessment of harvest maturity in fruit. Caloric response is largely impacted by the changing structure of fruit dry mass. The calorific content of fruit during maturation process decreases due to the conversion of the water-insoluble starch, with a calorific value of 4200 cal/g, into soluble monosaccharides 3750 cal / g. The study presents a novel calorimetric method of assessing harvest maturity in fruit and the presentation is based on fruit of selected varieties of apples, tomatoes and strawberries. The calorimetric maturity thresholds have been determined for these fruits at the following levels: apples – 3930 cal/g s.m., strawberries – 3880 cal/g s.m. and tomatoes - 3910 cal/g.

      Keywords: fruits, harvesting maturity, calorific value

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. ACCUMULATION OF CADMIUM, LEAD AND MERCURY IN SEEDLINGS OF SELECTED SUGAR BEET VARIETIES AS A RESULT OF SIMULATED SOIL CONTAMINATION [FS]

      Abstract: The article presents the findings of a study designed to compare accumulation of cadmium, lead and mercury in seedlings of selected sugar beet varieties, as a result of simulated soil contamination. The analyses included seedlings of eight sugar beet varieties: Alegra C, Delano C, Milton C, Primadonna, Silvetta C, Finezja C, Agnieszka, Janosik, which in the course of growth were fortified with heavy metals. The acquired results were used to calculate Bioconcentration Factors (BCF) and to compare the contents of heavy metals in the examined plants. The greatest capacity to absorb the relevant heavy metals from the soil was found in seedlings of Milton C and Silvetta C varieties for cadmium and lead, and in Silvetta C and Finezja C varieties for mercury. It was determined that in the entire group of plants, the seedlings of Agnieszka and Janosik verities were least susceptible to bioaccumulation of cadmium and lead, while Primadonna variety had the lowest susceptibility to mercury.

      Keywords: Heavy metals, soil contamination, sugar beet, bioconcentration factors

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Suni Bajpai

    (1)
    1. INVESTIGATION OF MOISTURE SORPTION BEHAVIOR OF AN INDIAN SWEET ‘SON-PAPDI [FS]

      Abstract: Water vapors sorption isotherms of Sonpapdi, an Indian traditional sweet, were studied over a selected temperature range of 25 to 37oC using gravimetric method. Various conventional isotherm models, namely GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Caurie and Halsey, were applied on equilibrium moisture uptake data and it was found that GAB isotherm model described adequately the moisture absorption behavior of Sonpapdi.The monolayer moisture content M0 and GAB constant C showed negative temperature dependence for the increase in temperature from 25 to 300C. For the moisture uptake range of 0.02 to 0.07 kg kg-1db, isosteric heat of sorption, qst and differential entropy of sorption, Sd were evaluated. Finally the uptake data was used to determine isokinetic temperature Tβ (405K) and harmonic mean temperature, Thm. (392K). As Tβ > Thm, the overall sorption was found to be enthalpy driven. Properties of sorbed water were also determined.

      Keywords: Sonpapdi, isotherm, isosteric heat of sorption

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sunil Bajpai

    (1)
    1. WATER SORPTION PROPERTIES AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF ZINC OXIDE NANO PARTICLES LOADED SAGO STARCH FILM [MB]

      Abstract: In this work, sago starch based films have been loaded with ZnO nanoparticles prepared insitu via using an unique equilibration-cum-hydrothermal approach. The films have been characterized by XRD, DSC,SPR ,FTIR and SEM analysis. The moisture absorption behavior of plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films have been studied at 23, 31 and 37o C.The equilibrium moisture uptake data was found to fit well on GAB isotherm model and the monolayer sorption capacity Mo for the plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films was 0.089, 0.039 ,0.021 g/g and 0.042, 0.012, 0.007 g/g at 23,31 and 37 oC respectively. Moreover, the water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) for plain and ZnO nanoparticles loaded films at 23,31,37 oC were 11.19x10-4, 48.9x10-4, 62.1x10-4 and 3.73 x10-4, 6.21x10-4, 24.8x10-4 respectively. These films have shown excellent antibacterial action against model bacteria E.coli when investigated qualitatively by zone inhibition method. Films exhibit great potential to be used as packaging films to protect food stuff against microbial contaminents.

      Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, packaging film , sorption isotherms, permeability

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Paramjit K. Bajwa

    (1)
    1. SCREENING OF SELECTED OLEAGINOUS YEASTS FOR LIPID PRODUCTION FROM GLYCEROL AND SOME FACTORS WHICH AFFECT LIPID PRODUCTION BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA STRAINS [MB]

      Abstract: The ability of eight yeast strains to utilize glycerol as a sole carbon source and accumulate lipids in a chemically defined medium was screened. Among the yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 grew to high cell densities on glycerol. These strains were further tested for lipid accumulation under varying nutritional conditions in Erlenmeyer flasks. The results showed that strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 accumulated lipids up to 37.1 % and 54.4 % of total cell dry weight, respectively, when the defined medium was supplemented with 1 g/L urea and 2 g/L yeast extract. The lipids accumulated by the two yeasts contained a high proportion of C16:0, C18:1, C18:2 and C18:0 fatty acids. The results suggest that Y. lipolytica strains DSM 70561 and JDC 335 have the potential for converting crude glycerol into fatty acids which can in turn be utilized as substrate for biodiesel production.

      Keywords: Glycerol, lipid accumulation, oleaginous yeasts, Yarrowia lipolytica, yeast screening

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Pavol Bajzík

    (3)
    1. SAFETY OF DELICACY PRODUCTS IN TRADE NETWORK [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was evaluation of microbiological quality of delicate products in Slovakia during years 2007 - 2011. In this study 14 834 samples were collected and 1223 (8.24 %) samples did not comply with microbiological criteria. Coliform bacteria were detected in 618 samples (4.17 %), E. coli was detected in 298 samples (2.01 %). Yeasts and filamentous microscopic fungi were detected in 397 samples (2.68 %). Listeria monocytogenes was detected in 41 samples (0.28 %), Staphylococcus aureus in 12 samples (0.08 %), Bacillus cereus in 13 samples (0.09 %), Salmonella spp. in 4 samples (0.03 %) and sulphidreduces clostridia were not detected in all samples. Coliform bacteria indicate poor operational hygiene.

      Keywords: delicate products, coliform bacteria, E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella spp.

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. RATINGS OF THE HYGIENIC CONDITIONS AND VERIFICATION PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCE EMPLOYEE IN COMMON FOOD SERVICES [FS]

      Abstract: The general food legislation is a key element in creating systems for food safety and food. Its observance, particularly the general hygiene requirements, a prerequisite for the introduction of the HACCP system, and thus the overall safety of food preparation. The level of hygiene in catering premises reflects the responsibility of their management to food safety and also demonstrates the willingness of management to gain the favor of customers. In providing common food services and catering services to the public is always a danger of contagion that can spread the food, but also finished products. To avoid this possibility, it is necessary to apply the rules of hygiene. Establishments which provide catering services must meet the requirements to ensure the health of boarders. The common food services are very strict controled and is our aim to provide pointers on how to minimize risk and liability. Very dangerous is also bacterial transfer rates between hands and other common surfaces involved in food preparation in the kitchen. In our work we were rating the hygienic conditions and also verificating professional competence employee in common food services by using
      the modern methods like 3MTM PetrifilmTM .

      Keywords: common food services, catering services, 3M TM Petrifilm TM

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. SANITATION PROCESS OPTIMALIZATION IN RELATION TO THE MICROBIAL BIOFILM OF PSEUDOMONAS FLUORESCENS [MB]

      Abstract: Biofilms have been of considerable interest in the context of food hygiene.
      Extracellular polymeric substances play an important role in the attachment
      and colonization of microorganisms to food-contact surfaces. If the microorganisms from food-contact surfaces are not completely removed, they may lead to biofilm formation and also increase the biotransfer potential. The experimental part was focused on the adhesion
      of bacterial cells under static conditions and testing the effectiveness of disinfectants
      on created biofilm. In laboratory conditions we prepared and formed the bacterial biofilms Pseudomonas fluorescens in the test surfaces of stainless steel. Over the 72 hours and the next 72 hours were observed numbers of adhesion bacterial cells of Pseudomonas fluorescens on solid surfaces of tested materials.

      Keywords: biofilm, microbial attachment; Pseudomonas fluorescens

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ladislav Bakay

    (1)
    1. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOPHYTIC MICROFLORA OF ROSA CANINA FRUITS [MB]

      Abstract: There aren’t a lot of studies about the bacterial communities associated with the Rosa canina and the aim of this study was to characterize endophytic bacteria from fruit of Rosa canina. The fruits of R. canina, which is growing wild in Slovakia, were collected in May 2013 from four locations: Nitra-Zobor, Vrbové-Baraní dvor, Rišňovce, Modra pažiť, Slovakia. Microbiological analyses were conducted by use of standard microbiological methods by spreading of fruits homogenates onto agar plate. Total viable count and mesophilic anaerobic sporulating bacteria were determined on Plate Count Agar after incubation for 2 days at 37 °C. Pseudomonas aeruginosa enumeration was carried out after incubation of Pseudomonas Isolation agar at 48 h at 35 °C. For members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (45 °C) Violet Red Bile Glucose agar were used and incubation was carried out for 24 h at 37 °C. For determinations of fungal colonies Malt agar and Czapek-Dox agar were inoculated using the spread-plate technique and incubated at 25 °C for 5 days. The yeasts were grown in Glucose Yeast Peptone agar (aerobiosis) at 25 °C during 72 hours. The total viable count of fruits ranged from 4.07 log cfu.g-1 in Rišňovce to 4.84 log cfu.g-1 in Vrbové Baraní dvor. Number of mesophilic anaerobic sporulating bacteria ranged from 4.09 in Vrbové Baraní dvor to 4.82 log cfu.g-1 in Modrá pažiť. Number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa count ranged from 2.00 in Nitra Zobor and Vrbové Baraní dvor to 3.94 log cfu.g-1 in Modrá pažiť. In our study the number of Enterobacteriaceae genera ranged from 3.38 in Nitra Zobor to 4.25 log cfu.g-1 in Vrbové Baraní dvor. Number of yeasts ranged from 3.36 in Vrbové Baraní dvor to 3.85 log cfu.g-1 in Modrá pažiť. Number of microscopic filamentous fungi ranged from 2.60 in Modrá Pažiť to 3.52 log cfu.g-1 in Nitra Zobor. Our findings indicate that Rose plant is naturally associated with a variety of endophytic microorganisms, which have different physiological and biochemical properties.

      Keywords: Rosa canina, fruits, microbiological properties, bacteria, yeasts, microscopic filamentous fungi

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Zuzana Baková

    (6)
    1. BIOFLAVONOID QUERCETIN-FOOD SOURCES, BIOAVAILABILITY, ABSORBTION AND EFFECT ON ANIMAL CELLS [BT]

      Abstract: Bioflavonoid quercetin is found in the edible portion of the majority of dietary plants. The absorption and metabolism of quercetin is still poorly understood. It is known that aglycone form of quercetin, which is absorbed better than quercetin administered in nonglucosidic forms Absorbed quercetin is probably extensively modified before being excreted by kidneys. It has a broad range of activities within animal cells and occurs to be able to prevent or reduce the development of different type of diseases.

      Keywords: bioflavonoid, quercetin, sources, bioavailability, absorbtion, animal cells

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. INFLUENCE OF PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON ANIMAL OVARIAN CELLS [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of our studies was to examine (1) the effect of environmental contaminants (benzene, toluene and xylen) on basic ovarian cell functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity) in different animal species (rabbit, pig, cow), and (2) whether gonadotropic hormone (FSH) and plant molecules (quercetin, resveratrol or extract of yucca) can affect these functions and modify effect of environmental contaminants.
      It was observed, that the culture of either porcine or bovine ovarian cells with benzene, toluene or xylen promote apoptosis (accumulation of apoptosis markers bax and p53) and proliferation (accumulation of PCNA). Furthermore, additions of these contaminants were able either up- or down-regulate the release of progesterone, oxytocin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and prostaglandin F by cultured porcine, rabbit and bovine ovarian cells and their response to addition of FSH. FSH additions promoted proliferation, apoptosis and release of molecules listed above by porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, FSH was able to modify and to prevent. Some effects of BTEX on these cells. The effects of either quercetin or resveratrol on basic porcine ovarian cell functions were observed, but these plant molecules were not able to prevent BTEX effect. Feeding of rabbits with yucca extract caused changes in release of progesterone, IGF-I and prostaglandin F by their ovarian cells, as well as to modify and prevent the influence of benzene on ovarian hormone release.
      The obtained data suggest that (1) the negative effect of BTEX on reproduction can be due to their influence on ovarian cell apoptosis, proliferation, turnover and release of peptide and steroid hormones and growth factors, and that (2) FSH and plant molecules can regulate ovarian cell functions and prevent some effects of BTEX on these cells.

      Keywords: benzene, toluene, xylen, ovarian, proliferation, apoptosis, hormone

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. INTRACELLULAR MECHANISMS OF NATURAL SUBSTANCES INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF CELL SURVIVAL AND APOPTOSIS: A REVIEW [BT]

      Abstract: Natural substances which are considered to be a food or part of a food that provides medical and health benefits are called nutraceuticals. Resveratrol is one of such substances that signify potential benefit as anti-carcinogenic, lowering of blood sugar level, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and cardioprotective properties in various types of cells and animal models including inhibition of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway. Activation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway plays a pivotal role in essential cellular functions such as survival, proliferation, migration and differentiation in various types of cells. As the in vivo functions of mTOR remain elusive is possible that mTOR plays more important roles than had been anticipated from studies.

      Keywords: natural substances, mTOR pathway, resveratrol

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. INTRACELLULAR MECHANISMS OF A-TRICHOTHECENES INVOLVED IN THE REGULATION OF CELL SURVIVAL AND APOPTOSIS: A REVIEW [BT]

      Abstract: Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi. Mycotoxins are worldwide contaminats of animal feed, food and food products. T-2 toxin and its metabolit HT-2 toxin are one of the most toxic mycotoxins of type A trichothecenes, which are produced mainly by Fusarium species. T-2 and HT-2 toxin cause a different toxic effects in both animal and human. They are inhibitors of DNA and RNA synthesis and synthesis of proteins in several cellular systems, immunosuppressive agents, induce lesions in hematopoetic, lymphoid and digestive tract, impact reproduction functions and cause oxidative stress. T-2 toxin is a strong cytotoxic mycotoxin, which can induce apoptosis of various cells. This review examine the T-2 toxin induce cytotoxicity up to apoptosis on various cells, for instance cells of imunite system, on ovarian granulosa cells as well as induction of maternal and fetal toxicity.

      Keywords: mycotoxins, A-trichothecenes, cytotoxicity, apoptosis

      article details | fulltext pdf

    5. DEOXYNIVALENOL-INDUCED ANIMAL OVARIAN SIGNALING: PROLIFERATION AND APOPTOSIS [BT]

      Abstract: Fusarium toxins stable natural toxins produced by Fusarium species can appear in the food chain. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine: 1. the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) treatment on the ability of rat ovarian cells to release insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and 2. a possible signaling pathway of cell apoptosis through selected markers (Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3) induced by this natural toxin. Rat ovarian fragments were incubated with DON for 24h: 10, 100 and 1000 ng.ml-1, while the control group received no DON. The secretion of IGF–I was determined by RIA and expression of antiapoptotic (Bcl-2) and proapoptotic (Bax and caspase-3) proteins by Western-blotting analysis. IGF-I release by rat ovarian cells after DON addition was not significantly (P>0.05) stimulated (at the dose 10 ng.ml-1) and inhibited (at the doses 100 and 1000 ng.ml-1) by the toxin. The impact of DON on the expression of Bcl-2 (26 kDa), Bax (23 kDa) and caspase-3 (34 kDa) was found. Bcl-2 expression was decreased and Bax and caspase-3 increased by DON treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest a direct effect of DON on (1) ovarian functions, (2) mechanisms of proliferation and apoptosis in rat ovarian cells through intracellular regulators: Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3.

      Keywords: Deoxynivalenol, IGF–I, apoptosis, ovary, rat

      article details | fulltext pdf

    6. RESTORATIVE ASPECT OF CASTOR PLANT ON MAMMALIAN PHYSIOLOGY: A REVIEW [BT]

      Abstract: The castor plant (Ricinus communis L.) is a robust perennial shrub of Euphorbiaceae family and different parts of the plant are widely used by various communities and forest dwellers in many regions of the world for treating a variety of ailments. About 80% of world population is still dependent on traditional herbal medicines. The plant is documented to possess beneficial effects as anti-oxidant, antifertility, anti inflammatory, antimicrobial, central nervous system stimulant, anti diabetic, insecticidal and larvicidal and many other medicinal properties. The extracts or the isolated compounds of this plant have been found to have potent activity against various ailments. The aim of this paper is to scrutinize the available literature related to the restorative activity of the castor plant as a herbal medicine on mammalian physiology and to accumulate those scientifically valid data in a nut shell in the form of a mini review.

      Keywords: Ricinus communis L., herbal medicine, anti-inflammatory, antifertility, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, central nervous system stimulant

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Aparna Balakrishna

    (1)
    1. IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF POTENTIAL PROBIOTIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM POECILIA RETICULATA (GUPPY) [MB]

      Abstract: Antagonistic activities against candidate indicator strains, adhesion to mucus and biofilm formation of potential probiotic strains isolated from Poecilia reticulata were evaluated. Four isolated strains (MBTU_PB1, MBTU_PB2, MBTU_PB3 and MBTU_PB4) showed moderate to strong antagonistic activities against the tested five indicator strains (Aeromonas hydrophila1739, Vibrio cholera 3906, Flavobacterium 2495, Acinetobacter 1271 and Alcaligenes 1424) and these isolates were further identified using biochemical tests and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Except the whole cell product, the other three cellular components, namely, heat-killed whole cell product, intracellular product and extracellular product of all the four selected isolates were equally effective, as revealed by the zone of inhibitions to the tested indicator strains. The in vitro adhesion property or the ability of colonization is often considered as a selection criteria for probiotics. All the selected four strains had higher adhesion abilities than the indicator strains. Further, these four strains had the ability to form biofilms on polystyrene surfaces. The in vitro characterization of these four strains suggests possibility of using the isolates, as individual strain or in combination, for probiotic therapy in aquaculture.

      Keywords: Antagonism, cellular components, probiotic, adhesion, biofilm

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • P. Balasubramanian

    (1)
    1. AN EFFICIENT RECOVERY OF TRANSGENIC PLANTS FROM A TROPICAL INDIAN MAIZE INBRED LINE [BT]

      Abstract: Tropical Indian maize inbreds are known for their recalcitrance in tissue culture which is a prerequisite for development of transgenic lines from such cultivars. In the present study, particle bombardment-mediated transformation of a tropical Indian maize inbred line, UMI29 was attempted. Parameters that infulence transforamation efficiency such as size of embryo (1.5 mm and 2.0 mm), micro-carrier flying distance (6 cm and 9 cm) and post-bombardment resting period (2, 7 and 10 days) on transient and stable expression of transgene were investigated. The greatest transformation efficiency of 2.67% was obtained using immature embryos of 1.5 mm at 6 cm of microcarrier flying distance with a resting period of 2 days. Stable inheritance of transgenes, viz., gusA and bar was confirmed in T1 lines.

      Keywords: Maize, particle bombardment, gusA, bar, transgenic plants

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Andrej Baláži

    (3)
    1. YUCCA SCHIDIGERA AND ITS EFFECT ON RABBIT REPRODUCTION [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Yucca schidigera plant on rabbit reproduction parameters. Six weeks old New Zealand White rabbit females (n=36) and males (n=20) were used in the experiment. Animals in the control groups (C does; n=12 and C bucks; n=7) were fed with commercially available diet and the diet in the experimental groups was enriched with 5g/100kg (E1 does; n=12 and E1 bucks; n=7) or 20 g/100kg (E2 does; n=12 and E2 bucks; n=6) of Yucca schidigera powder extract. The rabbits were fed for 280 days and weighed weekly. The highest semen concentration was in the second experimental group E2 (3.80±0.57 x 109/ml) compared to control group C (2.84±0.33 x 109/ml) and experimental group E1 (1.9±0.35 x 109/ml). Semen motility (E2- 85.55±6.19 %; E1- 85.28±2.27% ) and progressive motility (E2; 73.45±9.63 %; E1; 71.16±3.43%) were higher in the experimental groups compared to the control groups (motility -78.69±5.17 %; progressive motility - 61.34±6.69 %).
      The highest conception and kindling rate was found out in the control group C (83 % and 83 %, respectively), slightly lower values were reported in the both experimental groups E1 and E2 (for conception rate - 63% and 63%, respectively; and for kindling rate - 63% and 63%, respectively). Evaluation of the number of liveborn young rabbits showed, in the experimental group 2 the number of liveborn young rabbits (9.43±1.65) was higher than in the control (C; 8.0±0.97) and the experimental group 1 (6.0±1).

      Keywords: Rabbits, Yucca schidigera, semen concentration, semen motility, conception rate, kindling rate, liveborn young rabbits

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. EFFECT OF THE HERBAL ADDITIVE "YUCCA" ON RABBIT SPERMATOZOA CHARACTERISTICS [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of the plant additive “Yucca” on rabbit spermatozoa characteristics. Rabbit males of New Zealand White line were used in the experiments. Males in control group were fed with commercially available normal granular feed. In experimental group (E1) 5 g of plant Yucca shidigera was added to the 100 kg of the normal feed. In the second experimental group (E2) 20 g of Yucca shidigera was added to 100 kg of the normal feed. The males were fed from weaning until they reached the sexual maturity. Semen samples from 5 New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit males in each group were collected using an artificial vagina and evaluated using the CASA system for concentration and motility. The males in E2 group had significantly higher sperm motility in comparison with the control group (91.54±1.84% vs. 74.08±5.97%). The males in E1 and E2 group had significantly higher progressive motility in comparison with the control group (72.56±4.75% and 82.84±2.55% vs. 53.98±6.49%, respectively). This preliminary study suggests that the addition of Yucca shidigera plant into the normal feed had positive effects on male’s spermatozoa parameters.

      Keywords: rabbit, Yucca, spermatozoa, concentration, motility

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. INFLUENCE OF PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINANTS ON ANIMAL OVARIAN CELLS [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of our studies was to examine (1) the effect of environmental contaminants (benzene, toluene and xylen) on basic ovarian cell functions (proliferation, apoptosis, secretory activity) in different animal species (rabbit, pig, cow), and (2) whether gonadotropic hormone (FSH) and plant molecules (quercetin, resveratrol or extract of yucca) can affect these functions and modify effect of environmental contaminants.
      It was observed, that the culture of either porcine or bovine ovarian cells with benzene, toluene or xylen promote apoptosis (accumulation of apoptosis markers bax and p53) and proliferation (accumulation of PCNA). Furthermore, additions of these contaminants were able either up- or down-regulate the release of progesterone, oxytocin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and prostaglandin F by cultured porcine, rabbit and bovine ovarian cells and their response to addition of FSH. FSH additions promoted proliferation, apoptosis and release of molecules listed above by porcine granulosa cells. Moreover, FSH was able to modify and to prevent. Some effects of BTEX on these cells. The effects of either quercetin or resveratrol on basic porcine ovarian cell functions were observed, but these plant molecules were not able to prevent BTEX effect. Feeding of rabbits with yucca extract caused changes in release of progesterone, IGF-I and prostaglandin F by their ovarian cells, as well as to modify and prevent the influence of benzene on ovarian hormone release.
      The obtained data suggest that (1) the negative effect of BTEX on reproduction can be due to their influence on ovarian cell apoptosis, proliferation, turnover and release of peptide and steroid hormones and growth factors, and that (2) FSH and plant molecules can regulate ovarian cell functions and prevent some effects of BTEX on these cells.

      Keywords: benzene, toluene, xylen, ovarian, proliferation, apoptosis, hormone

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Želmira Balažová

    (2)
    1. COMPARISON OF 2-DE PROTEOME MAPS OF WHEAT, RYE AND AMARANTH [BT]

      Abstract: The protein maps of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), cv. Brea; rye (Secale cereale L.), cv. Oklon and amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) cv. Plaisman were obtained by performing 2-DE over a broad pH range (pH 3-11NL) to obtain total protein profiles. Focussing on the gluten fraction, as it is the major trigger for Celiac disease, proteins were separated with a basic pI over a narrow pH range of pH 6-11. Putative identifications of proteins were determined using current literature. The overall spot pattern from wheat over pH 6-11was identified as gamma-gliadins (~ pI 8-10, Mrs 28 - 30, 000 Da), alpha/beta-gliadins (~pI 6.5-7.5, Mrs 25 - 35, 000 Da) and gluten proteins (pI 6-10, Mrs 35 - 60, 000 Da.). The rye had a higher number of abundant groups visible over a broad range (~ 6-200,000 Da, pI 4-9). Comparison of rye to wheat protein maps showed that each cereal had completely different spot patterns in the LMW region of the gels (<14,000 Da), but similarities were observed in the HMW and MMW regions. This is especially evident in the pH 6-11 gels. Amaranth has many proteins focussed between pH 3-11. Fewer proteins were observed for the pH 6-11 gel, especially in the HMW weight region of the gel. This is due to the fact that the pseudocereals are a botanically different species compared to cereal grasses, and even if they are rich in protein, unfavourable fractions are not present or are only available in small amounts.

      Keywords: Amaranth, buckwheat , 2-DE protein maps, celiac disease

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. 2-DE PROTEOME MAPS OF AMARANTH AND BUCKWHEAT SEEDS [BT]

      Abstract: Our work was focus on amaranth (Amaranthus sp.) cv. Plaisman and buckwheat (Fagopyrum Mill.), cv. Pyra proteome, which was analysed by 2-D electrophoresis. We found similarity between the chemical properties proteins of pseudocereals amaranth and buckwheat. Image analysis showed a higher number of spots on 2-DE map of buckwheat in comparison to amaranth. Some similarities were in protein spots at approximately 21,000 Da, pI 7 and strip of protein spots in range of pI 8-10, 21,000 Da. The buckwheat 2-DE map shows spots of protein with higher intensity in the region ranging from 30-45,000 Da, pI 5-6 as well as highly abundant protein spots from visible at 36-40,000 Da, pI 8-9. Protein maps showed that the pseudocereals do not content storage proteins, which indicates that they are suitable as a replacement for cereals for people with celiac disease.

      Keywords: Amaranth, buckwheat , 2-DE protein maps, celiac disease

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Želmíra Balážová

    (14)
    1. GENETIC VARIATION OF MAIZE GENOTYPES (ZEA MAYS L.) DETECTED USING SDS-PAGE [BT]

      Abstract: The assessment of genetic diversity among the members of a species is of vital importance for successful breeding and adaptability. In the present study 20 old genotypes of maize from Hungary, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Slovak Republic were evaluated for the total seed storage proteins using sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) through vertical slab unit. The number of total scorable protein bands was twentythree as a result of SDS-PAGE technique but those that were not cosistent in reproducibility and showed occasional variation in sharpness and density were not considered. Out of twentythree polypeptide bands, 6 (31%) were commonly present in all accessions and considered as monomorphic, while 17 (65%) showed variations and considered as polymorphic. On the basis of banding profiles of proteins of different kDa, gel was divided into zones A, B and C. The major protein bands were lied in zones A and B, while minor bands were present in zones C. In zone A out of 10 protein bands, 1 were monomorphic and 9 were polymorphic. In zone B out of 8 protein bands, 3 was monomorphic and 5 was polymorphic and in zone C out of 5 protein bands, 2 were monomorphic whereas 3 polymorphic. The dendrogram tree demonstrated the relationship among the forty registered old maize genotypes according to the similarity index, using UPGMA cluster analysis. The dendrogram was divided into three main clusters. The first cluster contained Czechoslovakia genotype Mikulická and the second cluster contained Czechoslovakia genotypes Celchovicka ADQ. Cluster 3 was divided into 3 subclasters. Similarly the present study of genetic variability in the seed storage polypeptide determined by SDS-PAGE technique proved that it is fruitful to identify genetic diversity among accessions of maize.

      Keywords: maize; dendrogram; SDS-PAGE; genetic diversity

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. GENETIC DIVERSITY ANALYSIS OF CASTOR (RICINUS COMMUNIS L.) USING SSR MARKERS [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess genetic diversity within the set of 60 ricin genotypes using 5 SSR primers. Ten SSR primers revealed a total of 36 alleles ranging from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.20 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.758 (Rco30) to 0.879 (Rco29) with an average value of 0.829 and the DI value ranged from 0.774 (Rco30) to 0.881 (Rco29) with an average value of 0.836. Probability of identity (PI) was low ranged from 0.002 (Rco29) to 0.015 (Rco30) with an average of 0.006. A dendrogram was constructed from a genetic distance matrix based on profiles of the 5 SSR loci using the unweighted pair-group method with the arithmetic average (UPGMA). According to analysis, the collection of 60 diverse accessions of castor bean was clustered into five clusters. Cluster 1 contained 14 genotypes, cluster 2 included 7 genotypes of ricin and cluster 3 contained 8 genotypes of ricin. Cluster 4 included 10 genotypes and cluster 5 contained 21 genotypes. We could not distinguish 4 genotypes grouped in cluster 1, RM-103 and RM-104 and genotypes RM-100 and RM-101, which are genetically the closest. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used to future breeding programs for increased oil production to meet the ever increasing demand of castor oil for industrial uses as well as for biodiesel production.

      Keywords: Castor; Dendrogram; Genetic diversity; Simple sequence repeat (SSR)

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. APPLICATION OF RYE SSR MARKERS FOR DETECTION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN TRITICALE [BT]

      Abstract: Present study aims to testify usefulness of particular rye SSR markers for the detection of genetic diversity degree in the set of 20 triticale cultivars coming from different European countries. For this purpose, a set of six rye SSR markers were used. The set of six polymorphic markers provided 22 alleles with an average frequency of 3.67 alleles per locus. The number of alleles ranged between 2 (SCM43) and 5 (SCM28, SCM86). Resulting from the number and frequency of alleles diversity index (DI), polymorphic information content (PIC) and probability of identity (PI) were calculated. An average value of PIC for 6 SSR markers was 0.505, the highest value was calculated for rye SSR marker SCM86 (0.706). Based on UPGMA algorithm, a dendrogram was constructed. In dendrogram cultivars were divided into two main clusters. The first cluster contained two cultivars, Russian cultivar Greneder and Slovak cultivar Largus, and second included 18 cultivars. Genetically the closest were two Greek cultivars (Niobi and Thisbi) and were close to other Greek cultivar Vrodi. It was possible to separate triticale cultivars of spring and winter form in dendrogram. Results showed the utility of rye microsatellite markers for estimation of genetic diversity of European triticale genotypes leading to genotype identification.

      Keywords: Triticale, microsatellites, polymorphism, dendrogram

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. ASSESSMENT OF RAPD POLYMORPHISM IN RICIN GENOTYPES [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 30 castor genotypes using 6 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 30 genotypes using RAPD analysis yielded 50 polymorphic fragments with an average of 8.33 fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments varied from 5 (RLZ7) to 11 (RLZ8) and the amplicon size ranged from 330 to 1200 bp. All 50 amplified bands were polymorphic. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.774 (RLZ7) to 0.870 (RLZ8) with an average of 0.825 and index diversity (DI) value ranged from 0.786 (RLZ7) to 0.872 (RLZ8) with an average of 0.831. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. Dendrogram separated ricin genotypes into three main clusters. Two genotypes (RM-72 and RM-73) were genetically the closest. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production to meet the ever increasing demand of castor oil for industrial uses as well as for biodiesel production.

      Keywords: Castor, genetic variability, molecular markers, RAPD technique

      article details | fulltext pdf

    5. ASSESSMENT OF RAPD POLYMORPHISM IN RYE (SECALE CEREALE L.) GENOTYPES [BT]

      Abstract: The results of genetic analysis of 38 rye taxa (Secale cereale L.) represented by agricultural varieties originating from Central Europe and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (SUN) are presented. The genetic diversity of rye cultivars by 5 RAPD markers was evaluated. Five primers gave 42 polymorphic fragments (99.52 %) with an average of 8.4 bands per primer. The most polymorphic primer was RLZ12, where 10 polymorphic amplification products were detected. Overleaf the lowest polymorphic primer was RLZ5 with 7 polymorphic products. Genetic polymorphism was characterized based on diversity index (DI), probability of identity (PI) and polymorphic information content (PIC). The dendrogram of genetic similarity was constructed, based on the Jaccard´s coefficient. In dendrogram three clusters were differentiated. The first cluster contained genotypes from Czechoslovakia, Poland and Czech Republic. The second cluster contained cultivars coming from Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Hungary. In the next cluster Poland, Czech Republic and Czechoslovakia genotypes were situated. Two genotypes Bosmo and Wibro have not been distinguished. For better distinction of the analysed rye genotypes, it is necessary to use a higher number of RAPD markers. In this experiment, RAPD proved to be a rapid, reliable and practicable method for revealing of polymorphism in the rye cultivars.

      Keywords: Rye (Secale cereale L.), polymorphism, RAPD, dendrogram

      article details | fulltext pdf

    6. STUDY OF DNA POLYMORPHISM OF THE CASTOR NEW LINES BASED ON RAPD MARKERS [BT]

      Abstract: The systematic evaluation of the molecular diversity encompassed in castor inbreds or parental lines offers an efficient means of exploiting the heterosis in castor as well as for management of biodiversity. Seventeen castor genotypes were assessed for genetic variability using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Thirteen polymorphic RAPD primers amplified 102 DNA fragments, with an average of 7.85 fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments ranged from 3 (OPE-07) to 13 (SIGMA-D-01), with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1200 bp. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.450 (OPE-07) to 0.892 (SIGMA-D-01) with an average of 0.771 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0.551 (OPE-07) to 0.894 (SIGMA-D-01) with an average of 0.787. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared and analyzed genotypes were grouped into two main clusters and only two genotypes (RM-5 and RM-23) could not be distinguished.

      Keywords: Ricinus communis L., DNA markers, genetic diversity, RAPD technique

      article details | fulltext pdf

    7. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TRITICALE CULTIVARS BASED ON MICROSATELLITE AND RETROTRANSPOSON-BASED MARKERS [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of our work was to detect genetic variability in the set of 59 winter and spring triticale (x Triticosecale Witt.) varieties using combination of 4 wheat SSR and 4 retrotransposon-based markers. The number of alleles for SSR markers ranged from 8 to 10 with an average number of 8,75 alleles per locus. For IRAP markers the number of alleles ranged from 9 to 10 with an average number of 9,25 alleles per locus Totally, 72 alleles were detected, 37 alleles for IRAP markers and 35 alleles for SSR markers. For the assessment of genetic diversity the dendrogram, based on the hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. Fifty nine triticale cultivars were grouped into two major groups. The first group contained all winter triticale varieties and in the second cluster were included all spring triticale varieties. The closest relationship was found out between two Polish winter triticale cultivars, Alekto and Pizarro. Results showed the utility of combination of microsatellite and retrotransposon-based markers for estimation of genetic diversity of triticale genotypes leading to genotype identification.

      Keywords: Triticale, SSR, retrotransposon, genetic variability, dendrogram

      article details | fulltext pdf

    8. DNA ANALYSIS OF RICIN USING RAPD TECHNIQUE [BT]

      Abstract: Castor (Ricinus communis L.) is an important plant for production of industrial oil. The systematic evaluation of the molecular diversity encompassed in castor inbreds or parental lines offers an efficient means of exploiting the heterosis in castor as well as for management of biodiversity. The aim of this work was to detect genetic variability among the set of 30 castor genotypes using 5 RAPD markers. Amplification of genomic DNA of 30 genotypes, using RAPD analysis, yielded 35 fragments, with an average of 7,00 polymorphic fragments per primer. Number of amplified fragments ranged from 5 to 9, with the size of amplicons ranging from 100 to 1200 bp. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value ranged from 0,662 to 0,855 with an average of 0,780 and diversity index (DI) value ranged from 0,669 to 0,857 with an average of 0,785. The dendrogram based on hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used for future breeding programs for increased oil production to meet the ever increasing demand of castor o il for industrial uses as well as for biodiesel production.

      Keywords: ricin, RAPD technique, genetic diversity

      article details | fulltext pdf

    9. DIFFERENTIATION OF BARLEY GENOTYPES BASED ON DNA POLYMORPHISM [BT]

      Abstract: Identification and characterization of genotypes is essential for improving the quality of cultivated varieties in breeding programs. Information about the origin of varieties can help farmers in selecting appropriate varieties to specific growing conditions or end use of crops. A set of ten microsatellite markers was used to describe genetic diversity in a sample of 30 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes. A total of 55 different alleles were amplified using ten SSR markers localized on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, 6H, 7H with an average number of 5.5 alleles per locus. On the basis of allele frequencies we have calculated diversity index, polymorphic information content and index of probability, which have mean values of 0.664; 0.643 and 0.126 respectively. These values indicate high differentiation ability of SSR markers. In the created dendrogram using hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm we were able to differentiate all 30 barley genotypes. The results show that DNA markers are suitable for the identification and differentiation of genotypes and indicated the effectiveness of microsatellite markers to describe genetic diversity.

      Keywords: barley, DNA polymorphism, DNA markers, microsatellite, genetic diversity

      article details | fulltext pdf

    10. DETECTION OF GENETIC DIVERSITY OF TRITICALE BY MICROSATELLITE MARKERS [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of our work was to detect genetic variability in the set of 59 winter and spring triticale (x Triticosecale Witt.) varieties using 5 wheat SSR markers. Totally, 35 alleles with an average number of 7 alleles per locus were detected. The highest number of alleles showed out Xbarc 004 (9). Based on the number and frequencies of alleles, the diversity index (DI), the probability of identity (PI) and the polymorphic information content (PIC) of SSR markers were calculated. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.264 to 0.920 with an average of 0.654, which is generally considered sufficient for this purpose. For the assessment of genetic diversity the dendrogram, based on the hierarchical cluster analysis using UPGMA algorithm was prepared. Fifty nine triticale cultivars were grouped into three major clusters. The cultivar Terelland 22 (USA) separated as unique one, second subcluster contained 3 cultivars and third one 55 cultivars. It was not possible to differentiate 15 genotypes between each other. For better differentiation it is necessary to use more polymorphic microsatellite markers. Results showed the utility of microsatellite markers for estimation of genetic diversity of triticale genotypes leading to genotype identification.

      Keywords: triticale, SSR, genetic variability, PIC, dendrogram

      article details | fulltext pdf

    11. UTILIZATION OF STORAGE PROTEINS POLYMORPHISM FOR DIFFERENTIATION OF WHEAT, RYE AND TRITICALE GENOTYPES [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of the paper was to observe and to detect genetic variability of 32 bread wheat genotypes (TriticumaestivumL.), 5 rye genotypes (SecalecerealeL.) and 5 genotypes of triticale (TriticosecaleWittmack.) on the basis of polymorphism of storage proteins. Storage proteins consist of two fractions, which are the main part of grain proteins and are used as a marker not only for genetic variability investigation, but also for characterization of genotypes. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE) was used to separate proteins according their molecular weight. Doc-It LS software was used to detect and to calculate variability of genotypes within individual cereal species. The Jacquard coefficient of similarity and the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) algorithm was used for construction of dendrogram of similarity. Our results show, that genotypes of bread wheat are homogenous and single line, but rye and triticale genotypes were heterogenous. There were observed two main clusters and four subclusters in collection of bread wheat and rye genotypes. Analysis of triticale genotypes similarity show two mail clusters, but only one of them was further separated into two subclusters. There were also recorded, that some of the genotypes have no dissimilarity and is necessary to perform additional analysis using2-D electrophoresis or mass spectrometry. Genotypes PS 28/08 (wheat), Židlochovickéranné (rye) and Benetto (triticale) were the most different.

      Keywords: cereal polymorphism, genetic variability, storage proteins of cereals

      article details | fulltext pdf

    12. PROTEIN MAPS OF OAT AND RYE [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of our study was to analyze two different species of cereals, oat and rye, in term of content and characteristic of coeliac active proteins. The results showed the wide variability of individual protein fractions and dominance of prolamins with coeliac active polypeptidesthat was also confirmedby electrophoretic profiles of storage proteins by isoelectric focusing and SDS-PAGE. 2-DE protein maps were compared by protein patterns and there were detected the presence of coeliac active polypeptides in both cereals. The content of proteins in oat is smaller than in rye that is revealed also in protein maps.The comparison of protein maps of both cereals showed main differences in protein pattern in the LMW region (<14 kDa), but similarities were found out in the HMW and LMW regions that is evident in gels with a narrow pH range of pH 6-11.

      Keywords: oat, rye, coeliac disease, 2-D electrophoresis,proteins maps

      article details | fulltext pdf

    13. IN VITRO GASTRO – INTESTINAL DIGESTION OF WHEAT COELIAC ACTIVE PROTEINS [BT]

      Abstract: In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion of wheat coeliac active proteins was examined. Three sets of samples of wheat variety Brea were prepared from gastric and another three from duodenal digested samples. Some of proteins were found to be completely resistant to hydrolysis throughout the simulated gastric digestion and some of them throughout the simulated duodenal digestion. The most of polypeptides during subsequent incubation with enzymes resulted in gradual digestion, with only a trace of the parent proteins remaining after gastric digestion, whose majority disappeared after complete gastro-duodenal digestion. Despite the fact that the most of proteins were broken down by gastro-duodenal digestion into low molecular weight peptides, these molecules retain an allergenic potential.

      Keywords: gastro-intestinal digestion, coeliac disease, gluten, SDS-PAGE

      article details | fulltext pdf

    14. PROTEOMICS ANALYSIS OF WHEAT AND BARLEY GRAIN [BT]

      Abstract: Plant biotechnological research is focused on research and application of objective methods for determination of quality production. Cereals are main part of human nutrition and strategic resources. It is very important to expand knowledge of cereal proteome by usage of new methods for protein detection. Our work was focused on wheat and barley proteome analysis by 2-D electrophoresis not only in wide range of pH (pH 3-11), which is suitable for analysis of whole seed proteome, but also in narrow range of pH (pH 6-11) which is suitable for detection of gluten proteins, mainly. Results show that storage proteins are the main part of cereal grain proteins. Inhibitor of alpha-amylase and inhibitor of alpha-amylase/trypsin were the most represented. Group of barley storage proteins showed similarity to wheat prolamin proteins, but there were observed some differentiations in amount of protein. Similarity was found in pH range 7-10 between proteins with molecular weight 45-55 kDa.

      Keywords: wheat, barley, 2-D electrophoresis, protein maps, coeliacdisease

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Emily L. Baldwin

    (1)
    1. EVALUATING VIABLE CELL INDICATORS FOR FILAMENTOUS CYANOBACTERIA AND THEIR APPLICATION [BT]

      Abstract: Filamentous cyanobacteria, such as Anabaena 7120 have great industrial potential due to their capability to be genetically engineered to produce next-generation biofuels while using minimal nutrients. One challenge of working with these microbes is that classical methods of quantifying cell viability are not effective due to their filamentous morphology. Therefore, fluorescent assays were evaluated to determine if they could be used as a reliable indicator of cell viability. Initially, a dual-stain assay using SYTO® 9 and SYTOX® Blue was investigated. Fluorescence from SYTO® 9 was accurately correlated with viable cells; however, SYTOX® Blue did not work as a non-viable cell indicator due to non-specific binding in both viable and non-viable cells. Autofluorescence from light harvesting pigments was also evaluated as a viable cell indicator, but unfortunately these pigments resulted in several emission peaks that couldn’t be captured by a single emission filter. Moreover, certain light harvesting pigments continued to fluoresce after the cell became non-viable. SYTO® 9 was then compared to absorbance and chlorophyll content to quantify viable Anabaena 7120 in a chemical inhibition testing protocol. This protocol requires a low initial biomass concentration to prevent binding of the chemicals to cell biomass, and at low cell densities SYTO® 9 was superior to absorbance and chlorophyll content in quantifying viability. It was also determined that SYTO® 9 allows for the evaluation of different cultivation media on the growth of cyanobacteria in photobioreactors. SYTO® 9 is a reliable, accurate indicator of viability of filamentous cyanobacteria and can be used in a high-throughput manner via a microplate reader.

      Keywords: Biofuel, Chemical inhibition test, Filamentous cyanobacteria, Photobioreactor, SYTO® 9

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Dessislav Kostadinov Balev

    (1)
    1. PRESERVING THE QUALITY AND PROLONGATION THE SHELF-LIFE OF BEEF PACKED UNDER VACUUM OR MODIFIED ATMOSPHERE USING TERNARY ANTIOXIDANT BLEND [FS]

      Abstract: Keeping the quality and prolongation the shelf-life of stored at 0  0.5ºC packed under vacuum or modified (80%О2/20%СО2) atmosphere beef m. semimembranosus sprayed with 0.02% solution, containing 10 g.l-1 dihydroquercetin from Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb), 5 g.l-1 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract and 1 g.l-1 L-ascorbic acid was studied. The experiments were carried out with five samples: control - air packaged; vacuum packaged; vacuum packaged and treated with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend; packaged under modified atmosphere (80%O2/20%CO2); and packaged under rich in oxygen modified atmosphere, after spaying with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend. Samples were stored 28 days (to 32 d post mortem) at 0  0.5ºC. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend preserve the sensory scores and colour properties of beef, and inhibited total microbial growth, and development of Brochothrix termosphacta and pathogens to the end of storage (28 d at 0  0.5ºC), was found. The pre-treatment of beef with ternary antioxidant blend was not main factors which can affect the pH and free amino nitrogen changes in fresh beef. The pre-treatment of beef with 0.02% ternary antioxidant blend may be successfully used for preserving the quality and prolonging the shelf-life of beef m. semimembranosus packed under modified (80%О2/20%СО2) atmosphere. The shelf-life can extend with 75% compared to air packed meat, and with 7 days against only vacuum- or modified atmosphere packed beef.

      Keywords: Natural antioxidants, vacuum, modified atmosphere packaging, meat, sensory properties, colour, microbiological status

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Hana Balková

    (5)
    1. FARINOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF WHEAT DOUGH ENRICHED WITH INULIN, NAKED BARLEY, MALT AND POTEX ADDITION [FS]

      Abstract: One of the most important biological substances consumed in insufficient quantity is fibre that is often deficient in the diet. In general, dietary fibre is edible part of plants, or similar carbohydrates, that are resistant to digestion and absorption in the small intestine. Nowadays, there are many sources of fibre available for bakery industry, whether through addition of non-traditional bread cereals or through isolated form as additives. Except to supposed increase the nutritional value of bakery products with added fiber and raw materials containing fiber is necessary to think about their technological quality and rheological properties of dough. The aim of this experimental work was to investigate the effect of the addition of selected polysaccharides (inulin, Potex - potato fiber) and non-bakery crops (naked barley, malt) containing significant polysaccharides used in the mixture with wheat flour type T-650 in different ratios on the basis of farinographic evaluations. Based on the results of rheological measurements we found out that quality of dough was deteriorating proportionally to the amount of used additives. On the other hand, positively could be considered the increase of water absorption with addition of Potex and naked barley.

      Keywords: Farinograph, wheat dough, inulin, naked barley, malt, potex

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES [FS]

      Abstract: Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers) can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards), but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping).

      Keywords: FCP, Flash profile, CATA, TDS

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. TIME INTENSITY (TI) MEASUREMENTS OF SWEETENERS ON GREEN TEA CARRIER [FS]

      Abstract: Aim of the study was characterize sweet intensity profiles of natural and artificial sweeteners during time interval on taste carrier (green tea). For analysis was selected time intensity (TI) methodology during 12 second time interval and assessors group was divided to male and female division. Difference between groups and sweeteners was investigated. Preference testing was done by CATA methodology and processed by correspondent analysis. During time intensity evaluation was observed similar profile shape of natural sweeteners. Different was performance of saccharin. During preference experiment was evaluated that all artificial sweeteners are associated with negative attributes of CATA questionnaire. Perception of sweeteners by male and female assessors was statistically significant.

      Keywords: Sensory analysis, time intensity methods, sweeteners

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. THE MALT EXTRACT, RELATIVE EXTRACT AND DIASTATIC POWER AS A VARIETAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MALTING BARLEY [FS]

      Abstract: Malting quality of barley depends on genetic and agro-ekological factors. Chemical composition of malting barley and its technological parameters are very important for malting and brewing, due to this fact the quality of barley must be strictly evaluated. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of variety, locality and year of production on the 5 technological parameters of malt: extract, relative extract at 45 °C, Kolbach index, diastatic power and friability. It was found out that the barley variety significantly influenced the following parameters: extract, relative extract and diastatic power. The growing locality weakly influenced qualitative parameters i.e. Kolbach index and relative extract at 45°C. The study confirmed the most significant impact of the year on the Kolbach index and friability.

      Keywords: malting barley, variety, locality, year, malt parameters

      article details | fulltext pdf

    5. EVALUATION OF NEW VARIETIES OF SUMMER WHEAT TRITICUEVALUATION OF NEW VARIETIES OF SUMMER WHEAT TRITICUEVALUATION OF NEW VAR [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of this work was to analyse new varieties of summer wheat cultivated in The aim of this work was to analyse new varieties of summer wheat cultivated in The aim of this work was to analyse new varieties of summer wheat cultivated in The aim of this work was to analyse new varieties of summer wheat cultivated in a
      Research institute of breeding in Bučany (BU-117, BU-130, BU-138, BU-142, BU-144, BU-
      149, BU-150, BU-159, BU-160), in particular in terms of milling quality parameters
      identified by the direct method - experimental milling, and considering the rheological
      properties of flours obtained in this way. Variety Ilona was used as a check sample. It properties of flours obtained in this way. Variety Ilona was used as a check sample. It properties of flours obtained in this way. Variety Ilona was used as a check sample. It properties of flours obtained in this way. Variety Ilona was used as a check sample. It was
      found that the extraction of the first fraction was in all the tested new varieties higher thanfound that the extraction of the first fraction was in all the tested new varieties higher thanfound that the extraction of the first fraction was in all the tested new varieties higher thanfound that the extraction of the first fraction was in all the tested new varieties higher than in
      the check variety Ilona, which can be regarded as a positive trend of modern breeding process.
      Total extraction of flours (sum of fractions I and II.) was the highest in new varieties BU-Total extraction of flours (sum of fractions I and II.) was the highest in new varieties BU-Total extract

      Keywords: summer wheat, flour yield, farinograph

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Enitan S. Balogun

    (1)
    1. KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM PARAMETERS OF BIOSORPTION AND BIOACCUMULATION OF LEAD IONS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY TRICHODERMA LONGIBRACHIATUM [BT]

      Abstract: Biosorption and bioaccumulation of Lead ions (Pb(II)) by Trichoderma longibrachiatum were investigated in a batch system. The effects of some important parameters such as pH, initial metal concentration, temperature and inoculum concerntration on biosorption capacity were also studied. The maximum biosorption capacity of Trichoderma longibrachiatum was at 25 ppm of lead, showed 100 % removal at pH 7 and 25 oC after fifteen days. Biosorption equilibrium was established in 150 minutes. The process fitted well into pseudo second order kinetic model and was best explained by Langmuir isotherm.

      Keywords: Bioaccumulation, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Equilibrium, Kinetic and Langmuir isotherm

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kabir Ishola Balogun

    (1)
    1. ASSESSMENT OF BITTER LEAF (Vernonia amygdalina) ON SOME SELECTED PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS FROM UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN TEACHING HOSPITAL [MB]

      Abstract: Vernonia amygdalina is a medicinal plant which is employed to cure various infections in traditional medicine. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of this plant were analyzed phytochemically and screened against different microorganisms responsible for various human infections. Phytochemical analysis of the extracts showed the presence of many secondary metabolites including tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids, phylobatannins, steroids and phenolics. The result shows that the ethanolic extracts showed more antibacterial activity than the aqueous extracts. The extracts displayed potent antimicrobial activity against the test organisms which were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger, the minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 2.5-15mg/ml in all the plant extracts. The results confirmed the potency of this plant in treating human infections.

      Keywords: Aqueous, bitter leaf, chemotherapy, extracts, incubation, phytochemicals

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ramesh Bandikari

    (1)
    1. SUPPLEMENTATION OF FRUIT PROCESSING WASTE FOR ENDOXYLANASE PRODUCTION BY TRICHODERMA KOENINGI ISOLATE AND ITS OPTIMIZATION USING CENTRAL COMPOSITE DESIGN: APPLICATION OF PRODUCED ENDOXYLANASE IN MANGO JUICE CLARIFICATION [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to optimize the supplementation of custard apple, pomegranate peel along with KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4 and MgSO4 for maximum endoxylanase production by Trichoderma koeningi isolate on pretreated corn cobs using CCD. Predicted endoxylanase yield was highest (3242.43 U/g) with the actual yield of (3107.58U/g) from 2% NaOH pretreated corn cobs. The model predicted R2 value of 0.9147% indicating that it was appropriate to predict the levels of variables to achieve maximum endoxylanase yield. The produced endoxylanase clarified mango juice of Baneshan and Totapuri varieties at 40°C and 56 h. The endoxylanase treatment enhanced the clarity of Baneshan juice by 51.7% with a release of 121.1 mg/ml of reducing sugars at an optimized enzyme dose of 9.6 U that led to maximum flow rate of 8 ml/min. In the case of Totapuri juice, there was 43.4% increase in clarity and release of 102.6 mg/ml reducing sugars at an optimized enzyme dose of 12.8 U that lead to a maximum juice flow rate of 6 ml/min. The HPLC analysis showed that the hydrolysed products of mango juice were xylose and xylo-oligosacharides. An optimized xylanase production was achieved from low cost agro residues, which results in the reduction of enzyme cost.

      Keywords: Endoxylanase, CCD, Corn cobs, Mango juice, Clarification

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Chand Bandna

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF PROCESSING ON THE CYANIDE CONTENT OF CASSAVA PRODUCTS IN FIJI [FS]

      Abstract: In Fiji cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz, Euphorbiaceae) is one of the most important root crops. According to the 2004 National Nutrition Survey, 59.2% of the Fijian population consumes cassava on a daily basis while 31% of the Indian population consumes cassava on a weekly basis. Substantial quantity of anti-nutrient factor cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine and a small amount of lotaustralin is also present in cassava that interferes with digestion and uptake of nutrients. This study was aimed at finding out the cyanide content of cassava products available and consumed in Fiji
      Cyanide content of twelve cassava based food items with cassava as the main ingredient was tested for the cyanide content using the pictrate method. The absorbance was measured in a spectrophotometer at 510 nm and the total cyanide content in mg HCN equivalents/kg fresh weight = ppm calculated by multiplying the absorbance by 396. The results were analyzed by SPSS by one way ANOVA and pair-wise comparison was made post hoc using Tukey t-tests.
      The results showed that the cyanide content ranged from 2.21 to 44.14 mg HCN equivalent/kg. Grated cassava products exhibited lower cyanide content as compared with minimally processed cassava products and fried cassava products. Since cyanogenic glycosides are water soluble, a higher percentage of cyanides are removed when cassava products are processed in water. Fried cassava products had higher levels of cyanide as it is not soluble in lipids/oil, hence less cyanide is lost during frying.

      Keywords: Cassava, Manihot esculenta Crantz, Fiji, cyanogenic glucoside, linamarine, pictrate method, processing

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Goutam Banerjee

    (1)
    1. AUTOCHTHONOUS PHYTASE-PRODUCING BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACTS OF FOUR INDIAN FRESHWATER TELEOSTS: CHARACTERIZATION AND IDENTIFICATION [MB]

      Abstract: Phytase producing autochthonous bacteria have been isolated from the proximal intestine (PI) and distal intestine (DI) of three Indian major carps, rohu (Labeo rohita), catla (Catla catla) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) and one minor carp, bata (Labeo bata). In modified phytase screening medium (MPSM), phytase-producing strains were recorded at higher densities in the PI of rohu and minimum in the PI of bata. Out of 45 isolates, 4 bacterial strains were selected as potent phytase producers according to quantitative enzyme assay. Maximum phytase activity was detected in LRF5 isolated from the PI of L. rohita followed by CCF2 isolated from the PI of C. catla. Among the selected isolates, three (LRF5, LRH2 and CMH1) were Gram positive rods, whereas CCF2 was Gram positive coccus. All the four isolates could tolerate a wide range of temperature (25–42 °C) and pH (6.0-9.0). The isolate LRH2 was most thermostable as it was able to survive up to 55 oC. On the basis of 16SrDNA partial sequence analysis, isolates LRF5 and CCF2 were identified as Bacillus cereus (GenBank Accession no. KC894957.1) and Staphylococcus caprae (Accession no. KC894956.1), respectively. Whereas, the isolates LRH2 and CMH1 were most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis (Accession no. KF011267.1) and Lysinibacillus fusiformis (Accession No. KF011266.1), respectively.

      Keywords: Fish GI tract, bacteria, phytase, 16S rDNA, identification

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sudeshna Banerjee

    (1)
    1. EVALUATION OF CHITINOLYTIC GUT MICROBIOTA IN SOME CARPS AND OPTIMIZATION OF CULTURE CONDITIONS FOR CHITINASE PRODUCTION BY THE SELECTED BACTERIA [MB]

      Abstract: Present study was aimed at isolation of autochthonous chitinase-producing bacteria from the gastrointestinal tracts of 3 Indian Major Carps (Labeo rohita, Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala) and 3 exotic carps (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Cyprinus carpio). Altogether, 119 bacteria were isolated from both the proximal and distal intestine and screened for chitinolytic activity. On the basis of chitin hydrolysis zone, 63 isolates were primarily selected for chitinase production, from which 34 potent strains were further studied for quantitative enzyme assay. Amongst them, the strains HMH1 and CMF2 exhibited potent chitinolytic activity and were identified as Bacillus pumilus (KF454036) and Bacillus flexus (KF454035), respectively by 16S rRNA partial gene sequence analysis. Optimization of various fermentation parameters (e.g., temperature, pH, inoculums size, surfactant, colloidal chitin concentration, incubation time, carbon sources, organic and inorganic nitrogen sources) were carried out in chitinase production medium. Incubation for 72 h at 350C and initial pH 7.5 revealed optimum chitinase productions by B. pumilus HMH1 in the media supplemented with colloidal chitin 0.1% (w/v), maltose 2% (w/v), ammonium sulphate 1.0% (w/v) and Tween-80 0.2% (v/v). However, B. flexus CMF2 required 48 h incubation at 35°C and initial pH 8.0 with colloidal chitin 0.15% (w/v), sucrose 1% (w/v), yeast extract 2.0% (w/v) and Tween-20 0.2% (v/v) supplementation for optimum yield. The results indicate that there is ample scope for further research to appraise fish gut microorganisms for chitinase production or as probiotics to improve feed efficiency in fish.

      Keywords: Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus flexus, chitinase, fish gut bacteria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Samudra Prosad Banik

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION OF A NEW PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM STRAIN BF02 FROM AGRICULTURAL SOIL OF RURAL INDIA PRODUCING A THERMOSTABLE LOW KM CELLOBIASE [MB]

      Abstract: A new strain of Penicillium chrysogenum producing a low Km, thermostable cellobiase was isolated from agricultural soil of rural West Bengal, India. The culture filtrate showed strong antibacterial activity against gram positive organisms, gave two cellobiase activity bands on native PAGE zymography and two peaks on sephacryl S200 gel chromatography. The higher molecular weight peak had a higher specific activity and was characterised further. It gave three bands corresponding to 130 kDa, 65 kDa and 55 kDa in SDS-PAGE and showed a Km of 0.196 mM against p- nitrophenyl β-D glucopyranoside. It was highly thermostable and retained full activity after one hour incubation at 55°C with temperature optima of 75°C. Its pH stability ranged between 4.5 and 8.5 with optimal activity at pH 5 and it retained more than 65% activity in presence of 100 mM guanidium hydrochloride and 2 M urea. Apart from Zn+2 and Hg+2, enzyme activity was not affected by other metal ions and in presence of Mg+2 and Mn+2, activity was boosted. It also retained more than 80% activity in presence of 0.5% glucose. This is one of the very few reports of an efficient cellobiase from the Penicillium genus which can be utilised for biotechnological applications.

      Keywords: Filamentous fungi; Penicillium chrysogenum; antimicrobial potential; thermostable low Km cellobiase

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kolawole Banwo

    (1)
    1. FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF YEASTS ISOLATED FROM SOME NIGERIAN TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS [MB]

      Abstract: Yeasts play important roles in confering some desirable qualities such as nutritional value in traditional fermented foods. This study was carried out to investigate the potentials of yeasts isolated from some Nigerian traditional fermented foods for functional characteristics such as growth at pH 2.5 and 2% bile salts concentration and ability to lower cholesterol in culture medium. A total of 40 yeast strains were isolated from burukutu, ogi and pito. They were characterized phenotypically. Fifteen strains were selected based on the ability to tolerate pH 2.5 and 2% bile salts and they were further identified using API 20C AUX (Biomerieux, France) to be Debaryomyces hansenii (5), Candida krusei (4), Candida glabrata (2), Candida colliculosa (1), Pichia anomala (1), Pichia farinosa (1) and Pichia membranefaciens (1). At pH 2.5, C. glabrata SA2 showed the highest increase in viable cells count after 24h (6.31 log10 cfu ml-1) while the most sensitive strain was P. membranefaciens BA2 (0.70 log10 cfu ml-1). P. membranefaciens BA2 survived in 2% bile salts than other yeast strains, with viable cell increase of 0.84 log10 cfu ml-1 after 24 h while the least tolerance was observed for D. hansenii OA1 with an increase in viable cells of 7.76 log10 cfu ml-1. C. krusei OB1 exhibited the greatest reduction of cholesterol of 91.34% while the least reduction of 24.28% was observed for D. hansenii OA1 after 48h incubation. The yeast strains in this study demonstrated functional attributes which can be employed as dietary adjuncts for the development of non-dairy beverages with hypocholesterolemic attributes.

      Keywords: Yeast, Traditional fermented food, Functional properties, Cholesterol reduction

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Bikash Baral

    (1)
    1. ASSESSMENT OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL POTENTIALS OF HIGH ALTITUDINAL NEPALESE LICHENS [MB]

      Abstract: Lichens and lichen products have been used in traditional medicines for centuries. The lichens of the high altitudinal meadow of MCA (Manaslu Conservation Area) have remained unexplored for which this research has been conducted with an aim of unveiling the phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of lichens present there. Four densely populated lichen species namely Usnea longifolia, Setraria spp, Parmotrema reticulatum and Evernastrium nepalense were chosen for the study. The extracts of these species were obtained in 6 different solvents viz. hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and water by soxhlet extraction method and the antimicrobial assay was carried out by agar well diffusion method. The extract yield varied from 0.07 -29.4%. The extracts obtained showed the presence of volatile oil, saponins, coumarins and quinines, flavonic glycosides and carotenoids. The ethyl acetate fraction of E. nepalense and U. longifolia were found to be most effective against all the 8 clinical bacterial pathogens and 5 phytopathogenic fungi tested. The extracts of Cetraria spp and P. milghenensis were found to be specifically inhibiting the fungal pathogens compared to the bacterial pathogens. Generally the lichen extracts tested demonstrated antimicrobial effect which suggests a possibility of their use in treatment of various diseases caused by these and similar microorganisms.

      Keywords: antibacterial, antifungal, phytochemicals, zone of inhibition, lichens

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Beáta Baraňska

    (1)
    1. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTIC STRAINS ON FATTENINTHE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PROBIOTIC STRAINS ON F [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different probiotic strains applied through a drinking water source to fattening and carcass parameters of broiler ducks. Fattening experiment was realised in half-operating conditions of experimental basis of Department of Poultry Science and Small Animal Husbandry in three-floor cage technology. Totally 90 broiler duck were divided to three groups. Experimental group 1 (n=30) received probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7158 with concentration of 1x109 colony forming units (CFU) in drinking water daily addition of 0.90 g day 1 to day 56 of fattening. Experimental group 2 (n=30) received probiotic strain Enterococcus faecium M 74 with concentration of 1x109 colony forming units (CFU) in drinking water daily addition of 0.45 g day 1 to day 56 of fattening. The control group of birds (n=30) received water without any probiotics. The supplementation of probiotic strains Lactobacillus fermentum and Enterococcus faecium no significant affected (P≥0.05) final body weight, feed consumption and mortality of broiler ducks. From carcass parameters, we recorded statistically significant (P<0.05) reduction in weight of abdominal fat of broiler ducks for application of tested probiotic strains.

      Keywords: duck, probiotic, Lactobacillus fermentum, Enterococus faecium, performance

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • T. R. Barathkumar

    (1)
    1. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF FIVE PHYLOGENETICALLY DISTANT FUNGI (DIVISION: ASCOMYCETE) FROM VELLAR ESTUARY, SOUTHEAST COAST OF INDIA – A PILOT STUDY [MB]

      Abstract: Fungal taxonomy is dynamically driven towards controversial discipline that consequently requires changes in nomenclature. Scarcity of microbiological expertise particularly for marine fungi is another major setback for these taxonomical differences. Here, five different species pharmacologically important marine fungi under Division Ascomycete were studied for their spectral variation. This work verified the practical applicability of FT-IR microspectroscopy technique for early and rapid identification of these species based on the spectral data showed striking difference with their major biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nucleic acids produced by them. Spectra of all the species showed striking differences while individual peaks of each spectrum are parallel to each other in their respective spectral regions. Aspergillus oryzae have intense peaks in the lipid and nucleic acid spectral region and moderate bands in the amide spectrum. Phoma herbarum and Trichoderma piluliferum showed intense peaks in the protein spectral region but moderate peaks in the lipid and nucleic acid regions. Hypocrea lixii and Meyerozyma guilliermandii have less intense peaks in all the five spectral regions. This unique spectral representation is concordant with the cluster analysis dendrogram by minimum variance statistical method where low spectroscopic distance was found between H. lixii and M. guilliermondii whereas a higher spectroscopic distance was found between P. herbarum and T. piluliferum. FTIR spectroscopy delivers a combined advantage for efficient fungal classification as well as simultaneous visualization of chemical composition of samples as evident from this study.

      Keywords: FTIR spectroscopy, fungal taxonomy, cluster analysis, Ascomycetes, marine fungi

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Zuzana Barboráková

    (6)
    1. SPECIES OF GENUS ASPERGILLUS ON GRAPE SLOVAK ORIGIN [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to detect species of genus Aspergillus from wine grapes (berries, surface sterilized berries - endogenous mycobiota, from damaged berries and grape juice) of Slovak origin. We analyzed 20 samples of grapes, harvested in 2011 from various wine-growing regions. For the isolation of species we used the method of direct plating berries, surface-sterilized berries (using 0.4% freshly pre-pared chlorine), and damaged berries on DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar). For the determination of fungal contamination of grape juice, we used plate-dilution method and DRBC as medium. The cultivation in all modes of inoculation was carried at 25±1°C, for 5 to 7 days. After incubation Aspergillus isolates were inoculated on the identification media. Representatives of the genus Aspergillus were isolated from 13 samples berries, 7 samples of surface-sterilized berries, 4 samples of damaged berries and 9 samples of grape juice. Overall, representatives of aspergilli were detected in 90% of samples (75 isolates). In this work we focused on the detection of potential producers of ochratoxin A belonging to the genus Aspergillus. Isolates, potential producers of ochratoxin A (Aspergillus niger aggregate and Aspergillus westerdijkiae), were after their identification inoculated on YES medium (Yeast Extract Sucrose Agar) and after 14 days of incubation at 25±1°C, in the dark, we tested them for their ability to produce ochratoxin A using thin layer chromatography. Out of the 16 isolates from isolated potential producers of ochratoxin A none of the isolates of Aspergillus niger aggregate (13 tested) produced ochratoxin A. The isolate of Aspergillus westerdijkiae (1), isolated from the surface-sterilized berries, produced ochratoxin A.

      Keywords: Aspergillus, ochratoxin A, grape

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN APPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY TO PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi involved in rot of apples in market and to test isolated potentially toxigenic species for ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. From 30 apples with rotting were isolated and identificated 8 genera (Penicillium, Monilinia, Botrytis, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium and Geotrichum) of filamentous fungi. The most frequent (40% rot apples) was Penicillium expansum, the most important producer of rotting during storage of apples. For the ability to produce mycotoxins in vitro were tested isolates, potential producers of mycotoxins. All tested isolates were determinated as producers of mycotoxins: Penicillium expansum (patulin and citrinin, 12 isolates), Penicillium citrinum (citrinin, 1 isolate), Penicillium roqueforti (roquefotin C, 1 isolate) and Aspergillus versicolor (sterigmatocystin, 1 isolate).

      Keywords: apples, micromycetes, patulin, Penicillium expansum

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. POTENTIAL PRODUCTION OF CYCLOPIAZONIC ACID BY PENICILLIUM CAMEMBERTI STRAINS ISOLATED FROM CAMEMBERT TYPE CHEESE [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to isolate the strains of fungi from Camembert type cheese, identify them and to test isolated strains of Penicillium camemberti for their ability to produce cyclopiazonic acid. The description of micro- and macromorphological features was used for identification of Penicillium camemberti strains. Strains were subsequently in vitro tested on their potential ability to produce mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA). All of the 14 strains of Penicillium camemberti, which were obtained from 20 samples of Camembert type cheese, were cultivated 7, 14, 21, 27 and 30 days on CYA medium at 10±1°C, 15±1°C and 25±1°C in the dark. For determination of CPA production ability by P. camemberti isolates in vitro was TLC used. After 7 days of cultivation cyclopiazonic acid was produced only by 5 from 14 strains cultivated at all cultivation temperatures. After 14 and 21 days of cultivation was CPA produced by 6 strains at all of cultivation temperatures. After 27 and 30 days of cultivation was CPA identified in 7 strains cultivated at all temperatures of cultivation. The other strains also produced mycotoxin, however, not at each temperature. The most productive at all temperatures and after all days were 5 out of 14 tested strains (S9, S10, S13, S18 and S19). Strains S6 and S16 did not produce CPA at any temperature. The lowest production after all days of cultivation was found at 10±1 °C (44%) and the highest at 25±1 °C (85%).

      Keywords: Penicillium camemberti, mycotoxin, cheese, cyclopiazonic acid

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. EFFECT OF GLUCOSE CONCENTRATION AND GROWTH CONDITIONS ON THE FUNGAL BIOMASS, PH OF MEDIA AND PRODUCTION OF FUMAGILLIN BY A NON-PATHOGENIC STRAIN PENICILLIUM SCABROSUM [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to obtain the information on the fumagillin production by a strain Penicillium scabrosum on a selected synthetic medium, and to study the effect of different glucose concentrations and the cultivation conditions on the production of fumagillin, fungal biomass, and changes of pH in media. These parameters were observed on 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, 35th, 42nd and 49th day of cultivation. TLC (thin-layer chromatography) and HPLC analysis (high-performance liquid chromatography) were used for confirmation of fumagillin production. Based on the results from this study, MM medium with 1% glucose and 42 days cultivation at room temperature was found to be the best synthetic medium for production of fumagillin by the strain P. scabrosum used (82.54 µg.mL-1). Growth of fungal biomass reached its maximum in MM medium with 3% glucose on 14th day of cultivation at 25 °C. An increased concentration of glucose in MM medium (up to 3%) had positive impact on biomass growth, but it negatively influenced production of fumagillin. Furthermore, increasing concentration of glucose in media resulted in decreasing of pH and consequently increasing pH of media caused decreasing of fumagillin production.

      Keywords: fumagillin, fungal biomass, Penicillium scabrosum, pH, synthetic medium

      article details | fulltext pdf

    5. COMPARISON OF OCCURRENCE AND TOXINOGENITY OF ALTERNARIA SPP. ISOLATED FROM SAMPLES OF CONVENTIONAL AND NEW CROSSBRED WHEAT OF SLOVAK ORIGIN [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare the results of mycological and mycotoxicological analysis of two types of Slovak wheat samples, focusing on Alternaria genus. A total of 21 samples of conventional wheat grains and 3 samples of the new crossbred wheat were investigated for exogenous and endogenous mycobiota. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by using plate dilution method and the endogenous mycobiota by the method of direct placing of superficially sterilized grains on agar plates. Toxinogenity of selected isolates was analysed by means of thin layer chromatography. The obtained results of this study show a high isolation frequency of Alternaria isolates in samples of conventional as well as new crossbred wheat. A total of 4 species-groups of the genus Alternaria were isolated from conventional wheat (A. alternata, A. arborescens, A. infectoria, A. tenuissima) and 3 species-groups from new crossbred wheat (A. arborescens, A. infectoria, A. tenuissima). A. tenuissima species-group was isolated within the endogenous mycobiota from all samples of conventional and new crossbred wheat. Species-group with the second highest isolation frequency in all tested samples was A. infectoria. The highest relative density in all samples belongs to A. infectoria and A. tenuissima species-groups. Selected strains isolated from both types of wheat were tested for production of altenuene, alternariol monomethylether and alternariol. In neither case of A. infectoria species-group isolates was confirmed the production of tested mycotoxins. The highest toxinogenity (100%) was observed in strains of A. arborescens and A. tenuissima.

      Keywords: Alternaria, altenuene, alternariol, alternariol monomethylether, wheat

      article details | fulltext pdf

    6. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN THE BREAD SAMPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi that can cause occurrence of mould in bread. We used breads from experimental baking with different addition of walnuts (0 - 15%) as model samples. Bread samples were stored in the fridge, in plastic bags and in the bread box. After three days of storage 25% of samples were moldy. The middle parts of breads (4 pieces), that were not moldy, were stored on DRBC and cultured at 25±1oC for three days. All the colonies of micromycets were inserted on identification agar. Molding of bread samples was caused by species of genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Rhizopus. 28 strains of potentially toxigenic species of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were tested by TLC method for the ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. We discovered the production of cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A and roquefortin C using mentioned method.

      Keywords: bread, micromycetes, mycotoxins

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ana Andréa Teixeira Barbosa

    (1)
    1. LIKE IT ACID AND POOR: A STUDY OF ABIOTIC FACTORS INFLUENCING Streptococcus bovis HC5 GROWTH AND BACTERIOCIN PRODUCTION [MB]

      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effect of pH, temperature, growth atmosphere and nutrient availability on bovicin HC5 production by Streptococcus bovis HC5. S. bovis HC5 grew well in complex and basal media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, but greater bacteriocin yields were recovered from anaerobic cultures. Lactate production and glucose consumption increased if S. bovis HC5 cells were cultivated at pH 7.0 and at 45 ºC, but higher bovicin HC5 activity was recovered from cells grown in acidic conditions and at lower temperatures (39 ºC). Cultures maintained under continuous CO2 flow showed faster growth rates in basal media, but bacteriocin production was always higher if S. bovis was cultivated in anaerobic sealed tubes. These results suggest that acidic pH and anoxic conditions favor bovicin HC5 production by S. bovis HC5. S. bovis HC5 is a unique lactic acid bacterium in its ability to grow and produce high amounts of a potentially useful bacteriocin in simple media. Considering the constrains for bacteriocin production at commercial scale, it appears that bovicin HC5 production could be achieved at lower costs compared to other bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria.

      Keywords: Bovicin HC5, pH, environmental conditions, lactic acid bacteria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • László Bárdos

    (1)
    1. ACCUMULATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS (PD, CD AND CR) IN MILK OF GRAZING SHEEP IN NORTH-EAST HUNGARY [FS]

      Abstract: Food safety and traceability control in the production of agricultural primary products becomes more important criteria for the consumers because of the novel requirements of foods as tools for disease prevention and health. The objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation of lead, cadmium and chromium in milk of ewes during pasture condition. In present study, the amounts of the heavy metals in grass samples were lower than the highest acceptable limits according the regulations. Moreover, lead, cadmium and chromium concentrations were 0.023 mg, 0.012 mg and 0.290 mg/wet weight kg in milk samples, respectively. 50% and 40% of the milk samples the lead and cadmium values were out of the permissible limit. However, the amount of the heavy metals in grass and other forages samples were lower than the highest acceptable limits, concentration of Pb and Cd in milk samples were higher than the maximum acceptable limits of the EU regulation. These results suggested that necessary control the heavy metal contents of primary food products for food safety.

      Keywords: heavy metals, grass, sheep, milk

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Tomislav Barna

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF PROTEINE CONTENT IN BOAR SEMINAL PLASMA ON THE SPERM MOTILITY IN DILUTED SEMEN STORED FOR 3 DAYS [BT]

      Abstract: Recently, it was frequently demonstrated that fertility of sows after artificially inseminated is lower than after mating. This is associated with a reduced fertilization capacity of overdiluted insemination doses. The aim of this study was to investigate the sperm motility in the semen samples, forming from the ejaculates with high or low protein content, stored in vitro on 17oC for 3 days. Progressive motility was significantly higher (p<0.01) in the ejaculates with high, compared to the ejaculates with low protein content (82% vs. 76%). After 3 days of storage, in the1:4 dilution proportion, the average progressive motility was significantly (p<0.01) decreased in relation to this value in native semen from the boars with high (82% to64%), as well from the boars with low protein content in seminal plasma (76% to48%). However, the average diluted semen progressive motility was significantly greater (p<0.01) in the boars with high (64%), compared to the boars with low protein content in seminal plasma (48%). The number of good diluted semen samples (≥65% progressive motility), was also significantly (p<0.01) greater in the boars with high (41%), compared to the boars with low protein content in seminal plasma (12%). These results show that seminal plasma proteins play an important role in maintaining the sperm progressive motility of diluted semen in vitro stored for 3 days.

      Keywords: Semen, protein, dilution, storage, motility, boar

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Stanislav Baroš

    (1)
    1. FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING CAPACITY OF PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L. AND DETERMINATION OF PHARMACOLOGICALLY ACTIVE ALKALOIDS USING CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS [BT]

      Abstract: The free radical generation is related to the oxidation process in biological systems as well as in foods. It was found that oxidation is affected by antioxidants that can act as radical scavengers. Objective of the present work was to study the free radical scavenging capacity of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) extract by using the DPPH test and to verify the suitability of the micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) technique for analytical assessment and determination of three major poppy alkaloids (thebaine, morphine and papaverine). Because of its generally high separation efficiency, the MEKC is successfully used for analytical evaluation of biologically active substances usually without special claims for sample preparation. The results of DPPH test have shown that poppy contains components capable of terminating free radicals. We have confirmed that nature of the solvent used for the electrophoretic medium in MEKC has a strong influence on the separation efficiency. In our experiments, the most effective solvent was mixture of water to acetonitrile (ratio 4:6).

      Keywords: opium poppy, morphine, papaverine, thebaine, MEKC, DPPH

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Nicolas Barro

    (1)
    1. CHARACTERIZATION OF DIARRHEAGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI ISOLATED FROM RAW BEEF, MUTTON, AND INTESTINES SOLD IN OUAGADOUGOU, BURKINA FASO [MB]

      Abstract: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli are zoonotic bacteria commonly present in animal gut. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli isolated from raw meats and intestines in open markets of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 450 samples were collected from beef, mutton, beef intestine and sheep intestine, in respective number 175, 175, 50 and 50. Diarrheagenic E. coli were isolated by using standard microbiological methods and then Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction was used for characterization. Among the pathotypes, enteropathogenic E. coli was identified by serotypage (slide agglutination). A 30% (135/450) were E. coli. 30% (40/135) of E. coli strains provided the virulence genes. 14% of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli, 13% of shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli-enterotoxinogenic Escherichia coli, 1% of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, 2% of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and 1% of enterotoxinogenic Escherichia coli. 41% (55/135) were enteropathogenic Escherichia coli belong to serotypes: (5%), O119 (3%), O127 (16%), O125 (9%), O126 (18%), O128 (5%), O114 (5%), O124 (5%), O142 (7%). This study show contamination of slaughter animal with diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes in Burkina Faso. Precaution can take of mutation breeding level.

      Keywords: Beef, Mutton, Raw intestines, Diarrheagenic E. coli, Burkina Faso

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Victor Barshteyn

    (2)
    1. UTILIZATION OF AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE BY HIGHER MUSHROOMS: MODERN VIEW AND TRENDS [BT]

      Abstract: Waste management and providing a world population with rich in protein food are two important problems of which the utilization of agro-industrial (agriculture and food industry) waste by higher mushrooms causes the growing interest of researchers around the world. More than 150 individual types of wastes have been investigated last decade as alternative substrates alone or in various compositions (more than 450 substrates) for cultivation of 52 higher mushroom species (about 100 strains) as evidenced by the results of more than 130 considered in the review scientific publications. All waste is used as a basis for substrates and supplements thereto, are characteristic of the respective continent and region of the world. Publications containing biochemical studies of substrates and fungi confirm that fungi are grown in rich in biologically active substances unconventional substrates, provide a rich biochemical composition of fungi compared with conventional substrates (sawdust, straw, etc.). The disadvantage of many publications is the lack of mention of examined fungi strains, whereas studies of various strains of the same fungus in the same substrate show different results. The prospect of the study of agricultural residues utilization by higher mushrooms consists in the investigations of: productivity, biological efficiency of the process, morphological and biochemical indices of cultivated mushrooms, depending on the biochemical parameters of substrates and the process conditions; safety of cultivated mushrooms.

      Keywords: Agro-industrial waste; higher mushrooms, utilization; substrate

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. SCREENING OF EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF MACROFUNGI [BT]

      Abstract: Six types of extracellular enzymes activities in thirty cultures of Macrofungi (Macromycetes) of different ecophysiological (wood decaying, saprotrophic, entomophilous, and leaf-litter decaying) and taxonomic fungi groups were studied. Amylase activity was detected in all investigated mushroom cultures, lipase – in 26, laccase – 21, urease – 20. Protease activity was revealed in 6 species and nitrate reductase activity only in Lepista luscina and Morchella esculenta. As a whole, L. luscina with its amount of detected enzymes and their good visualization seemed to be a promising species. Some of investigated mushrooms are reported as species producing extracellular enzymes investigated in this study for the first time: Hohenbuehelia myxotricha, L. luscina, Lyophyllum schimeji, Phellinus igniarius, Piptoporus betulinus, and Spongipellis litschaueri (amylase); L. luscina, Crinipellus schevczenkovi, Auriporia aurea, Hypsizygus marmoreus, L. schimeji, Oxyporus obducens, and S. litschaueri (laccase); A. aureus, C. schevczenkovi, H. myxotricha, L. luscina, L. schimeji, O. obducens, and S. litschaueri (lipase); A. aureus, C. schevczenkovi, H. myxotricha, H. marmoreus, L. luscina, L. schimeji, Pleurotus djamor, and S. litschaueri (urease) as well as L. luscina (nitrate reductase).
      Characterization of enzymatic activity of individual fungal cultures increases the value of the respective culture collection, and simultaneously makes an easier choice to select fungal strains possessing desired enzymatic potential.

      Keywords: Macrofungi, amylase, laccase, lipase, protease, urease, nitrate reductase

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Artur Bartkowiak

    (1)
    1. MODIFICATION OF PLA FOIL SURFACE BY ETHYLCELLULOSE AND ESSENTIAL OILS [FS]

      Abstract: The increasing consumer demand for safety and long-term products motivates the packaging industry to produce antimicrobial packaging. The task of the antimicrobial packaging is not only the inhibition of growth of the pathogenic microflora, but also the maintenance of sensory characteristics of the product for a long time. The aim of the study was to evaluate antimicrobial properties of modified PLA foils against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Biodegradable PLA foils were covered 10% ethylcellulose (EC) as carrier and commercial essential oils from fennel, rosemary and caraway as active substances. Antimicrobial properties were tested against Escherichia coli (Gram-negative) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive). The study was conducted using the American method ASTM E 2180-01. The results of experiments showed that modified essential oils PLA foils reduced the amount of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The best antibacterial properties would have PLA foil coating 10% EC with 50 mg/dm2 of fennel essential oil.

      Keywords: Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, PLA, essential oils

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Henryk Bartoń

    (1)
    1. HEALTH BENEFITS OF KVASS MANUFACTURED FROM RYE WHOLEMEAL BREAD [FS]

      Abstract: Kvass based on traditional technology completely disappeared from polish market. It was replaced by drinks, prepared from malt concentrates, wrongly named kvass. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain traditional bread kvass (by fermentation), using the mash prepared from commercial wholemeal rye bread, produced by 5-phase dough fermentation method, and to determine the quality of this kvass in terms of consumer acceptance, chemical composition and antioxidant activity. It has been demonstrated that based on the traditional wholemeal rye bread, it is possible to produce good quality bread kvass, with similar organoleptic qualities to the commercial kvasses, which contain several added flavours and preservatives. Natural bread kvass can be consumed by consumers of all ages, since it contains only trace amounts of alcohol, and it has almost double the dietary fibre content and three times lower content of reducing sugars as compared to the commercial kvasses. Laboratory made kvasses by natural fermentation also showed an increase in antioxidant activity by 60%, when compared to commercial kvasses.

      Keywords: Bread kvass, consumer acceptance, antioxidant activity, chemical composition

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Elzbieta Bartosiak

    (1)
    1. GLUCOSE CONSUMPTION AND LACTIC ACID FORMATION IN MILLET SOURDOUGH FERMENTED WITH DIFFERENT STRAINS OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA [MB]

      Abstract: The consumption of glucose and production of lactic acid by selected autochtonous strains of facultatively heterofermentative Lactobacillus coryniformis, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilactici species, in millet sourdoughs was studied. Glucose consumption and lactic acid concentration were analyzed after 24 h, 48 h and 96 h of sourdough incubation. They varied significantly depending on the strain. The highest production of lactic acid in all fermentation steps was found in sourdough fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici strain, whereas the lowest amount of this metabolite was found in sourdoughs fermented with Pediococcus pentosaceus ZFP5. Lactic acid concentration decreased in the successive fermentation steps and after 96 h of sourdoughs fermentation its level was of about 44 % lower than after 24 h of incubation. Glucose was completely consumed in all samples after 96 h of fermentation.

      Keywords: lactic acid, millet, sourdough, Lactobacillus coryniformis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Pediococcus acidilactici

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    (6)
    1. AGRONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES [FS]

      Abstract: Production parameters (number of productive tillers per m2, stem length, weight of grains per spike, TGW, share of glumes and yield) of four emmer wheat varieties – Agnone, Farvento, Molise sel Colli, Guardiaregia cultivated under the conditions of organic farming system in the south region of the Slovak republic during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 growing seasons were evaluated. Weather conditions during experimental years showed higher influence on selected production parameters than tasted varieties. Statistical analysis confirmed significant differences between varieties only in parameters: weight of grains per spike and TGW. The average theoretical yield of emmer wheat varieties was 7.09t.ha-1, TGW averaging about 47.67 g, average weight of grains per spike was 1.63 g. The stem length varying from 84.78 cm to 87.65 cm, average share of glumes was 28.16 %. Numbers of productive tillers was averaging about 445 per m2. Generally spoken, emmer wheat varieties are suitable for organic farming from the point of its morphological features.

      Keywords: Emmer wheat varieties, organic farming system, production parameters

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES [FS]

      Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional compounds (fat, sugars, crude protein, soluble fiber, ash and starch) of four emmer wheat varieties grown under the conditions of organic farming system. The experiment was established on Scientific Research base Dolná Malanta, near Nitra in Slovakia during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 growing seasons. Nutritional parameters, except crude protein content, were not influenced by the variety and weather conditions. Agnone variety had the highest content of fat, crude protein and starch but the lowest content of soluble dietary fiber. The lowest values of fat, crude protein had Molise sel Colli variety; Farvento variety had the lowest sugars and starch content. Emmer wheat as ancient wheat has a unique composition in secondary components, such as starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients.

      Keywords: Emmer wheat, nutritional quality, organic farming

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. BREAD TEXTURE ANALYSIS IN ECOLOGICAL AND INTEGRATED FARMING SYSTEM [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate texture of winter wheat bread. Winter wheat was cultivated in ecological (ES) and integrated (IS) farming system with two levels of fertilizing. Farming systems were established at research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia on a Haplic Luvisol. The experimental field altitude is 178 m, average annual precipitations 586 mm, average year temperature 10.4 °C. Subplots were fertilized (F) and unfertilized (N) variants. The F variant in ES was based on 40 t of manure, the IS also recieved 40 t of manure plus synthetic fertilizers. The effect of farming systems and two levels of fertilization on qualitative parameters of winter wheat was observed in the year 2009 and 2010. Farming system had no statistically significant effect on the bread crumb texture. Weather conditions, forecrop and fertilizing had significant influence on bread crumb texture. Year had the significant effect on every texture parameter, better values was reached in 2010. Forecrop had significant effect on crumb firmness and stiffness. After alfalfa as forecrop was found the best bread texture, the worst after forecrop pea. Fertilizing positively affected all texture parameters of bread.

      Keywords: texture, bread, winter wheat, ecological and integrated system

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. FREE FLAVONOID CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF WINTER WHEAT IN SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS [FS]

      Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the free flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of winter wheat white flour, whole grain flour and bran in ecological and integrated farming system in the years 2009-2010. The experiment was established on a scientific research base Dolná Malanta in western Slovakia during the years 2009 and 2010. Content of free flavonoids and antioxidant activity of white flour and whole grain flour was not affected by farming systems. Antioxidant activity of whole grain flour was more effected by a year and by a forecrop. White flour contain two times less free flavonoids and antioxidant activity than whole grain flour. By milling process most of the free flavonoids and other compounds with higher antioxidant activity remain in outer layers of grain.

      Keywords: antioxidant activity, free flavonoids, winter wheat, ecological system

      article details | fulltext pdf

    5. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD [FS]

      Abstract: The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N), stiffness (N.mm-1) and relative elasticity (%).Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

      Keywords: bread, spelt, texture, firmness, stiffness, relative elasticity

      article details | fulltext pdf

    6. TEXTURE OF COOKED SPELT WHEAT NOODLES [FS]

      Abstract: At present, there are limited and incomplete data on the ability of spelt to produce alimentary pasta of suitable quality. Noodles are traditional cereal-based food that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of its convenience, nutritional qualities, and palatability. It is generally accepted that texture is the main criterion for assessing overall quality of cooked noodles. We present selected indicators of noodle texture of three spelt cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. A texture analyzer TA.XT PLUS was used to determine cooked spelt wheat noodle firmness (N) (AACC 66-50). The texture of cooked spelt wheat noodles was expressed also as elasticity (N) and extensibility (mm). Statistical analysis showed significant influence of the variety and year of growing on the firmness, elasticity and extensibility of cooked noodles. The wholemeal spelt wheat noodles were characterized with lower cutting firmness than the flour noodles. Flour noodles were more tensile than wholemeal noodles. The best elasticity and extensibility of flour noodles was found in noodles prepared from Rubiota however from wholemeal noodles it was Oberkulmer Rotkorn. Spelt wheat is suitable for noodle production, however also here it is necessary to differentiate between varieties. According to achieved results, wholemeal noodles prepared from Oberkulmer Rotkorn can be recommended for noodle industry due to their consistent structure and better texture quality after cooking.

      Keywords: noodles, spelt, texture, firmness, elasticity, extensibility

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Magdaléna Lacko – Bartošová

    (1)
    1. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT [FS]

      Abstract: Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK), following the AACC (74-09) standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N), stiffness (N.mm-1) and relative elasticity (%). Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++). The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

      Keywords: spelt, crumb texture, bread, firmness, stiffness, relative elasticity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Joanna Barłowska

    (1)
    1. EFFECT OF THE PRODUCTION SEASON ON NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND TECHNOLOGICAL SUITABILITY OF MILK OBTAINED FROM INTENSIVE (TMR) AND TRADITIONAL FEEDING SYSTEM OF COWS [FS]

      Abstract: The seasonal variations in milk yield and its chemical composition arise mainly from changes in feeding of the cattle in different seasons of the year. A constant quantity of production and a similar quality of the raw material supply farms, where the feeding of cows is uniform throughout the year (TMR and PMR). The study included 1211 samples of milk obtained in the summer season (663) and in the winter season (548) from cows maintained in traditional and intensive (TMR) system of production. Following parameters were determined: content of fat, protein, casein, lactose and dry matter; acidity (pH value); heat stability; rennet coagulation time; content of α-lactalbumin, β-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, lysozyme and fatty acid profiles. Cows fed in the TMR system produced significantly (P≤0.01) more milk and of a better chemical composition regardless of the season of production. Milk obtained from cows fed traditionally had the most profitable protein to fat ratio (0,90) and the shortest time of rennet coagulation (3:26 min). It contained significantly (P≤0.01) more whey proteins and had better fatty acid profiles for health. In addition the differences were usually larger in the summer season than in the winter season. It is possible to state that in summer season, when the animals are maintained on the pasture, milk obtained from cows fed traditionally is more suitable for processing and contains more biologically active substances. The daily milk yield and other important quality features of milk, significant interactions between season of production and system of feeding were revealed.

      Keywords: milk, nutritional value, technological suitability, production season, production system

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sara Basiri

    (1)
    1. CURING EFFECTS ON THE GROWTH OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 IN CAMEL MEAT USING MOST PROBABLE NUMBER-POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION METHOD [MB]

      Abstract: MPN-PCR method was used to determine Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in cured camel meat samples during nine days of storage. The MPN-PCR is based on the combination between the conventional Most Probable Number and the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique targeting the Stx1and Stx2 gene for Ecoli O157:H7 and hlyA gene for L. monocytogenes.Growth of both bacteria in the cured and control experimental groups was initially subjected to a spectrophotometric MPN assay using a microplate reader followed by confirming by two PCR assays. It was shown that in the inoculated samples, the population of both microorganisms was significantly increased at all the test times. However, a significant reduction in the populations of both microorganisms was shown in the cured meat compared to the inoculated -but not- cured group. Our results suggested that curing can improve the microbial quality of camel meat.

      Keywords: Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Curing, Camel meat

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Buddha Bahadur Basnet

    (1)
    1. BIOCONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN VERMICOMPOSTING EARTHWORMS (Eisenia fetida, Perionyx excavatus and Lampito mauritii) IN NEPAL [BT]

      Abstract: Vermicomposting of organic waste can play an important part during the waste management process in larger cities such as Kathmandu where 70% of the waste generated is organic. In this study, the possibility of heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr) bioaccumulation by three different species of earthworms Eisenia fetida, Lampito mauritii and Perionyx excavatus in domestic waste vermicompost was investigated. Quantification of heavy metals by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS) in final vermicompost showed a significant reduction in concentration of metals, Pb (11.4-26.0%), Cd (48-61%), Cu (4.9- 29.01%) and Cr (18.90-33.60%) at the end. Bioaccumulation of heavy metal in the composting earthworms was also recorded. Comparison of the three groups of earthworms showed that the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cu and Cr was greater for P. excavatus whereas E. fetida was the most reluctant. Heavy metal content in the vermicompost was within the limit of USEPA for Biosolids and the compost could be used for the agriculture purpose.

      Keywords: Bioconcentration factor, Eisenia fetida, heavy metals, Lampito mauritii, Perionyx excavates, vermicompost

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Marta Batoryna

    (1)
    1. THE CONTENT OF REDUCED GLUTATHIONE IN KIDNEY, LIVER AND SPLEEN OF MICE AFTER STREPTOZOTOCIN INJECTION [BT]

      Abstract: Streptozotocin is an antibiotic with a cytostatic effect, which is used to induce experimental diabetes in experimental animals. Intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin causes damage to liver, kidney pancreatic beta cells and inhibits the secretion of insulin. Toxic effect of streptozotocin is also associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Reduced glutathione is one of the most important antioxidants. The aim of work was to estimate the concentration of reduced glutathione in kidney, liver and spleen of mice after streptozotocin injection. The research was conducted on Swiss mice 12 weeks old, weight 26 g. Animals were fed with standard diet and grown in 12/12 light/dark photoperiod. The animals were segregated into four experimental and four control group. Each group consisted of 5 animals. Total number of animals was n=40 of experimental groups were injected itraperitoneally with streptozotocin in dose of 65 mg/kg. Mice of control group were injected with physiological saline. The measurements were performed 48, 72 hours and 8, 16 days after streptozotocin injection. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s “t” test. It was observed that the level of reduced glutathione was decreased in all experimental groups compared to the control groups in all examined organs and intervals. The largest decrease was recorded in the liver. Our results indicate negative effect of streptozotocin on the level of reduced glutathione which may lead to imbalance in oxidant/antioxidant reactions.

      Keywords: Streptozotocin, reduced glutathione, kidney, liver, spleen, diabetes, intraperitoneal

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Miroslav Bauer

    (2)
    1. MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS OF THE SLOVAK CARNIOLAN HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA CARNICA) [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was the selection and testing of suitable microsatellite markers for evaluation of the Slovak carniolan honey bee, particularly the population structure, genetic diversity, breed assignment and paternity testing of honey bee queens in Slovakia. Fourteen microsatellite markers running in two multiplex PCR reactions have been tested on 40 randomly selected workers and queens and further verified by PIC index, expected heterozygosity (HE) and observed heterozygosity (HO). Chi-squared test of goodness of fit (α = 0,05) was used to check the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of genotype for each marker. For the comparison tests the workers of A. mellifera mellifera x ligurica, A. mellifera macedonica and A. mellifera iberica were analyzed, using the same set of markers. We identified a total of 123 alleles in the Slovak carniolan honey bee samples, with the mean value of 8,78 allele per locus. Eleven markers showed the PIC value greater than 0,5 and thus were highly informative. The mean value of expected heterozygosity HE for all loci was 0,705 ± 0,15, the mean value of observed heterozygosity HO was 0,704 ± 0,18. The frequencies of genotypes for most tested markers were in The aim of this study was the selection and testing of suitable microsatellite markers for evaluation of the Slovak carniolan honey bee, particularly the population structure, genetic diversity, breed assignment and paternity testing of honey bee queens in Slovakia. Fourteen microsatellite markers running in two multiplex PCR reactions have been tested on 40 randomly selected workers and queens and further verified by PIC index, expected heterozygosity (HE) and observed heterozygosity (HO). Chi-squared test of goodness of fit (α = 0,05) was used to check the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of genotype for each marker. For the comparison tests the workers of A. mellifera mellifera x ligurica, A. mellifera macedonica and A. mellifera iberica were analyzed, using the same set of markers. We identified a total of 123 alleles in the Slovak carniolan honey bee samples, with the mean value of 8,78 allele per locus. Eleven markers showed the PIC value greater than 0,5 and thus were highly informative. The mean value of expected heterozygosity HE for all loci was 0,705 ± 0,15, the mean value of observed heterozygosity HO was 0,704 ± 0,18. The frequencies of genotypes for most tested markers were in HWE.

      Keywords: carniolan honey bee, microsatellite markers, multiplex PCR

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. ASSOCIATIONS OF DGAT1 POLYMORPHISM WITH MILK CHARACTERISTICS IN SLOVAK DAIRY COWS [BT]

      Abstract: DGAT1 encodes diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.20), a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the final step of triglyceride synthesis. It was shown that the QTL variation is most likely caused by a nonconservative base substitution in the candidate gene DGAT1 changing lysine to alanine (K232A) in the enzyme diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT). In particular, the allele encoding the lysine 232 variant proved to be more efficient with regard to milk fat synthesis. The objective of the present study was to determine the allele frequencies and to verify the effects of the two DGAT variants (K232A polymorphism, A and K alleles) on milk production traits in Slovak dairy cows.
      Samples of 196 dairy cows originating from 61 sires were genotyped for DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (A and K alleles) using the PCR-RFLP technique. The frequencies of DGAT1 alleles were 0.88 (A) and 0.12 (K). The performance data were collected during one season in order to minimize this effect. The overall milk yield (MILK), fat yield (FAT_Y), fat content (FAT_C), protein yield (PROT_Y), protein content (PROT_C) and age at first calving (AGE1) were studied. The effect of DGAT1 polymorphism on fat and protein content in milk was confirmed. Further study is needed for explanation of effect of DGAT1 on the age at first calving.

      Keywords: genetic marker, cattle, acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene (DGAT1), PCR-RFLP

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mária Bauerová

    (1)
    1. MICROSATELLITE ANALYSIS OF THE SLOVAK CARNIOLAN HONEY BEE (APIS MELLIFERA CARNICA) [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was the selection and testing of suitable microsatellite markers for evaluation of the Slovak carniolan honey bee, particularly the population structure, genetic diversity, breed assignment and paternity testing of honey bee queens in Slovakia. Fourteen microsatellite markers running in two multiplex PCR reactions have been tested on 40 randomly selected workers and queens and further verified by PIC index, expected heterozygosity (HE) and observed heterozygosity (HO). Chi-squared test of goodness of fit (α = 0,05) was used to check the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of genotype for each marker. For the comparison tests the workers of A. mellifera mellifera x ligurica, A. mellifera macedonica and A. mellifera iberica were analyzed, using the same set of markers. We identified a total of 123 alleles in the Slovak carniolan honey bee samples, with the mean value of 8,78 allele per locus. Eleven markers showed the PIC value greater than 0,5 and thus were highly informative. The mean value of expected heterozygosity HE for all loci was 0,705 ± 0,15, the mean value of observed heterozygosity HO was 0,704 ± 0,18. The frequencies of genotypes for most tested markers were in The aim of this study was the selection and testing of suitable microsatellite markers for evaluation of the Slovak carniolan honey bee, particularly the population structure, genetic diversity, breed assignment and paternity testing of honey bee queens in Slovakia. Fourteen microsatellite markers running in two multiplex PCR reactions have been tested on 40 randomly selected workers and queens and further verified by PIC index, expected heterozygosity (HE) and observed heterozygosity (HO). Chi-squared test of goodness of fit (α = 0,05) was used to check the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) of genotype for each marker. For the comparison tests the workers of A. mellifera mellifera x ligurica, A. mellifera macedonica and A. mellifera iberica were analyzed, using the same set of markers. We identified a total of 123 alleles in the Slovak carniolan honey bee samples, with the mean value of 8,78 allele per locus. Eleven markers showed the PIC value greater than 0,5 and thus were highly informative. The mean value of expected heterozygosity HE for all loci was 0,705 ± 0,15, the mean value of observed heterozygosity HO was 0,704 ± 0,18. The frequencies of genotypes for most tested markers were in HWE.

      Keywords: carniolan honey bee, microsatellite markers, multiplex PCR

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Alicia Baumann

    (1)
    1. PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES PRODUCED BY A WILD STRAIN OF A. NIGER [MB]

      Abstract: Aspergillus niger, isolated from decay citrus peels in the province of Misiones, was able to produce pectinases by submerged fermentation. The enzymatic extract exhibited polygalacturonase, pectinesterase and lyase activities. Others enzymes capable of degrading cell wall polymers were also detected in the enzymatic extract such as cellulases and xylanases. Polygalacturonase was an endo-polygalacturonase. The enzyme exhibited a maximal activity at pH range between 4.5 to 5.0, was stable in the pH range from 2.5 to 5.5 and remained unchanged when was incubated at temperatures lower than 50 ºC. The fungi produced three PG isoenzymes. The enzymatic extract was able to clarify apple juice.
      The results observed make the pectinolytic enzymes produced by A. niger appropriate for future application in fruit juice processing industries.

      Keywords: Aspergillus niger, pecinolytic enzymes, polygalacturonase

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Narziev Baxtiyor

    (1)
    1. THE DIAGNOSIS AND EFFECT OF BREAST TUMORS TREATMENT IN DOGS [BT]

      Abstract: This study reports the spread of tumors of mammary gland in dogs. Changes in blood immunological and morphological parameters of affected dogs are presented. Results of immunotherapy used for activation of immune system after surgery showed various level of stimulation. Application of levamisole increase the percentage of T- and B-lymphocytes as well as the ratio of normalized subpopulations of T lymphocytes (T-helper and T-suppressor cells) indicating potential effect of levamisole. Application of BCG improved performance of T- and B-lymphocytes, but in comparison with the effect of levamisole some imbalance between subpopulations of T-helper and T-suppressor cells was detected. In the control group (simple tumor removal) different results were found indicating immunosuppressive effect of tumors.

      Keywords: tumor, immunity, lymphocytes, therapy

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Gamze Başbülbül

    (1)
    1. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE IN LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM FERMENTED DAIRY PRODUCTS AND BOZA [MB]

      Abstract: In this study, the resistance of 83 strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Turkish cheese, yogurt, kefir and boza samples to 6 antibiotics (gentamicin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, vancomycin and ciprofloxacin) was evaluated. The 83 isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and according to BLAST comparisons with sequences in the data banks, those strains showing the highest similarities with the isolates were Enterococcus faecium (10), Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis (10), Lactobacillus fermentum (6), Lactobacillus plantarum (6), Lactobacillus coryniformis (7), Lactobacillus casei (13), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (14), Pediococcus pentosaceus (10), Weisella confusa (7). Antimicrobial resistance of strains to 6 antibiotics was determined using the agar dilution method. The antibiotic resistance among all the isolates was detected against chloramphenicol (31,3 % of the isolates), tetracycline (30,1 %), erythromycin (2,4 %), ciprofloxacin (2,41%), vancomycin (73,5 %, intrinsic resistance). Overall 19,3 % of the isolates showed resistance against multiple antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance genes were studied by PCR and the following genes were detected; tet(M) gene in Lactobacillus fermentum (1), Lactobacillus plantarum (1), Pediococcus pentosaceus (5), Enterococcus faecium (2), Weisella confusa (4) and the vancomycin resistance gene van(A) in one Weisella confusa strain.

      Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Lactic acid bacteria, Boza, Fermented dairy products

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Andra Bebejová

    (1)
    1. CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY OF SLOVAK PIED HEIFERS AND THEIR CROSSES BY LIMOUSINE BREED [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of the present study was analysed heifer carcass and meat quality of Slovak pied breed and their crosses by limousine breed. The heifers were fattened by the same feed ration to the 450 days of age. There was a significant difference between the groups of the heifers (P ≤0.01) in the dressing percentage and muscle ratio (P ≤0.05). The Longissimus muscle chemical quality of fattening heifer were evaluate. Content of protein was similar in the Slovak pied heifers and in the crosses by limousine was insignificantly lower. Intramuscular fat content was significantly differed (P≤0.05), in the Slovak pied heifers was 2.95 % and the crosses by Limousine 3.52 %.Water holding capacity was insignificantly higher in the Slovak pied cattle as in the crosses by Limousine breed. Shear force was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher in the Longissimus muscle of Slovak pied cattle (7.1 WB) as in the crosses by Limousine breed (6.42 WB).

      Keywords: Beef, shear force, chemical quality, pH value

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Andrea Bebejová

    (3)
    1. ANALYSIS OF FREE AMINO ACIDS AND BIOGENIC AMINES IN THE BULL MUSCULUS THORACIS [FS]

      Abstract: Chemical composition, changes of pH, free amino acids and biogenic amines during aging of beef Musculus thoracis during maturation were analysed. The parameters were analysed 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks after slaughtering. The value of pH was 24 hours after slaughtering 5.6 and 48 hours similar 5.57, following the first week increased (pH 5.89) and decreased after the second week and in the third week reached 6.20 pH. During the 3 weeks ripening of meat, we found statistically significant (P ≤0.01) differences only in spermidine content. Spermine content was significantly increased (P ≤0.05) from 20.05 mg.kg-1 to 48.27 mg.kg-1. Free amino acids histamine not significant increased from 0.04 to 0.86 mg.kg-1, also content of free amino acids ornithine increased from 0.02 to 0.37 mg.kg-1 at the end of ripening. The putrescine content was 24 hours after slaughter 1.11 mg.kg-1 and at 21th day of the experiment was non significantly higher of 9.28 mg.kg-1. Spermidine content significantly (P ≤0.01) increased from 2.04 to 9.91 mg.kg-1 and spermine significantly increased (P ≤0.05) from 20.05 to 48.27 mg.kg-1 on the 21th day of the experiment.

      Keywords: Beef, chemical quality, pH value, free amino acids, biogenic amines

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. CHICKEN CARCASS STRUCTURE FED WITH ADDITION OF LINOLEIC ACID [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine the impact of linoleic acid added to feed mixtures for broiler chickens in relation to carcass structure. Research was conducted in experiment, which comparing characteristics of two groups of Ross 308 chickens: the experimental group with 5% addition of linoleic acid and the control group without the addition of linoleic acid. There was significantly higher carcass yield (P≤0.05) in experimental group. There were no significant differences in weight of offal in our experiment. Weight of abdominal fat in the experimental group was significantly higher (P≤0.01). The weight of heart was a higher (P≤0.05) in experimental group than in the control group. The analysis of various tissues of the breast and the thigh was found a higher proportion of fat and skin from the breast part (P≤0.01), and a higher proportion of fat and skin from the thigh part (P≤0.01) in the experimental group. Chicken breast part in the experimental group had a significantly lower proportion of muscle (P≤0.01).

      Keywords: Broiler ROSS 308, linoleic acid, carcass structure

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. THE INFLUENCE OF GENETIC VARIANTS OF κ-CASEIN ON MILK COMPONENTS [BT]

      Abstract: Milk production of 22 cows of Slovak Pied breed with Holstein-Friesian was analyzed according to the genetic variants of the polymorphic proteins determined by starch gel electrophoresis. The effect of genetic variants of the proteins was analyzed by selected properties of milk (milk yield, proteins, fats and lactose). Differences between the productive characters in testing groups were evaluated according to statistic method of t-test. Evaluation was carried out during throughout lactation. Based on the analyses we have obtained results frequency of genotypes: κ-CN AA in 9 cows (41%), AB in 12 cows (54.5%) and BB in one cow, which is 4.5%. The average daily milk production of κ-CN AA was 13.5 l/day and in κ-CN AB 14.2 l/day. Contents of protein of genetic variation κ-CN AA was 3.1% in milk genotype κ-CN AB was found not significant lower protein proportion 3.0%. Based on the analyses, we can assume that cow’s nutrition higher influence the increase in the proportion of protein than polymorphism of κ-CN. In our research was found out the average fat content 4.0% in genetic variation of κ-CN AA and not significant lower in genetic variation κ-CN AB 3.8%. The average lactose content in the cow’s milk with κ-CN AA genotype was 4.9% and κ-CN AB was 5.0%. The difference between fat content wasn’t statistically significant.

      Keywords: κ -casein, proteins, polymorphism, milk yield, milk composition

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • James Beddow

    (1)
    1. EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ZnO NANOPARTICLES COATED SONOCHEMICALLY ONTO TEXTILE FABRICS [MB]

      Abstract: Growing resistance of microorganisms to potent antibiotics has renewed a great interest towards investigating bactericidal properties of nanoparticles and their nano-composites as an alternative. In the present work studies have been carried out to investigate the antibacterial properties of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Various tests were performed to assess the antibacterial activity of cotton fabrics coated with ZnO nanoparticles against Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram negative Escherichia coli. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics were assessed semi-quantitatively by the agar diffusion method and the shake flask method (nutrient broth) and quantitatively by the shake flask method (saline) and the absorption method (ISO 20743:2007). The results showed a significant antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles coated onto fabrics against both bacteria, with a slightly higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus as compared to Escherichia coli.

      Keywords: Antibacterial textiles; zinc oxide nanoparticles; antimicrobial finish

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Adriána Bednárová

    (1)
    1. POPPY SEED (PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L.): EFFECT OF GENOTYPE AND YEAR OF CULTIVATION ON VARIABILITY IN ITS LIPID COMPOSITION [BT]

      Abstract: Poppy seeds have a high nutritive value and are used as a food and a source of edible oil. This oil is a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. It is known that polyunsaturated fatty acids present not only basic nutriments for human body, but its taking to the organism is very important in term of protection against cardiovascular diseases, heart attacks and many inflammatory diseases. The goal of the study was to determine lipid content and fatty acids composition in eight selected poppy genotypes grown in experimental fields of the Plant Production Research Centre Piešťany – Research and Breeding Station at Malý Šariš (Slovak Republic) in two years. Seed oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID) from prepared methylesters of fatty acids. The highest lipid content in 2007 was detected for genotype Opál (49.9%). In 2009, genotype ZB-6 contained the highest lipid content (50.1%). Linoleic acid was dominant fatty acid in all analyzed poppy oils. Its highest level contained the genotype ZB-5 (68.1%) in 2007 and ZB-1 (66.5%) in 2009. Other major fatty acids were palmitic and oleic acids. As minority fatty acids were presented stearic, alpha-linolenic and palmitoleic acids. Myristic, arachidic and gadoleic acids were observed in trace amounts. Furthermore, the effect of year of cultivation on the fatty acids content in poppy seed oils was examined by Student t-test and appropriate non-parametric Mann-Whitney test.

      Keywords: lipid, poppy seeds, oil, fatty acids, FID, ALA, OA

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Christopher Beermann

    (1)
    1. GROWTH MODULATING PROPERTIES OF POLYPHENOLIC APPLE POMACE EXTRACT ON FOOD ASSOCIATED MICROORGANISMS [FS]

      Abstract: Bacteriostatic effects of plant derived polyphenols are generally proposed for food protection against microbial spoiling. This study aimed at characterizing distinct growth modification and cell-lytic properties of an apple pomace extract (APE) containing short-chain and long-chain PP on food spoiling and fermenting starter bacteria.
      APE contained 6.76 wt % PP, 0.46 wt % glucose, 1.69 wt % fructose, 1.26 wt % starch, 3.8 wt % sorbitol, and 0.64 wt % nitrogen with a pH-value of 4.1. APE caused growth modification of prominent bacterial food spoilers, yeasts, moulds and food fermenting starter bacteria was analyzed turbidometry (180° light absorption measurement at 600 nm wavelength). Cell-lytic activity of APE was measured by a SYTOX® Green fluorescence cell viability assay.
      APE 1.5 w/w % reduced the growth of gram-positive and gram-negative food spoiling bacteria in dose-dependent manner up to 35.00%. Bacillus subtilis growth was reduced up to 10.53% comparable to 1.01 µg/ mL ampicillin or 0.144 mg/ mL sulfamethoxazol. In contrast, the growth of several fermenting starter bacteria increased at 1.5 w/w % APE up to 167.65% whereas expansion of yeasts and moulds were unaffected.
      Neither specific cell-lytic activities of APE could be examined on gram-positive and gram-negative food spoiler nor food fermenting starter bacteria.
      This study indicates that APE is a bacteriostatic but not a cell-lytic agent against food spoiling bacteria. Instead, the growth of specific lactic acid bacteria was supported by APE. Therefore, APE might stabilize explicit food fermentation processes.

      Keywords: Anti-microbial; bacterial growth kinetic; bacteriostatic; cell membrane permeabilization; polyphenol; turbidometry

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Shamsun Nahar Begum

    (1)
    1. MORPHO-MOLECULAR SCREENING OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GENOTYPES AT SEEDLING STAGE FOR SALT TOLERANCE [BT]

      Abstract: Providing adequate food to meet an escalating population is one of the gravest problems the humankind is now facing. To resolve this crisis identification of salt tolerant rice variety is very vital. So, in this research, ten rice genotypes were used to screen salinity tolerance at the seedling stage in hydroponic system using SSR markers. Salinity screening was done at glasshouse following IRRI standard protocol using two setups of salinized and non-salinized conditions. Genotypes under controlled condition had longer root and shoot length then salt stress genotypes. Parental polymorphism survey was done with ten SSR markers viz., RM336, RM510, RM7075, RM407, RM3201b, RM10748, AP3206f, RM3412, RM585, RM11504 and all were selected to evaluate salt tolerance in rice genotypes. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 (AP3206f) to 9 (RM336), with an average of 6.1 alleles across 10 loci obtained in the study. The polymorphic information content values ranged from of 0.54 (AP3206f) to a high of 0.86 (RM336) with an average of 0.74. The pair-wise comparisons of Nei’s (1973) genetic distance (D) between varieties were computed from combined data for the 10 primers, ranged from 0.30 to 0.90 with an average of 0.86, while the similarity index based analysis ranged from 0.00 to 0.70. Finally, the FL-478, FL-378, Binadhan-8 and Binadhan-10 were selected as salt tolerant because they showed tolerance in phenotypic analysis. These phenotypically selected tolerant genotypes could be used for the selection of suitable parents and development of salt tolerant rice varieties.

      Keywords: Rice, salinity tolerance, SSR markers, seedling stage, polymorphism

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Yasmin Begum

    (1)
    1. EXPRESSION OF BACTERIAL PROTEIN-A IN TOBACCO LEADS TO ENHANCED RESISTANCE TO STRESS CONDITIONS [MB]

      Abstract: Tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms because it can be easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. As bacterial enzymes can be synthesized in tobacco, here we explore the possibility of in planta expression of staphylococcal protein-A(PA) which is an antibody, an important group among biopharmaceuticals. In our study we have shown that the tobacco plants harboring PA gene could combat the crown gall infection and also effective in resisting abiotic stress conditions. Transgenic plants when subjected to interact with wild variety of Agrobacterium shows its enhanced capability to resist the gall formation. And when transgenic tobacco plants were grown in presence of 200mM NaCl and/or MG(Methylglyoxal) solution, shows their increased tolerance towards salinity stress and high MG stress. So far transgenic tobacco plants are concerned, improvements in the expression of recombinant proteins and their recovery from tobacco may also enhance production and commercial use of this protein.

      Keywords: Staphylococcal-proteinA, IgG, Agrobacterium, Transformation, Methylglyoxal, Crown gall, Salt stress

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mandana Behbahani

    (1)
    1. IN VITRO AND IN SILICO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PRANGOS¬ FERULACEA (L.) Lindl AND PRANGOS ULOPTERA DC, AND THEIR MUTAGENICITY IN THE AMES TEST [MB]

      Abstract: The present study was conducted to study antibacterial activity of different extracts of Prangos ferulacea and Prangos uloptera. The antibacterial activity was measured by disc diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods at different concentrations (250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500 and 3000μg/ml).The studied bacteria were Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica.The in sillico antibacterial activity of pinens and coumarins was performed by Autodock 4 software. The molecular docking between phytochemicals and six target proteins (DNAgyrase subunit B, pinicilin binding protein, D-alanin D-alanin syntase, dihydrofolate reductase, and dihydropteroate synthetase and isoleucyl-tRNA sinthetase) has been investigated. The mutagenicity of these extracts at different concentrations (500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000µg/ml) were also investigated on Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98. The results confirmed that all tested extracts have modest to weak antibacterial activity against studied bacteria without any mutagenicity effect.The root and seed extracts of both species respectively had highest and lowest antibacterial effects.The antibacterial activity of pinens of these plants was significantly more than coumarins. DNA gyrase subunit B and penicilin binding proteins (PBP) were the main targets of tested coumarins. DNA gyrase subunit B was also the main target of studied pinens.Our study found that P.ferulacea and P.uloptera displayed a great potential of antibacterial activity.

      Keywords: Antibacterial activity, Molecular docking, Mutagenicity, Prangos ferulacea, Prangos uloptera

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Somayyeh Behfar

    (2)
    1. A REVIEW ON BIODEGRADABLE STARCH BASED FILM [FS]

      Abstract: In recent years, biodegradable edible films have become very important in research related to food, due to their compatibility with the environment and their use in the food packaging industry. Various sources can be used in the production of biopolymers as biodegradable films that include polysaccharides, proteins and lipids. Among the various polysaccharides, starch due to its low price and its abundance in nature is of significant importance. Several factors affect the properties of starch films; such as the source which starch is obtained from, as well as the ratio of constituents of the starch. Starch films have advantages such as low thickness, flexibility and transparency though; there are some downsides to mention, such as the poor mechanical properties and water vapor permeability. Thus, using starch alone to produce the film will led to restrictions on its use. To improve the mechanical properties of starch films and also increases resistance against humidity, several methods can be used; including the starch modifying techniques such as cross linking of starch and combining starch with other natural polymers. Other methods such as the use of lipid in formulations of films to increase the resistance to moisture are possible, but lipids are susceptible to oxidation. Therefore, new approaches are based on the integration of different biopolymers in food packaging.

      Keywords: Biodegradable films, biopolymers, starch

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. SYNTHETIC MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF CARROT CUTS DRYING AND ITS CONSUMED ENERGY BY MICROWAVE METHOD [FS]

      Abstract: In this research, drying synthetic of carrot cuts were investigated and modeled in microwave drying method ( in powers 90 , 180 , 360 , 60 and 900 w).Modeling was applied via 12 models and their fitting quality were measured. After drying experiments, color changes (Lab), rehydration and vitamin C were measured in the samples studied , as well as the energy used in drying experiments with different powers were calculated. Comparing models indicated that was more fit to estimate humidity changes and describing carrot drying behavior .Results also showed that the role important of microwave power in drying process in which increasing power cause to reduce drying time, the least and the most consumed energy were related to power 90 w and 360, 600w respectively.

      Keywords: Synthetic, Mathematical Modeling, Microwave, Carrot Cuts

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Katarína Belanová

    (1)
    1. ANALYSIS OF FUNGI OCCURRENCE IN ENERGY CHIPS PILES [MB]

      Abstract: This article is focused on the analysis of fungi in energy chips piles. At the same time factors affecting the formation and evolution of fungi were analyzed. The bases for the experiment were nine experimental chips piles produced from wood species: European beech (Fagus sylvatica), European aspen (Populus tremula) and Norway spruce (Picea abies). From each tree species for producing of chips fresh biomass was used, biomass stored in half-shade and in opened area. The greatest number of fungi was found in piles 3 - spruce wood chips produced from biomass stored on the meadow, 7 – chips from aspen stored in half-shade and 8 - beech wood chips produced from biomass stored in half-shade. The most represented species were Aspergillus niger and Mucor spinosus. These two species were recorded in seven of nine piles. Presence of Trichoderma koningii was identified only in two piles of chips, which were made from spruce and aspen biomass stored in the opened area.

      Keywords: forestry, wood chips, storage, fungi, relative humidity, temperature

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Meriem Belarbi

    (1)
    1. ANTIOXIDANT POTENCY OF WATER KEFIR [FS]

      Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have strong relationship with several diseases. Many fermented foods were reported to be important sources for antioxidant compounds. Antioxidant activity of water kefir never reported in the scientific literature. The objective of this study was to detect and investigate the antioxidant potency of water kefir. Water kefir was prepared by fermentation of sugar solution with kefir grains for 24h. Antioxidant activity of fresh water kefir drink and its extract with (0.125–5 mg/ml) was evaluated using 2,2,-diphenyl-1-pricrylhydrozyl (DPPH) scavenging method, and inhibition of ascorbate autoxidation and the reducing power of water kefir were determined, Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and ascorbic acid were used for comparison. Water kefir demonstrated great ability to DPPH scavenging ranged (9.88-63.17%). And inhibit ascorbate oxidation by (6.08-25.57%) increased in consequent with concentration raising. These results prime to conclude that water kefir could be promisor source of natural antioxidants with good potency in health developing.

      Keywords: Water kefir, antioxidant, kefir grains, fermentation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Lassad Belbahri

    (1)
    1. AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE BASED GROWTH MEDIA OPTIMIZATION FOR BIOSURFACTANT PRODUCTION BY ANEURINIBACILLUS MIGULANUS [BT]

      Abstract: The present work aimed to optimize a molasses and tuna-processing by-products based new economic medium for biosurfactant (BS) production by a promising strain of Aneurinibacillus migulanus. A culture medium based on a mixture of molasses and supernatants generated from tuna by-products supplemented with oligoelements solution was optimized using the mixture design methodology. Biosurfactant (BS) production and emulsification index (E24) were evaluated. Maximal BS of 2.95 g/l was obtained with a 95:5 (v:v) mixture of molasses and tuna by-product supernatant. However, higher level of E24 (62%) was recorded with medium containing the proportion 5:95 (v:v) of molasses and tuna by-product supernatant. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions were also validated experimentally. Interestingly, oligoelements supplements were not needed to prepare the culture medium. Molasses and tuna-by-product, non-conventional substrates, can be used efficiently for BS production by A. migulanus.

      Keywords: Biosurfactant, Aneurinibacillus migulanus, Emulsification index, Molasses, Tuna-by-product

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ali Osman Belduz

    (1)
    1. CLONING, PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF HALOTOLERANT XYLANASE FROM Geobacillus Thermodenitrificans C5 [BT]

      Abstract: High levels of extracellular xylanase activity (994.50 IU/ml) produced by Geobacillus thermodenitrificans C5 originated gene was detected when it was expressed in E. coli BL21 host. Thermostable xylanase (GthC5Xyl) was purified to homogeneity and showed a molecular mass of approximately 44 kDa according to SDS-PAGE. The specific activity of the purified GthC5Xyl was up to 1243.125IU/mg with a 9.89-fold purification. The activity of GthC5Xyl was stimulated by CoCl2, MnSO4, CuSO4, MnCl2 but was inhibited by FeSO4, Hg, CaSO4. GthC5Xyl showed resistant to SDS, Tween 20, Triton X-100, β- Mercaptoethanol, PMSF, DTT, NEM and DEPC, SDS, and EDTA. A greater affinity for oat spelt xylan was exhibited by GthC5Xyl with maximum enzymatic activity at 60°C and 6.0 pH. The activity portrayed by GthC5Xyl was found to be acellulytic with stability at high temperature (70°C-80°C) and low pH (4.0 to 8.0). Xylobiose and xylopentose were the end products of proficient oat spelt xylanase hydrolysis by GthC5Xyl. High SDS resistance and broader stability of GthC5Xyl proves it to be worthy of impending application in numerous industrial processes especially textile, detergents and animal feed industry.

      Keywords: Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, thermostable GthC5Xyl enzyme, recombinant xylanase

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Omrane Belhadj

    (1)
    1. THERMOPHILIC BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS RBS 5 ISOLATED FROM HOT TUNISIAN SPRING CO-PRODUCING ALKALINE AND THERMOSTABLE α-AMYLASE AND PROTEASE ENZYMES [MB]

      Abstract: Bacillus licheniformis RBS 5 was isolated from thermal spring in Tunisia. The isolate coproduce α-amylase and protease enzymes. The α-amylase activity showed an optimal activity at approximately 65°C and in wide pH interval ranging from 4 to 9. This enzyme was stable over the range of 45 to 70°C after 30 min of incubation and in the pH range of 8 to 10. Protease activity was optimal; at 80°C, pH 12. This enzyme was stable until 60°C over the pH range of 10 to 12. EDTA at concentration of 5 mM reduces slightly both activities evoking the serine alkaline protease. Cationic ions (Ca2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Mg 2+) have an inhibition effect on α-amylase. However, protease activity was enhanced by Ca2+, Cu2+ and Mg 2+); the other cations reduce slightly the proteolytic activity. SDS and H2O2 were found as inhibitors for both activities whereas Triton X-100 and perfume have no effect. Taken together, these traits make protease activity of B. licheniformis RBS 5 as efficient for use in detergent industry.

      Keywords: Thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis, α-amylase, protease, detergent additive

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Marcela Soto Beltran

    (1)
    1. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF OZONIZED OLIVE (OLEA EUROPAEA L.) AND VENADILLO (SWIETENIA HUMILIS ZUCC.) OILS AGAINST ESCHERICHIA COLI AND STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS [MB]

      Abstract: Ozonized oils are antimicrobial agents obtained from the combination of ozone and unsaturated fatty acids of vegetables oils. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of ozonized olive oil (OOO) and ozonized venadillo oil (OVO) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity was conducted by the agar dilution method to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the bacterial Log10 reduction. The lowest MIC (4.5 mg/mL) against E. coli was obtained when OOO and OVO were ozonized during 12 and 6 hours, with 2.5 Log10 of bacterial reduction, respectively; while, the lowest MIC against S. aureus (1.5 mg/mL) was obtained when OVO was ozonized during 6 hours, with 3.4 Log10 of bacterial reduction. The OOO reached peroxide values of 642.53 and 703.7 mmol-equiv/kg after 6 and 12 hours, respectively, while an 892.12 mmol-equiv/kg was obtained after 6 hours for OVO. Data reported here suggest that both ozonized oils are promising effective treatment for bacterial infections.

      Keywords: Bactericide; Ozonized oils; Venadillo oil; Escherichia coli; Staphylococcus aureus

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Prasanna D. Belur

    (1)
    1. PRODUCTION OF CONCOCTION WINE USING PALM SAP AND RAISIN THROUGH BATCH FERMENTATION [FS]

      Abstract: Palm wine is a common cheap beverage, widely consumed in parts Africa, Asia and South America. The sap obtained from Palm tree is fermented to produce Palm wine. In the current study palm sap was blended with raisins. After processing, extract was subjected to anaerobic fermentation by inoculating Saccharomyces cerevisiae with an initial pH of 3.5 and initial sugar content of 22-24˚ Brix at room temperature. Wine was then subjected to malolactic fermentation using Oenococcus oeni. The ethanol concentration was found to be in the range of 12-13 % (v/v), and residual sugar concentration was found to be less than 2mg/ml. Fixed acidity in terms of tartaric acid equivalent was found to be in the range of 3.31g/L to 6.18g/L, radical scavenging activity in terms of trolox equivalent was found to be in the range 2.3-2.5mmol TE /L. Various metals such as Cr, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were estimated. In total this concoction wine was comparable with typical grape wine. This work proves that there is a potential to convert cheap palm sap into value added concoction wine.

      Keywords: Concoction wine, Oenococcus oeni, Palm sap, Raisins

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Crentsil Kofi Bempah

    (2)
    1. MARKET BASKET SURVEY FOR SOME PESTICIDES RESIDUES IN FRUITS AND VEGETABLES FROM GHANA [FS]

      Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the organochlorine, organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from markets in Ghana. For this purpose, a total of 309 fruits and vegetable samples, were collected and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. The obtained results showed that the predominance of organochlorine followed by organophosphorus and synthetic pyrethroid pesticides in most of the analyzed samples. The detected concentrations of them were most significant in vegetable samples. The results obtained showed that 39.2 % of the fruits and vegetable samples analyzed contained no detectable level of the monitored pesticides, 51.0 % of the samples gave results with trace levels of pesticide residues below the maximum residue limit (MRL), while 9.8 % of the samples were above the MRL. The findings point to the urgent need to establish reliable monitoring programs for pesticides, so that any exceedance in concentration over environmental quality standards can be detected and appropriate actions taken.

      Keywords: Pesticide residues, fruits, vegetables, maximum residue limit, Ghana

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. HEAVY METALS CONTAMINATION IN HERBAL PLANTS FROM SOME GHANAIAN MARKETS [FS]

      Abstract: A study was conducted to investigate the magnitude of heavy metals (arsenic [As], copper [Cu], cadmium [Cd] and mercury [Hg]) contamination that may be present in some Ghanaian medicinal herbs/plants available in local markets and also to compare the levels with recommended levels by the International Organization. A total of 267 samples of herbal plants representing 18 different plants collected from several markets in Ghana were tested for heavy metals contamination. Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry was used for the analyses, and content of metals per sample was expressed as percent µg/g. The study showed differences in metal concentrations according to the parts analysed (leaf, fruit, root bark and crown). The obtained results which showed the predominance of Cd in almost all the analysed parts of the samples followed by Zn, Cu, As and Hg. However, Hg was the least predominant metal detected in the analyzed samples. All the monitored metals in the herbal plants were within the safe limit approved by Codex Alimentarius Commission and FAO/WHO limit for spices. The findings generally suggest that consumers of these herbal products would not be exposed to any risk associated with the intake of herbal plant products for the management of diseases.

      Keywords: Herbal plants, contamination, heavy metals, maximum residue limit, Ghana

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Laila Benabbes

    (1)
    1. DETECTION OF HUMAN ENTEROVIRUS AND ADENOVIRUS IN SHELLFISH COLLECTED IN MOROCCO MEDITERRANEAN COAST [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was the screening for the presence of enteric human virus in shellfish (clam and cockle) collected from two production area in Moroccan Mediterranean coast. Between October 2006 and April 2008, forty four samples were collected and tested for viral contamination using cell culture (HEp-2 and Vero cells) and integrated cell culture PCR. Overall, 88.6 % of all analysed samples were contaminated by at least one of the studied viruses, Adenovirus was detected in 52.3 % of the samples and Enterovirus in 36.3%. The presence of viruses in shellfish production area can represent a potential health risk by causing gastroenteritis. The procedure used in this study may be a tool for monitoring shellfish viral contamination in Morocco.

      Keywords: Enterovirus, Adenovirus, cell culture, ICC-PCR, shellfish

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Abdellatif Benbouazza

    (1)
    1. ECOLOGY OF PANTOEA AGGLOMERANS 2066-7 STRAIN: A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BACTERIA ONION DISEASES [MB]

      Abstract: The growth response of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans 2066-7 to change in water activity (aw), temperature, and pH was determined in vitro in basic medium. The minimum temperature at which 2066-7 was able to grow was 7°C, and the growth of 2066-7 did not change at varying pH levels (4–10.34). The best growth was obtained at a water activity of 0.98 in all media modified with the four solutes (glucose, glycerol, NaCl and polyethylene glycol). The solute used to reduce water activity had a great influence on bacterial growth, especially at unfavorable conditions (low temperature). This study has defined the range of environmental conditions (aw, pH, and temperature) over which the bacteria may be developed for biological control of plant diseases.

      Keywords: Pantoea agglomerans, ecology, water activity and plant diseases

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Emília Bencová

    (1)
    1. PROTEIN QUALITY EVALUATION OF NAKED OAT (AVENA NUDA L.) AND BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM MOENCH) BY BIOLOGICAL METHODS AND PDCAAS METHOD [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of this paper was to determine the protein quality of naked oat (Avena nuda L.) and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) by traditional biological methods [Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Net Protein Utilization (NPU), Biological value] and the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS). As an animal model we used growing rats at the age of 21 days and at average body weight 83 g. The tested feeds represented the only nitrogen source in the experimental diets, and the tested nitrogen substances were 10 % of the feed ration in dry matter. We found higher values achieved in growth, feed conversion and crude protein intake in the group fed buckwheat. Buckwheat achieved higher biological value. Oat achieved a higher digestibility, which was also influenced by higher PDCAAS. Buckwheat achieved higher biological protein value. Isoleucine was the limiting amino acid in both tested feeds. Other parameters of the evaluation of protein quality (PER, NPU) had minimal differences.

      Keywords: rat, oat, buckwheat, biological methods, PDCAAS

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Emília Benczová

    (3)
    1. TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CHICKENS MEAT AFTER APPLICATION OF PROPOLIS EXTRACT IN THEIR DIET [FS]

      Abstract: In the experiment, we used propolis extract (200 mg.kg-1) in feed mixture during 40 days of feeding (experimental group) of Ross 308 chickens. Then, we evaluated technological properties of poultry meat stored by freezing at -18 °C for 3 months. In the breast muscle, pH was 6.04 for control group and significantly lower (P≤0.01) 5.86 for experimental group but without negative influence on meat quality. In the thigh muscle, pH values between the groups (control – 6.12; experimental – 6.15) were not significant (P≥0.05). In the breast muscle, colour of meat was 26.17% R (control group) and 25.85% R (experimental group). Paler colour of meat was insignificantly recorded in control group. In thigh muscle, we found (P≥0.05) a higher value 18.78% R in experimental group compared with control group (18.57% R). In the breast muscle, shear force was slightly higher (P≥0.05) in experimental group (1.59 kg.cm-2) compared with control group (1.58 kg.cm-2). In the thigh muscle, higher value of shear force (P≥0.05) was recorded in control group (1.35 kg.cm-2) compared with experimental group (1.29 kg.cm-2). Baking losses were higher by 1.19% (P≥0.05) in experimental group (30.59%) compared with control group (29.40%). Results of the experiment confirm that propolis extract (200 mg.kg-1) can be applied in nutrition of Ross 308 chickens, because it has not negative effects and has not significant influence on selected technological indicators of poultry meat quality.

      Keywords: broiler chicken, meat, propolis extract, technological properties

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. SENSORY QUALITY OF POULTRY MEAT AFTER PROPOLIS APPLICATION [FS]

      Abstract: In the experiment, we verify the effect of propolis extract in Ross 308 broiler on the sensory quality of breast and thigh muscle modified by baking at 200 ºC for 60 minutes. The experiment enrolled 360 one day old chickens of hybrid combination Ross 308 and was formed into 4 groups: control group (C) and three experimental groups (EG: I, II, III) of 90 pcs chickens. Custom feeding insisted 42 days. Chickens were fed to 21th day of age an ad libitum with the same starter feed mixture HYD-01 (powdery form) and from 22nd to 42nd day of age were fed with the growth feed mixture HYD-02 (powdery form) in the monitored groups. The fed feed mixture HYD-01 and HYD-02 have been produced without antibiotic preparations and coccidiostats. Experimental groups were added to the feed compound of propolis extract in a dose of 200, 300 and 400 mg.kg-1. After heat treatment of breast and thigh muscle of 60 pieces chicken of each group samples were anonymously assessed sensory six-member committee (smell, taste, juiciness, tenderness) 5-point scale. Significant differences (P≤0.05) between control group and experimental groups (I, II, III) were found in the evaluation of breast muscle in the aroma (+0.15 to +0.23 points), taste between control group and EG I and III (+0.19 to +0.26 points) in juiciness between control group and EG I (+0.37 points) and the fineness of the control group and EG I and II (+0.35 to +0.45 points). In the thigh muscle were found significant differences (P≤0.05) between control group and EG (I, II, III) in the evaluation of smell compared with group I (+0.25 points), the taste of EG I and III (+0.20 to +0.24 points), the juiciness of EG I and III (+0.34 to +0.48 points) and the fineness of the EG I and III (+0.30 to +0.43 points). The overall sensory valuation of the most valuable parts of the carcass Ross 308 chickens, were found positive effects of propolis extract on the sensory properties after baking and recommend it to use in the diet of broiler chickens, and as the most important from a sensory point of view seems to be the application in amount of 200 mg.kg-1 throughout the feeding period.

      Keywords: Ross 308 chickens, propolis extract, sensory evaluation, breast and thigh

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF CHICKEN MEAT AFTER POLLEN EXTRACT APPLICATION IN THEIR DIET [FS]

      Abstract: In the experiment were evaluated the effect of feeding the pollen extract (group I – 400 mg and group II - 800 mg) in feed mixtures for feeding Ross 308 chickens for 42 days on the oxidative stability of breast and thigh muscles stored for 6 months at -18 °C. Malondialdehyd (MDA) values were in the breast muscle in the control group from 0.065 to 0.137 in Ist group 0.61 to 0.111 and in IInd group 0.075 to 0.96 mg.kg-1 respectivelyfrom 1stday to 6thmonth of storage. In the thigh muscle were noted MDA values from 0.105 to 0.137 mg.kg-1 (control group), from 0.083 to 0.111 mg.kg-1 (Ist group) and 0.114 to 0.120 mg.kg-1 (IInd group). We observed lower levels of MDA mg.kg-1 (0.095 to 0.099 - IInd EG, 0.103 to 0.111 - Ist EG) than in the control group (0.120 to 0.137). Feeding with pollen extract had a significant effect (P ≤ 0.05 to P ≤ 0.001) to reduce oxidation processes in the breast muscle from 5th month of storage (freezing). In the thigh muscle, were release the oxidation processes (P ≤ 0.01) recorded after 6th months of storage and freezing in the Ist group (MDA 0.111 mg.kg-1) with the addition of 400 mg pollen nutrition extract in Ross 308 chickens compared to control (MDA 0.137 mg.kg-1). The results show that pollen extract has a positive effect on shelf life and oxidative stability of the most valuable parts of the carcass Ross 308 chickens, but statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05 to P ≤ 0.001) after 5th, 6th months of storage, freezing at -18 °C, respectively.

      Keywords: broiler chicken, meat, oxidative stability, frozen storage, malondialdehyd

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Lucia Benešová

    (1)
    1. COMPARISON OF COFFEE SPECIES BY SENSORY PANEL AND ELECTRONIC NOSE [FS]

      Abstract: The objective of a comparative study was to investigate the relationship between the sensory assessment of the varietal coffee samples and their aromatic profile measured using an electronic nose. Sensory analysis plays a very important role in the evaluation of food especially in the evaluation of plant products (coffee included). Sensory assessor's role is to assess the taste, smell, texture and visual attributes of the product. Equally useful in the objective evaluation of foods and their flavor profile appears to be an electronic nose. The study showed that there is a difference in a flavored coffee varietal profile. This study was performed using techniques TDS for 15 seconds by naïve panel. Most of the coffee samples appeared bitter with sour aftertaste. Flavors of coffee are also often linked with its taste. The aim of measuring the electronic nose was thus instrumental to detect similarities between the seventh varietal coffees. The results showed that the similarity between human measurement panel and substantiating the electronic nose. Data were reduced using PCA techniques and most of the samples correspond to the same position at both assays.

      Keywords: Sensory analysis, temporal dominance of sensations, volatile compounds, coffee origin

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sailas Benjamin

    (1)
    1. MICROBIAL LIPASES − PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS [MB]

      Abstract: Owing to wide spectrum of catalytic reactions both in aqueous and non-aqueous media, microbial lipases occupy an unquestionable position among the biocatalysts. The chemo-, regio- and enantio-specificities of lipases have contributed to their versatile applications in biotechnology. As far as global scenario is concerned, microbial lipases - especially from bacteria and fungi - contribute to the choice of interest to meet the commercial needs. At this context, this review critically looks into the major domains of microbial lipases with an industrial perspective, which include: properties, secretion and industrial applications with appropriate illustrations. Due to great specificity and versatility of the reactions catalyzed, lipases claim unique applications in various process and products industries engaged in food, dairy, fats and oils, detergency, tannery, pharmaceutics and cosmetics.

      Keywords: Hydrolysis, trans-esterification, interfacial activation, active site, applications

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Fatiha Benkhalti

    (1)
    1. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS [BT]

      Abstract: The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC). The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC) and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

      Keywords: Medicinal herbs, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, flavonoid

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Michaela Benková

    (1)
    1. CHANGES IN AMARANTH POLYPHENOL CONTENT DURING THE DIFFERENT VEGETATION PHASES [FS]

      Abstract: Total content of polyphenols was investigated in different anatomical parts of amaranth during different growth periods. Five amaranth cultivars were included in the experiment (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L.: cultivars Annapurna and Koniz, Amaranthus caudatus L.: cultivar Oscar Blanco, Amaranthus cruentus L.: cultivars Golden Giant and Rawa). Analysis were done in 4 growth phases: phase I. – intensive stem growth, phase II. – formation of the flowers and pollination, phase III. – milky ripeness, phase IV. – full ripeness. Based on the determined total polyphenol content in amaranth it is possible to create this anatomical part order: leaves > flowers > seeds > stems. No statistically significant differences were confirmed between phases I., III. and IV. On the other hand the total polyphenol content in amaranth determined in growth phase II. was significantly different in comparison to other growth phases. Statistically significant differences in polyphenolic content were confirmed between all investigated anatomical parts of amaranth.

      Keywords: Amaranth, polyphenolics, anatomical parts, growth phase

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ľubomír Bennár

    (1)
    1. CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY ANALYSIS OF ACTIVITY DIFFERENT YEAST SPECIES ON IDENTICAL SUBSTRATE IN WINE PRODUCTION [FS]

      Abstract: Rizling vlašský is the second most important variety in Slovakia. The science of wine production includes a summary of knowledge and experience in the field of grape growing and wine making, or the production of different types of wines using specific methods of production. Wine quality is the result of the interaction between yeast, bacteria and microscopic funguses. In this research, we studied the effects of active dry wine yeasts on chemical, physical and sensory parameters in wine production. We have applied five kinds of yeasts (FERMIVIN, FERMIVIN PDV, FERMICRU AR2, FERMIFLOR and FERMICRU VB1). It can be concluded that the application of active dry wine yeasts is beneficial for the production of rizling vlašský. The best showing were yeasts FERMIFLOR and FERMIVIN PDM. In the last sample where they were left the original yeasts the varietal aroma was preserved. It can be noted that the wine was right technologically produced and all wines were harmonious with a pleasant fresh taste.

      Keywords: rizling vlašský, active dry wine yeast (ADWY), technology, sensory analysis

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Abderahmane Bensegueni

    (1)
    1. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF AIRBORNE BACTERIA IN THE MUNICIPAL SLAUGHTERHOUSE OF CONSTANTINE - ALGERIA [MB]

      Abstract: The spatial distribution of airborne bacterial contamination (with Total aerobic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, Coliforms, Staphylococci and Streptococci) was studied within the municipal abattoir of Constantine (North-East of Algeria).
      Open plate air samples were collected at twenty sampling locations weekly during two months. At the same chosen locations, temperature and humidity of the air were measured. The spatial distribution of bacterial contamination was studied using a Geographic Information System.
      The viscera processing section recorded the highest bacterial concentration and poor correlations had been recorded between bacterial counts and the environmental conditions within the abattoir. The high air bacterial loads recorded all over the slaughterhouse were consequence of the execution of all processing operations within the same section (for both bovine and ovine carcasses) associated to the absence of structural barriers, spatial separation between processing operations and uncontrolled airflow.
      This study highlights the poor hygienic level of the municipal slaughterhouse of Constantine. The implementation of serious measures is needed to reduce the risk of contamination and proliferation of pathogens in meat during slaughtering processes.

      Keywords: Airborne contamination, spatial distribution, slaughterhouse, North-East of Algeria

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Souhila Bensmail

    (1)
    1. OPTIMIZATION OF MILK-CLOTTING PROTEASE PRODUCTION BY A LOCAL ISOLATE OF ASPERGILLUS NIGER FFB1 IN SOLID-STATE FERMENTATION [MB]

      Abstract: The need to surmount the limitation of obtaining rennin, has been actively pushed researches to find new substitutes that present high milk-clotting activity which enables the production of high yields of cheese. In this study, the production of extracellular milk-clotting protease by locally isolated fungal specie, Aspergillus niger FFB1 under solid-state fermentation (SSF) using cheep agro-industrial byproduct (wheat bran) was optimized. The effects of several physicochemical and environmental factors were investigated to select the optimal conditions that ensure the best milk-clotting activity by application of "One-factor-at-a-time" method. A trial of cheese production using the crude extract was also carried out. The maximum enzyme activity (830 SU/g bran with a ratio MCA/PA of 4.25) was obtained under the optimum conditions of temperature (30°C), spores concentration (106 spores/mL), incubation time (72 hours), and moisture content of solid substrate (39.2%) adjusted suitably with mineral solution (Czapek-Dox) of pH 4.

      Keywords: Aspergillus niger, milk-clotting enzyme, protease, optimization, solid-state fermentation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Mahmoud M. Berekaa

    (1)
    1. ENHANCED PRODUCTION OF POLYHYDROXYBUTYRATE (PHB) FROM AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTES; FED-BATCH CULTIVATION AND STATISTICAL MEDIA OPTIMIZATION [BT]

      Abstract: Bacillus megaterium SW1-2 showed enhanced growth and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production during cultivation on date palm syrup (DEPS) or sugar cane molasses. FT-IR and NMR spectroscopic analyses of the polymer accumulated during growth on DEPS revealed specific absorption peaks characteristic for PHB. 1.65 g/L of PHB (56.9% CDW) was produced during growth on medium supplemented with 2 g/L of DEPS. Approximately, 36.1% CDW of PHB were recorded during growth on sugar cane molasses. Six runs of different fed-batch cultivation strategies were tested, the optimal run showed approximately 6.87-fold increase. Modified E2 medium was prefered recording 10.11 and 11.34 g/L of total PHB produced for runs 1 and 2, at the end of 96 h incubation period, respectively. Decrease in PHB was recorded during growth on complex medium (run 3 and run 4). In another independent optimization strategy, ten variables were concurrently examined for their significance on PHB production by Plackett-Burman statistical design for the first time. Among variables, DEPS-II and inoculum concentration followed by KH2PO4 and (NH4)2SO4 were found to be the most significant variables encourage PHB production. Indeed, DEPS-II or Fresh syrup is more significant than commercial syrup DEPS-I (p-value= 0.05). RPM, incubation period have highly negative effect on PHB production. Role of ago-industrial wastes, especially DEPS, in enhancement of PHB production was closely discussed.

      Keywords: Date syrup or DEPS, Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), Bacillus megaterium, Plackett-Burman design, fed-batch cultivation, optimization

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • King B. Bergonio

    (1)
    1. IMPROVED SHELF LIFE OF BROWN RICE BY HEAT AND MICROWAVE TREATMENT [FS]

      Abstract: Widespread marketing and consumption of brown rice is limited by its short shelf life. This study aimed to address this problem by establishing treatments to stabilize brown rice against rancidity, while retaining its antioxidants, for subsequent commercial applications. Three types of treatments, namely dry heat (DH, oven at 60°C), wet heat (WH, steam), and microwave (MW, 800 watts), with different exposure times were tested. Lipase activity was determined for all treatments. Samples were monitored for 0, 4 and 6 months for changes in free fatty acids, antioxidant activity, and total phenolics content; while 0, 2, 4 and 8 months for changes in raw and cooked sensory attributes.
      Treatments with longer exposure effectively inactivated lipase enzyme and consequently reduced free fatty acid release, even up to 6 months of storage. Total phenolics content of treated and untreated samples were not significantly different after treatment, but tended to increase during storage. Similar trend was observed on the antioxidant activity of DH treated brown rice, except that of MW and WH treated sample. Initial raw and cooked sensory attributes of treated and untreated samples were comparable. A significant downshift on the raw (aroma, glossiness and off-odor) and cooked (aroma, off-odor and off-taste) sensory attribute scores and acceptability of both untreated and treated brown rice were noted beginning second month, except that of treatments with longer exposure namely DH 25min, MW 90sec and WH 90sec, including MW 60sec. Only treated brown rice samples with longer exposure times (DH 25min, MW 90sec and WH 90sec), including MW 60sec, remained acceptable by the fourth month, and even up to eight months of storage.

      Keywords: Brown rice; shelf life; heat treatment; microwave treatment; lipase inactivation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jorge Bermúdez

    (2)
    1. GENETIC DIVESITY AND EXTRACELULLAR ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS STRAINS FROM MILK POWDER [MB]

      Abstract: A total of 379 B. licheniformis strains isolated from commercial milk powder were characterized genotypically and phenotypically. RAPD analysis yielded three different profiles, which include all isolates in this study, which could be assigned to strain F (n=375) or strain G (n=4), strain F also could be divided into two groups (group 1, n = 117; group 2, n = 258). Clustering by pairwise sequence similarity and phylogenetic relationships between isolates based on comparisons of the 16S rRNA gene sequence, showed two well defined groups. Group I contains all isolates tested belonging to genotype F, and Group II consists of three G genotype isolates. A total of 32 isolates, respecting the representation of each genotype, were randomly selected for extracellular enzymatic activity plate assays. Most isolates (25 out of 32) showed extracellular proteinase, lipase and amylase activity. Hydrolytic activities tested in this study are strain-dependent and none enzymatic activity could be linked to a defined group at genetic level. Preliminar characterization of proteolytic crude enzyme extract suggests the presence of a metal-activated serine protease active at an optimun temperature of 60 ºC. The exoenzymes production and its variation against different factors such as temperature, is isolate dependent so these results indicate that not all B. licheniformis strains may mean the same risk to process or product quality.

      Keywords: Bacillus licheniformis, milk powder, RAPD, protease activity

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. POLYPHASIC IDENTIFICATION OF CLOSELY RELATED BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND BACILLUS AMYLOLIQUEFACIENS ISOLATED FROM DAIRY FARMS AND MILK POWDER [MB]

      Abstract: A polyphasic approach was done to definitively distinguish isolates into two closely related species of the Bacillus subtilis group collected from the dairy farm environment or commercial powdered milk. A hundred and fifty six isolates and type strains B. subtilis (1A337) and B. amyloliquefaciens (10A18) were classified according to phenotypic and molecular characteristics. Only differences in growth temperature could be used to distinguish isolates among the phenotypic traits tested, and these distinctions were supported by molecular analysis. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD) analysis was shown to be a friendly, technically simple and accurate method for rapid screening and identification of B. subtilis and B. amyloliquefaciens. Further analysis of 16S rRNA, rpoB and gyrA gene sequences of the isolates was done to confirm species identification. Sequences from the isolates and type strains showed between 96.5-100% (16S rRNA), 94.8-100% (rpoB) and 80.6-99.6% (gyrA) similarity, thus allowing for more refined distinction using the rpoB and gyrA genes. In addition, gyrA gene sequences had greater discrimination potential in having higher divergence between species (18.2 ± 0.7 %) than did rpoB sequences (4.9 ± 0.3 %). BOX-PCR fingerprinting was shown to have the potential for analysis of genotypic diversity of these species at the strain level.

      Keywords: Dairy, polyphasic identification, Bacillus subtilis group, RAPD-PCR

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Robert Alvin Bernedo-Navarro

    (1)
    1. INACTIVATION OF SHIGA-TOXIN PRODUCING Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 IN MILK BY COMBINED TREATMENT WITH HIGH HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE AND AQUEOUS POMEGRANATE EXTRACT [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this work was to evaluate the synergistic effect of combined treatment with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and an aqueous extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peels on the survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Our results showed that HHP (250 MPa, 60 min, 25 ºC) reduced the STEC bacterial load in milk and tryptic soy broth culture medium by about 2.5 and 3.5 logs, respectively. Under these conditions, HHP did not alter the cytotoxicity of Shiga toxins in Vero and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Treatment with up to 30 mg of pomegranate extract/mL caused negligible inactivation, but a combination of HHP and pomegranate extract (3 mg/mL) produced bacterial inactivation from 109 CFU/mL to undetectable levels of viable bacteria. These findings suggest that a combination of HHP and pomegranate extract may be potentially effective in bacterial inactivation during food processing, particularly in the elimination of important foodborne pathogens such as STEC. a

      Keywords: Escherichia coli, High Hydrostatic Pressure, Pomegranate extract, Shiga toxins, STEC

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Wiktor Berski

    (6)
    1. HEALTH BENEFITS OF KVASS MANUFACTURED FROM RYE WHOLEMEAL BREAD [FS]

      Abstract: Kvass based on traditional technology completely disappeared from polish market. It was replaced by drinks, prepared from malt concentrates, wrongly named kvass. The aim of this study was therefore to obtain traditional bread kvass (by fermentation), using the mash prepared from commercial wholemeal rye bread, produced by 5-phase dough fermentation method, and to determine the quality of this kvass in terms of consumer acceptance, chemical composition and antioxidant activity. It has been demonstrated that based on the traditional wholemeal rye bread, it is possible to produce good quality bread kvass, with similar organoleptic qualities to the commercial kvasses, which contain several added flavours and preservatives. Natural bread kvass can be consumed by consumers of all ages, since it contains only trace amounts of alcohol, and it has almost double the dietary fibre content and three times lower content of reducing sugars as compared to the commercial kvasses. Laboratory made kvasses by natural fermentation also showed an increase in antioxidant activity by 60%, when compared to commercial kvasses.

      Keywords: Bread kvass, consumer acceptance, antioxidant activity, chemical composition

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION [FS]

      Abstract: The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

      Keywords: Stabilized wheat germs, wheat bread, leaven, chemical composition

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. ATTEMPT TO REDUCE ACRYLAMIDE CONTENT IN ROASTED CHICORY [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to reduce the formation of acrylamide during roasting of chicory roots by soaking the fresh roots in a solution
      of calcium chloride, by the use of different temperature and time of roasting of dried roots, as well as by the addition of the enzyme
      (asparaginase) during roasting of dried roots.
      It was shown, that with increasing roasting temperature of chicory roots from 100 - 175 ° C the acrylamide content also increased, while
      at a temperature of 210 ° C the growth was inhibited. Increasing roasting time from 10 - 25 minutes resulted in an increased acrylamide
      content. Soaking the roots in the CaCl2 solution for 20 minutes reduced the formation of acrylamide during the roasting approximately
      by 40%, similarly as the application of asparaginase to the dried roots during the roasting process.

      Keywords: Chicory root, roasting, acrylamide

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. AMINOACIDS COMPOSITION OF PROTEINS IN WHEAT AND OAT FLOURS USED IN BREADS PRODUCTION [FS]

      Abstract: Oat grain contains a protein with high biological value, the highest among all bread-making cereals. An addition of oat flour in breadmaking should lead to improvement of protein’s biological value in this product. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the amino acids composition and biological value of the commercial wheat flour and oat flours of different sources (commercial and residual). Residual oat flour was obtained as a byproduct from the production of Betaven - dietary-fibre preparation). Also proteins of wheat and wheat–oat breads (50/50%) baked with these flours.
      Material consisted of flours (wheat and commercial and residual oat), as well as breads (wheat and wheat-oat (50:50%)) baked by a single phase method. Raw materials were analyzed on the amino acid composition by amino acid analyzer AAA 400. On this basis the chemical score (CS) and essential amino acid index (EAAI), according to
      the FAO /WHO/UNU (2007) were evaluated.

      Keywords: protein, amino acids, oats, bread

      article details | fulltext pdf

    5. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR [FS]

      Abstract: The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation) to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction) and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.

      Keywords: oat flours, bread, quality, nutritional value

      article details | fulltext pdf

    6. RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PASTES AND GELS PREPARED FROM WHEAT AND OAT FLOURS IN WATER SOLUTIONS OF STARCH HYDROLYZATES [FS]

      Abstract: During production of β-glucans preparations from oat a large amount of so called residual oat flour is manufactured. It contains all compounds of oat, only amount of dietary fiber is decreased. Such flour could be possibly used in baked goods, or as a thickening agent. In order to evaluate its possible application as thickening agent the rheological investigations of system containing residual oat starch were carried out. They involved performing of pasting profiles and texture profile analysis of flour pastes and gels in the presence of starch hydrolyzate, which recently played a increasing role in food industry as alternative for sucrose. Also commercial wheat and oat flours were investigated as reference material
      It was observed differences in pasting profile and texture of gel caused by introduction of starch hydrolyzate into systems containing cereal flours. Obtained results allow to draw conclusion, that such systems can be successfully used as thickeners.

      Keywords: Residual oat starch, pasting characteristics, TPA

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Dora Beshkova

    (1)
    1. GENUS SALVIA – ECOSYSTEM FOR ISOLATION OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA [MB]

      Abstract: In recent years there has been a trend of increased interest in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from non-dairy sources due to their diverse metabolic profile and unique flavor-forming activities. This study presents the possibility of using microbial diversity of individual plant parts (flower, leaf and steam) of each species of the genus Salvia for isolation of LAB with new metabolic activities, suitable for their potential inclusion in starter cultures. After screening 800 microbial isolates derived from five species of the genus Salvia and subsequent multiple transfer and growth in selective media, 460 single bacterial colonies were isolated. The data from the required and confirmatory tests established that 56 single colonies showed phenotypic identity (Gram-positive, catalase-negative, oxidase-negative and indole-negative) with the group of LAB. All were classified as homofermentative cocci. 82.2% of the plant-derived lactobacteria synthesized L(+)-lactic acid, but a minor part (11.8%) synthesized both isomeric forms of lactic acid. Almost all isolates have a wide pH and temperature range as well as high halotolerance. Using genotype-based methods such as 16S rDNA sequencing, the plant-derived bacterial isolates were identified as: Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus mundtii, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus.

      Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, Genus Salvia, Isolation, 16S rDNA

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sándor Beszédes

    (1)
    1. EXAMINATION OF ENERGY RECOVERY OF BREWERS' SPENT GRAIN II. - BIOLOGICAL PROCESS [FS]

      Abstract: Production rate of technologies applied in the food industry can only be economical if energy consumption is specifically reduced simultaneously with increasing the capacities and/or utilization of alternative energy sources gains higher ratio during production.
      A high proportion of waste forms is produced in food processing technologies. Fiscal and environmental cost of waste handling i.e. transportation, recovery and disposal is often significant.
      Brewing industry’s most important by-product is the brewers' spent grains (BSG) formed during mashing. Utilization of this product is theoretically solved, it is most frequently sold as animal fodder, however utilization in the energy sector can and should be considered and has promising possibilities. Seeking economic and environmental benefits, this paper analyses the possibilities of energy recovery from brewers’ spent grains through aerobic digestion and anaerobic fermentation.

      Keywords: Brewers' spent grains (BSG), energy recovery, aerobic digestion, fermentation

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ester Betoret

    (1)
    1. FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY AS A MEDIATOR OF FUNCTIONALITY. STRUCTURE-PROPERTY-PROCESS RELATIONSHIPS [FS]

      Abstract: During the last years, the food industry has been facing technical and economic changes both in society and in the food processing practices, paying high attention to food products that meet the consumers´ demands. In this direction, the study areas in food process and products have evolved mainly from safety to other topics such as quality, environment or health. The improvement of the food products is now directed towards ensuring nutritional and specific functional benefits. Regarding the processes evolution, they are directed to ensure the quality and safety of environmentally friendly food products produced optimizing the use of resources, minimally affecting or even enhancing their nutritional and beneficial characteristics. The product structure both in its raw form and after processing plays an important role maintaining, enhancing and delivering the bioactive compounds in the appropriate target within the organism. The aim of this review is to make an overview on some synergistic technologies that can constitute a technological process to develop functional foods, enhancing the technological and/or nutritional functionality of the food products in which they are applied. More concretely, the effect of homogenization, vacuum impregnation and drying operations on bioactive compounds have been reviewed, focusing on the structure changes produced and its relationship on the product functionality, as well as on the parameters and the strategies used to quantify and increase the achieved functionality.

      Keywords: Homogenization, vacuum impregnation, drying, structure-property-process

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Noelia Betoret

    (1)
    1. FOOD PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY AS A MEDIATOR OF FUNCTIONALITY. STRUCTURE-PROPERTY-PROCESS RELATIONSHIPS [FS]

      Abstract: During the last years, the food industry has been facing technical and economic changes both in society and in the food processing practices, paying high attention to food products that meet the consumers´ demands. In this direction, the study areas in food process and products have evolved mainly from safety to other topics such as quality, environment or health. The improvement of the food products is now directed towards ensuring nutritional and specific functional benefits. Regarding the processes evolution, they are directed to ensure the quality and safety of environmentally friendly food products produced optimizing the use of resources, minimally affecting or even enhancing their nutritional and beneficial characteristics. The product structure both in its raw form and after processing plays an important role maintaining, enhancing and delivering the bioactive compounds in the appropriate target within the organism. The aim of this review is to make an overview on some synergistic technologies that can constitute a technological process to develop functional foods, enhancing the technological and/or nutritional functionality of the food products in which they are applied. More concretely, the effect of homogenization, vacuum impregnation and drying operations on bioactive compounds have been reviewed, focusing on the structure changes produced and its relationship on the product functionality, as well as on the parameters and the strategies used to quantify and increase the achieved functionality.

      Keywords: Homogenization, vacuum impregnation, drying, structure-property-process

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jonathan Betts

    (1)
    1. MINIMUM INHIBITORY AND BACTERICIDAL CONCENTRATIONS OF THEAFLAVIN AND SYNGERGISTIC COMBINATIONS WITH EPICATECHIN AND QUERCETIN AGAINST CLINICAL ISOLATES OF STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA [MB]

      Abstract: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important nosocomial pathogen with intrinsic resistance to multiple antibiotics. Previous investigations have shown flavanols from black tea to possess antibacterial activity. This study describes the determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentration for theaflavin independently and in formulations with the polyphenols epicatechin and quercetin against nine clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and the control isolate NCTC 130141 via the microtitre assay. The results demonstrate that theaflavin has strong antibacterial activity and also shows significant synergism with epicatechin and quercetin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the isolates range between 200-400 g/mL for theaflavin and 100-200 g/mL for both theaflavin:epicatechin and theaflavin:quercetin combinations. The minimum bactericidal concentrations were discovered to be a 2 fold increase on those of the minimum inhibitory concentrations. The research highlights the potential use of polyphenols for the clinical treatment of highly antibiotic resistant bacteria

      Keywords: Resistance, synergy, antibacterial, polyphenol, theaflavin, epicatechin, quercetin

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jonathan W. Betts

    (1)
    1. SYNERGISTIC ANTIBACTERIAL EFFECTS OF THEAFLAVIN IN COMBINATION WITH AMPICILLIN AGAINST HOSPITAL ISOLATES OF STENOTROPHOMONAS MALTOPHILIA [MB]

      Abstract: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an important opportunistic nosocomial pathogen that shows intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. This often limits treatment options and can cause lengthy hospital stays. Combination treatments are often used to combat resistance and using natural compounds such as polyphenols could give increased treatment options and even the reuse of antibiotics to which high levels of resistance have been observed. A checkerboard assay was used to determine if any synergy exists between ampicillin and the polyphenol theaflavin against 9 clinical isolates and one control isolate (NCTC 13014) of S. maltophilia. It was discovered that significant synergy (P  0.05) does exist between theaflavin and ampicillin, reducing the mean MIC of ampicillin from 12.5-22.9 µg/mL, in liquid culture, to 3.125-6.25 µg/mL. The FIC index was calculated to be 0.22-0.35 confirming synergy. From these results, significant potential for medical applications can be seen and further investigation is recommended.

      Keywords: antibacterial, theaflavin, polyphenol, synergy, checkerboard, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Kasturikasen Beura

    (1)
    1. DECOMPOSITION OF BT COTTON AND NON BT COTTON RESIDUES UNDER VARIED SOIL TYPES [BT]

      Abstract: Use of the insecticidal cry proteins from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in cotton has raised a number of concerns, including the ecological impact on soil ecosystems.Greenhouse study was conducted during the 2011 wet season (March to August) at the Institute of Agricultural Sciences of Banaras Hindu University. It was carried out on three different soil orders that includedentisol, inceptisol and alfisol. Bt cotton (var.NCS-138) and its non-transgenic isoline (var.NCS-138) were grown until maturity. A no crop pot was maintained for all the three soil orders. The highest rate of decomposition was found in alluvial soil compared to black and red soils in 50 days after incorporation (DAI). Thereafter the rate of decomposition was slowed downby100 DAI and the constant rate of decomposition was found in 150 DAI. The rate of decomposition was higher in non Bt than Bt crop residues.

      Keywords: Bt cotton, soil types, decomposition

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jyothi Bezawada

    (1)
    1. EVALUATION OF INHIBITORY MEASURES FOR FOOD SPOILER YEAST CANDIDA KRUSEI DURING FERMENTATION PROCESS BY CHEMICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND NANOPARTICLE APPROACHES [FS]

      Abstract: Screening of chemical, biochemical and biomolecule-nanoparticle methods for the inhibition of Candida krusei were evaluated without hampering the growth of dairy yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. The effective inhibition was observed with the help of H2O2, Williopsis saturnus, at specific combination of pH and temperature (pH 5.0 and 40 °C) and Ag-KT4561 nanoparticles among the various methods used. However, the most efficient inhibition was observed with Ag-KT4561 nanoparticles. In general H2O2 works best at pH range 4.0 to 10.0 and at temperature 30 °C or above. H2O2 concentration of 4000 ppm at 45 °C and pH 5.5 exhibited significant inhibition of C. krusei, while K. marxianus remains unaffected. But, when used with lyophilized supernatant of W. saturnus, 2400 ppm H2O2 was effective. Further, nanoparticle with silver was synthesized to reduce the quantity of killer protein and enhance the efficiency of protein. Complete inhibition of C. krusei was observed at 350 µM of synthesized silver nano-particle (AgNPs) of the killer protein from W. saturnus, with little effect on K. marxianus concentration. A stability test confirms the effect of protein silver nanoparticles on C. krusei for more than 20 weeks without any change in pH and temperature. Thus, the nanoparticles could be potentially used for inhibition of C. krusei without affecting the growth of K. marxianus and the process could be run non-aseptically.

      Keywords: H2O2, Spoiler yeast, Inhibition, Killer protein, Ag-KT4561 bio-molecule nanoparticles, Green chemistry

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Milan Bežo

    (6)
    1. UTILIZATION OD DIFFERENT MARKERS FOR HEDERA HELIX, L. GERMPLASM EVALUATION [BT]

      Abstract: Hedera helix is a plant that is valued for its medicinal properties and on the other hand criticized for its invading potential. Beside its medicinal use, a wide utilization as decorative plant is typical for this specie. Up-to date only a few molecular data are available for Hedera helix genome, thus the aim of the study was to evaluate the utilization of different DNA markers for the its further population studies purposes. In total, eight different DNA marker techniques were used for the PCR analysis – iPBS, BARE1 IRAP, Cassandra IRAP, Tst1 IRAP, HACRE 1 IRAP, RAPD, ISSR and miRNA. In total, 38 different iPBS primers were tested with the best results for primers 2152, 2270, 2079, 1899 and 2033. In the case of RAPD primers, all of them worked in the PCR excellent. For ISSR, only a 42 % of the used primers provided results that vere evaluated as very good or excellent ISSR profile. The most successful results were obtained by microsatelite repetitions (GA)8T, (CTG)3GC and (TG)10. A novel type of DNA markers – miRNA provided results that are promising for Hedera helix, L. population studies for their further utilization.

      Keywords: Hedera helix, L.; iPBS; IRAP; RAPD; ISSR; miRNA; DNA markers

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. ANALYSIS OF STABILITY OF TRINUCLEOTIDE TTC MOTIFS IN COMMON FLAX PLANTED IN THE CHERNOBYL AREA [BT]

      Abstract: Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is one of the oldest domesticated plants — it was cultivated as early as in ancient Egypt and Samaria 10,000 years ago to serve as a source of fiber and oil, whence it later spread around the world. Compared with other plants, the flax genome consists of a high number of repetitive sequences, middle repetitive sequences and small repetitive sequences of nucleotides. The aim of the study was to analyze the stability of the existing trinucleotides motifs of microsatellite DNA of the flax genome (genotype Kyivskyi), growing in the Chernobyl conditions. The Chernobyl area is the most extensive “natural” laboratory suitable for the study of radiation effects. Over the last 20 years, the researches collected important knowledge about the effects of low and high radiation doses on the DNA isolated from the plant material growing on the remediated fields near Chernobyl and the plant material from fields contaminated by radioactive cesium 137Cs and strontium 90Sr. Using eight pairs of microsatellite primers, we successfully amplified the samples from the remediated fields. For each primer in the control samples and remediated samples, we detected 1 to 3 fragments per locus, each in size up to 120 to 250 base pairs. The applied microsatellite primers confirmed the monomorphic condition of microsatellite loci.

      Keywords: Flax, Linum usitatissimum L., microsatellites, PCR

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. TREHALOSE-BASED ADDITIVE IMPROVED INTER-PRIMER BINDING SITE REACTIONS FOR DNA ISOLATED FROM RECALCITRANT PLANTS [BT]

      Abstract: Trehalose-based (TBT-PAR) additive was tested in order to optimize PCR amplification for DNA isolated from recalcitrant plants. Retrotransposon-based inter-primer binding site reactions were significantly improved with TBT-PAR solution using genomic DNA isolated from flax (Linum usitatissimum L., genotypes Kyivskyi, Bethune) grown in radio-contaminated and non-radioactive remediated Chernobyl experimental fields. Additionally, similar improvements were observed using 19 recalcitrant genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.) and three genotypes of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Poepp. et Endl., genotypes PER05, ECU45, BOL22) grown in standard field conditions.

      Keywords: TBT-PAR additive, recalcitrant plants, PCR, iPBS technique

      article details | fulltext pdf

    4. INTER HACRE-1 RETROTRANSPOSON LENGTH POLYMORPHISM IS NOT CONSERVED THROUGHT THE SUNFLOWER LINES [BT]

      Abstract: Twelve sunflower lines used in breeding programmes were tested for IRAP polymorphism of HACRE1 retrotransposon. Using a single primer, a total of 96 bands among the accessions were scored and the number of polymorphic bands was 42. Most of the analysed accesions have the „881A or B“ line in their pedigrees, but none of them have the same IRAP profile or are showed as the same when Jaccard dissimilarity coefficient was applied. The average Jaccard’s Dissimilarity Index for the used primer range within the whole possible range and as the most distinct lines are reported 2867A and 1957A, 1831A and 1961A, 1957A and 1961A. Dendrogram of the analysed lines comprises from the three dominant branches, where the lines with the codes 1831A and 1957A are shown as the most unsimilar to the others.

      Keywords: IRAP, sunflower, HACRE1 retrotransposon, molecular marker

      article details | fulltext pdf

    5. SEQUENCING OF FLAX LIS-1 INSERTION SITE IN THE ALBIDUM GENOTYPE [BT]

      Abstract: The paper presents a methodology of identifying the insertion site of LIS-1-1 (Linum Insertion Sequence 1) element in flax Albidum variety when growing under the in vitro combined with environmental stress conditions. Abiotic stress was induced by a reduced nutrient content in a growth medium. The LIS-1 insertion site amplification was reaLIS-1ed using the forward LIS-L: 5'-GGG CAG TTT AAC TGT AAC GAA - 3 'and revers LIS-R: 5'-GCT TGG ATT TAG ACT TGG CAA C - 3' primers by PCR. PCR product was sequenced by direct sequencing method to proove the nucleotide sequence for matching with database LIS-1 sequence. A comparison has been matched with the sequence of the amplified segment in the database for all nucleotides except the 11-position in the 5'-3 ' direction, where instead of the three adenine pair is a couple in the Albidum variety. Changes caused by mobile elements or insertion sequences result in common flax in variability that can be used for the purposes of development of effective marker identification or environment based markers development.

      Keywords: common flax, LIS-1 insertion site, sequence, PCR identification

      article details | fulltext pdf

    6. THE POTENTIAL OF ISSR MARKERS IN AMARANTH GAMMA-RADIANCE MUTANTS GENOTYPYING [BT]

      Abstract: Amaranth is one of the re-discovered crops. Amaranth DNA polymorphism changes caused by γ-radiation in selected amaranth lines - Amaranthus cruenthus L. were observed using genotypes Ficha and Hybrid K-433 (the result of interspecific hybridization of species A. hypochondriacus  A. hybridus). Mutant lines are M8 generation positively selected plants for weight of thousand seeds. To determine the polymorphism between individual samples ISSR technique was used. Primer Ama1 detected interspecific and primer Ama2 revealed intra – and interspecific polymorphisms, too. Primer Ama1 distinguished only the cultivar Ficha and hybrid K-433 accessions. Primer Ama2 created more polymorphic DNA profiles and has the ability to distinguish not only Ficha cultivar and hybrid K-433, but mutant accessions among themselves. A total of 11-13 band levels for the primer Ama1 and 14-16 for the primer Ama2 were obtained.

      Keywords: Amaranth, ISSR, inter- and intra specific variability

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • D. G. Bhadange

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION, SREENING AND OPTIMIZATION OF SUBMERGED CULTURE CONDITIONS FOR MYCELIAL BIOMASS PRODUCTION WITH ENHANCED ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE FUNGUS MYROTHECIUM SPP. MRP001 AGAINST MULTI DRUG RESISTANT PATHOGENS [MB]

      Abstract: Fungi are interestingly; produce the bioactive natural products thus being screened for the production of valuable antibacterial product. In the present study the fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Myrothecium spp. MRP001 based on morphological characteristics and it was reinforced by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. The submerged culture conditions and nutritional requirements for the production of mycelial biomass with improved antibacterial activity were studied in shaker flask culture using OFAT (one factor at time) in six different media, After 120 h of growth, Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) and Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) shows maximum spore account (2×108 CFU/ml) of Myrothecium spp MRP001. Among the all different culture media, the maximum biomass production of 2.14 g/L and 2.23 g/L were observed in Tryptone Soya Broth (TSB) and Potato dextrose broth (PDB) respectively, over a period of 120 h of incubation at pH of 6.5 in 25-30 °C in Myrothecium spp. Strain MRP001. Among the carbon sources, glucose supplemented basal medium showed an effective biomass production of 2.24 g/L. whereas in nitrogen sources, yeast extract had significant biomass production of 2.12 g/L. The optimized ethyl acetate extract of cultural filtrate showed a maximum inhibition zone of 28.4 mm and 26.3 mm against multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa strain 1 and S. aureus strain 5, respectively. These results are useful for further investigation of the fungus in the future for microbial disease treatment for multi drug resistant human pathogens.

      Keywords: Fermentation parameter, improved bioactivity, Myrothecium spp., multi drug resistant human bacterial pathogens

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Divyesh D. Bhagat

    (1)
    1. STATISTICAL APPROACH FOR PECTINASE PRODUCTION BY Bacillus firmus SDB9 AND EVALUATION OF PECTINO-XYLANOLYTIC ENZYMES FOR PRETREATMENT OF KRAFT PULP [MB]

      Abstract: The present study originated with the concomitant production of 1.94 IU.mL-1 of pectinase, 0.34 IU.mL-1 xylanase and 0.086 IU.mL-1 cellulase from a newly isolated Bacillus firmus SDB9 in pectin salt media. Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) and Box-Behnken design (BBD) were used for optimization of mass production of pectinase using agro-residues. Statistical optimization of medium enhances the pectinase production to 17.55 IU.mL-1, 17.7% higher activity than that of unoptimized medium. The optimal pectinase activity was found at pH 8.5 and 45°C temperature. The enzyme was alkali-stable over a range of pH 7.0 to 10.0 for 1 h and thermostable at 35 to 70°C for 1h. Out of 12 tested metal cations at 1mM concentration, the enzyme was found to be hindered by the presence of three cations, whereas four cations were reported to augment, and the rest marginally subdued the activity. Pretreatment with 15 IU pectinase and 2.7 IU xylanase per gram of OD pulp reduce kappa number by 7.9%. After bleaching sequence D0-Ep-D1, the increment in pulp brightness was 2.7% with acceptable whiteness level. Pretreatment also led to a reduction in ClO2 consumption by 15% with superior brightness level. The 0.83% increase in pulp viscosity along with 3.2% gain in double fold number indicated the maintenance of relative cellulose content and strength of paper. Minor variations in burst index, tensile index and tear index reflected the conserved properties of the treated pulp. Synergistic application of mixed enzymes preparation produced from raw agro-residue headed by pectinase in preference to xylanase is first time set forth in the present study to help in cost economization and propel the pulp and paper industries towards environmental friendly future.

      Keywords: Pectinase; xylanase; optimization; Bacillus firmus SDB9; pretreatment; kraft pulp

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Pratibha Bharti

    (1)
    1. PURIFICATION AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A PHTHALATE ANTIBIOTIC FROM BURKHOLDERIA GLADIOLI OR1 EFFECTIVE AGAINST MULTI-DRUG RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS [MB]

      Abstract: A soil isolate, identified as Burkholderia gladioli OR1, has been reported in our earlier study, to possess broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against drug resistant clinical isolates of bacteria and fungi. The 16S rRNA gene sequence data of B. gladioli strain OR1 has been deposited in the GenBank databases (MTCC) under the accession number MTCC11251. Thin layer chromatography and bioautography studies of chloroform extract of the cell free supernatant of this organism, showed at least four different antimicrobial compounds. The silica gel column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography led to the isolation of one compound that exhibited growth inhibitory activity against multi-antibiotic resistant clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (resistant to amikacin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, clinafloxacin, erythromycin, gentamicin and methicillin). On the basis of mass, infra-red (IR), 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR and 2D NMR spectral studies, we propose the structure of this antibiotic to be bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, isolated for the first time from the species of the genus Burkholderia.

      Keywords: Antibiotic resistant, chloroform extract, chromatography, silica gel, spectroscopy

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sarita G. Bhat

    (1)
    1. PHYSICO CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A T5-LIKE SALMONELLA PHAGE ΦSP-3 [MB]

      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance is a problem faced by humanity for quite some time now. Search for an intelligent alterative to antibiotics led the scientific community to join hands with an age old foe of pathogenic bacteria - bacteriophages. The present study elaborates the potential of a previously isolated phage with biocontrol capability, to survive and adsorb in various physicochemical environments . ΦSP-3, a Salmonella specific lytic phage capable of infecting host in nutrient deprived states with an added advantage of high host specificity and absence of virulence genes as previously reported was chosen for the study. Salmonella Enteritidis was used as host. Basic growth parameters like time taken for phage adsorption, optimal multiplicity of infection (MOI) and one step growth curve, were determined, followed by physicochemical characterization. Various parameters studied include temperature, pH, salinity and presence of sugars and CaCl2. 25 minutes of exposure time was required for 100% adsorption and optimal MOI was calculated as one. The latent period and the rise period was 30 minutes each with a subsequent burst size of 60 phages per bacterium. ΦSP-3 could survive upto 70ºC. 1M NaCl was optimal for phage viability while 0.25M favored maximal adsorption. The optimum pH for ΦSP-3 viability and adsorption was 8. Among the sugars,Arabinose was most influential in inactivating ΦSP-3. 100% adsorption was achieved at both 37ºC and at 40ºC. 10mM of CaCl2 to be optimum for ΦSP-3. Thus the present study substantiates the candidature of ΦSP-3 as a sturdy biocontrol agent capable of thriving well in diverse physicochemical environments.

      Keywords: Lytic phages, Salmonella

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ravi Bhatia

    (1)
    1. MICROORGANISMS: A MARVELOUS SOURCE OF SINGLE CELL PROTEINS [MB]

      Abstract: The increasing global population living below the poverty line is driving the scientific community to search for non-conventional protein sources that can replace conventional expensive ones. Microbial proteins, or single-cell protein (SCP), represent a potential future nutrient source for human food and animal feed. These microbial proteins can be grown rapidly on substrates with minimum dependence on soil, water and climate conditions. They can be produced from algae, fungi and bacteria the chief sources of SCP. It is convenient to use microorganisms for production of SCP as they grow rapidly and have high protein content. Industrially, they can be produced from algal biomass, yeast, fungi. There are several other ways of getting SCP as well. Despite numerous advantages of SCP, they have disadvantages and toxic effects too, especially related to mycotoxins and bacterial toxins.

      Keywords: Non conventional, single cell protein (SCP), microbial protein, disadvantages, toxins

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Sugandha Bhatia

    (1)
    1. EVALUATING THE EFFICACY OF EDTA, GRAPEFRUIT SEED EXTRACT, LYSOZYME AND SODIUM BENZOATE INCORPORATED IN STARCH-GLYCEROL BASED ANTIMICROBIAL FOOD PACKAGING FILM [FS]

      Abstract: The consortia of micro organisms obtained from contaminated food (Milkfed Verka Kheer) was effectively tested against antibacterial agents, i.e. Sodium benzoate, grinded grape fruit seed powder GSP, Lysozyme and EDTA by agar diffusion method. Bacterial inhibition by combinations using two levels from each of the three factors (EDTA, Sodium benzoate and Lysozyme) without AM films was evaluated using liquid incubation method. The levels of the agents were selected according to their permissibility standards. Statistical analysis of experimental data for their antimicrobial spectrum was carried out by multi regression analysis and framed poly-quadratic equation using coded factors and percentage contribution of antimicrobial agents was determined using Design-Expert software. Properties such as thickness, opacity, transparency, UV absorbance and efficient working pH of the film were also determined. The best result was observed with EDTA: Sodium benzoate: Lysozyme at 100 mM: 100 mM: 1000 IU respectively at pH 9, where maximum zone of inhibition was observed that is 21mm. No zone of inhibition was observed using GSP as antibacterial factor limiting its widely supported usage. The work screened was imperative in performing optimization studies for the combination treatments to incorporate in starch-glycerol based active packaging film.

      Keywords: Active Packaging, Antimicrobial Activity, Food Preservation, Response Surface Methodology

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Padam Shekhar Bhatt

    (1)
    1. BIOCONCENTRATION OF HEAVY METALS IN VERMICOMPOSTING EARTHWORMS (Eisenia fetida, Perionyx excavatus and Lampito mauritii) IN NEPAL [BT]

      Abstract: Vermicomposting of organic waste can play an important part during the waste management process in larger cities such as Kathmandu where 70% of the waste generated is organic. In this study, the possibility of heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Cu and Cr) bioaccumulation by three different species of earthworms Eisenia fetida, Lampito mauritii and Perionyx excavatus in domestic waste vermicompost was investigated. Quantification of heavy metals by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy(AAS) in final vermicompost showed a significant reduction in concentration of metals, Pb (11.4-26.0%), Cd (48-61%), Cu (4.9- 29.01%) and Cr (18.90-33.60%) at the end. Bioaccumulation of heavy metal in the composting earthworms was also recorded. Comparison of the three groups of earthworms showed that the bioaccumulation of Pb, Cu and Cr was greater for P. excavatus whereas E. fetida was the most reluctant. Heavy metal content in the vermicompost was within the limit of USEPA for Biosolids and the compost could be used for the agriculture purpose.

      Keywords: Bioconcentration factor, Eisenia fetida, heavy metals, Lampito mauritii, Perionyx excavates, vermicompost

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Parimal C. Bhattacharjee

    (1)
    1. NUTRITIONAL STRESS IN WESTERN HOOLOCK GIBBON DUE TO ADVERSE CHANGES IN DIET PATTERN [BT]

      Abstract: Habitat destruction and hunting are one of the major threats to endangered western hoolock gibbon (Hoolock hoolock) in India. Due to large scale deforestation, important feeding and roosting tress are destroyed thereby creating shortage of food all-round the year. In non-availability of preferred food, these gibbons are bound to switch their diet and eat a diet of less nutritive value. This unwanted diet-switch may lead to severe nutritional stress leading to low population densities, reduced litter and a breach in their nutritional threshold may also cause sudden die-off. Acute food supply may cause deficiency of total energy and protein supply in primates which may ultimately lead to a variety of severe immune dysfunctions and an impaired resilience. It is being well known that degraded habitat leads to increase of parasite among primates, which leads to the decimation of the weak and the vulnerable. Weak immune system due to improper diet and nutrition may lead to parasite colonization, growth and fecundity.

      Keywords: Western hoolock gibbon, endangered, nutritional stress, low population density, immune dysfunction, parasite

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Indrani Bhattacharya

    (1)
    1. EVALUATION OF INHIBITORY MEASURES FOR FOOD SPOILER YEAST CANDIDA KRUSEI DURING FERMENTATION PROCESS BY CHEMICAL, BIOCHEMICAL AND NANOPARTICLE APPROACHES [FS]

      Abstract: Screening of chemical, biochemical and biomolecule-nanoparticle methods for the inhibition of Candida krusei were evaluated without hampering the growth of dairy yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. The effective inhibition was observed with the help of H2O2, Williopsis saturnus, at specific combination of pH and temperature (pH 5.0 and 40 °C) and Ag-KT4561 nanoparticles among the various methods used. However, the most efficient inhibition was observed with Ag-KT4561 nanoparticles. In general H2O2 works best at pH range 4.0 to 10.0 and at temperature 30 °C or above. H2O2 concentration of 4000 ppm at 45 °C and pH 5.5 exhibited significant inhibition of C. krusei, while K. marxianus remains unaffected. But, when used with lyophilized supernatant of W. saturnus, 2400 ppm H2O2 was effective. Further, nanoparticle with silver was synthesized to reduce the quantity of killer protein and enhance the efficiency of protein. Complete inhibition of C. krusei was observed at 350 µM of synthesized silver nano-particle (AgNPs) of the killer protein from W. saturnus, with little effect on K. marxianus concentration. A stability test confirms the effect of protein silver nanoparticles on C. krusei for more than 20 weeks without any change in pH and temperature. Thus, the nanoparticles could be potentially used for inhibition of C. krusei without affecting the growth of K. marxianus and the process could be run non-aseptically.

      Keywords: H2O2, Spoiler yeast, Inhibition, Killer protein, Ag-KT4561 bio-molecule nanoparticles, Green chemistry

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Swapan Bhattacharyya

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION OF A NEW PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM STRAIN BF02 FROM AGRICULTURAL SOIL OF RURAL INDIA PRODUCING A THERMOSTABLE LOW KM CELLOBIASE [MB]

      Abstract: A new strain of Penicillium chrysogenum producing a low Km, thermostable cellobiase was isolated from agricultural soil of rural West Bengal, India. The culture filtrate showed strong antibacterial activity against gram positive organisms, gave two cellobiase activity bands on native PAGE zymography and two peaks on sephacryl S200 gel chromatography. The higher molecular weight peak had a higher specific activity and was characterised further. It gave three bands corresponding to 130 kDa, 65 kDa and 55 kDa in SDS-PAGE and showed a Km of 0.196 mM against p- nitrophenyl β-D glucopyranoside. It was highly thermostable and retained full activity after one hour incubation at 55°C with temperature optima of 75°C. Its pH stability ranged between 4.5 and 8.5 with optimal activity at pH 5 and it retained more than 65% activity in presence of 100 mM guanidium hydrochloride and 2 M urea. Apart from Zn+2 and Hg+2, enzyme activity was not affected by other metal ions and in presence of Mg+2 and Mn+2, activity was boosted. It also retained more than 80% activity in presence of 0.5% glucose. This is one of the very few reports of an efficient cellobiase from the Penicillium genus which can be utilised for biotechnological applications.

      Keywords: Filamentous fungi; Penicillium chrysogenum; antimicrobial potential; thermostable low Km cellobiase

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Rewati Raman Bhattarai

    (1)
    1. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF DOMINANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FROM DAHI: AN INDIGENOUS DAIRY PRODUCT OF NEPAL HIMALAYAS [MB]

      Abstract: Morphological, cultural, physiological and biochemical characteristics were employed to identify dominant Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolates from 39 dahi (indigenous dairy product) samples collected from different districts of eastern Nepal. The isolates comprised of predominately Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis subspecies cremoris, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis biovar diacetylactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroids subsp. mesenteroids. S. thermophilus were found consistently in most of the samples examined. In this study, 59.38% of Lactobacilli, 21% of Streptococci, 8.2 % Lactococci and 11.42 % Leuconostocs were isolated from indigenous dahi. This study revealed diversity of lactic acid bacteria in Nepalese milieu having immense potential in producing qualitative fermented milk.

      Keywords: Isolation, Characterization, LAB, fermented dairy product, dahi

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Jayati Bhowal

    (3)
    1. EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF DRYING ON ANTIOXIDANT AND MICROSCOPIC CHARACTERISTICS OF Spirullina platensis ENRICHED SOY YOGURT [FS]

      Abstract: Spirulina platensis was discussed as an active compound with regard to the combined effects with soy yogurt in dried food formulation. Drying influenced the microscopic, and antioxidant properties of soy yogurts, and could be used to create new functionalities. The present investigation aimed to convert Spirulina platensis enriched soy yogurts to powder form by different drying methodologies such as air, vacuum, freeze, and microwave drying and evaluate the microstructure and antioxidant activity of the powders obtained. Antioxidant activities were assayed by using polyphenol assay, estimation of carotenoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity and FRAP assay. Structural changes were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope and an X-ray diffraction pattern. Freeze-drying was produced significantly high quality dried Spirulina platensis enriched soy yogurt, i.e. better functional and antioxidant properties (Polyphenol 0.211 Gallic acid equivalent. g-1, p<0.001 and DPPH activity 17.48±0.11%, p<0.01 of dried yogurt). In addition, Spirulina platensis enriched soy yogurt exhibited an amorphous type molecular structure in all four types of drying methods adopted. It could be concluded that the freeze-drying method could produce superior quality Spirulina platensis enriched dried soy yogurt powder compared to hot-air-oven and vacuum drying, while it is highly comparable to microwave drying.

      Keywords: Spirulina platensis, soy yogurt, microwave-dried, vacuum-dried, freeze-dried, antioxidant

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. OPTIMIZATION OF INGREDIENT AND PROCESSING PARAMETER FOR THE PRODUCTION OF Spirulina platensis INCORPORATED SOY YOGURT USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY [FS]

      Abstract: In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the ingredient formulation and processing parameters of Spirulina platensis incorporated soy yogurt production such as temperature, time, and amount of Spirulina platensis on the sensory evaluation responses on 9 point Hedonic rating. Besides, the physico–chemical properties such as pH, titratable acidity, viscosity and penetration of the Spirulina platensis incorporated soy yogurt were also analysed. The analyses show that the Spirulina platensis incorporated soy yogurts have a pH from 3.43 to 5.55, acidity from 0.64 to 2.32 (%), Brookfield viscosity from 752 to 903 Centipoise and penetration from 362 to 432 1/10th mm at 25°C during the optimization process. From the analysis of variance, the R2 of all response variables is more than 0.77 that indicates that a high proportion of variability was explained by the model. Based on the response surface 3D plot of the sensory evaluation, the optimum acceptability of the Spirulina platensis incorporated soy yogurt processing parameter are at temperature of 40°C, 12 h of the fermentation duration and 0.80% (w/w) of the Spirulina platensis.

      Keywords: Spirulina platensis, sensory, viscosity, penetration, response surface methodology, soy yogurt

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF COAGULATING AGENT ON PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND ORGANOLEPTIC PROPERTIES OF NON DAIRY RASGULLA (CHEESE BALL) [FS]

      Abstract: Non-dairy rasgulla NDR (cheese ball) were manufactured from soybean milk using different types ofcoagulants such as citric acid, lactic acid, tartaric acid and calcium lactate (2% each). Dairy rasgulla procured from local market was used as control (DR). This study investigated the effects of these coagulants on the physico-chemical, color, in vitro multienzyme protein digestibility and the sensory properties of DR and NDRs.Citric acid coagulated NDR (CNDR) recorded high fat value (4.95±0.18; p<0.05) among all the NDRs. Protein value of DR (8.24±0.05; p<0.01) was higher than lactic acid coagulated rasgulla (LNDR) (7.89±0.22; p<0.01), but was lower than the values obtained for other three types of NDRs.The moisture content of LNDR (51.20±0.56; p<0.01) was significantly higher than that of other NDRs. Among NDRs, the LNDR recorded highest carbohydrate content (34.37±0.49; p<0.01). The energy value of LNDR (208.55±6.88; p<0.01) was significantly lower than that of all other NDRs. Penetration values of all the five types of rasgulla sample were gradually decreased during the storage period.A similar trend of L* values (lightness) was observed in case of CNDR and DR. The mean scores of DR and NDRs for color, aroma, texture and overall acceptability were gradually decreased during storage. It was observed that CNDR, tartaric acid coagulated rasgulla (TNDR) and calcium lactate coagulatedrasgulla (CLNDR) had higher overall acceptability than DR. LNDR, CNDR and CLNDR had lower protein digestibility values than DR. On the basis of analysis of different physicochemical and sensory parameters, tartaric acid proved to be optimum in the preparation of NDR.

      Keywords: Rasgulla, Soymilk, Channa, Penetration, Digestibility

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Md. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan

    (1)
    1. QUALITY COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BANGLADESHI AND CHINA GINGER (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ROSC.) [FS]

      Abstract: The essential oil of Zingiber officinale Rosc. was extracted from China and Bangladeshi varieties and yielded 0.21% and 0.23 % by hydro-distillation method on fresh weight basis respectively. Fifteen compounds were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The major constituents of China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oils were zingiberene 38.10 % and 41.49%, β-phellandrene 12.0% and 9.92%, α-citral 11.48% and 9.76 %, α-curcumene 9.22% and 11.58%, camphene 5.94% and 4.60% , β-bisabolene 4.39% and 5.0% respectively. The IC50 (DPPH method ) values were found 61.18 µg/mL and 56.71 µg/mL with the highest inhibition of 78.49 % and 80.77% and the LC50 values in the brine shrimp lethality cytotoxicity bioassay were found 0.4842 µg/mL and 0.7151 µg/mL in China and Bangladeshi ginger essential oil respectively. Both the essential oils showed significant activities against some gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The proximate composition of the China and Bangladeshi variety showed the ash (7.12±0.151, 8.15±0.18%), protein (5.47±0.19, 6.60±0.16%), crude fibre (4.32±0.10, 4.61±0.12%), carbohydrate (16..06±0.35, 18.38±0.41) and food energy (70.50±0.89, 81.74±1.01 kcal/100g.) respectively. The elemental compositions of the both varieties were found rich in Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Se, Na and K. These results indicate the quality composition of the two varieties may find interest in spice and culinary industries as well as in medicinal preparation.

      Keywords: Zingiber officinale, essential oil, limonene, GC/MS, mineral element, antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Wojciech Białas

    (1)
    1. CONTROLLING MICROBIAL GROWTH IN INNOVATIVE DIETARY SUPPLEMENT BASED ON THE BIOMASS OF YEAST YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA [MB]

      Abstract: The growing demand for meat and dairy products necessitates the intensification of the production of feeds containing high-protein components. Yarrowia lipolytica biomass constitutes a rich source of easily digestible proteins and numerous vitamins, which makes it a valuable additive for both liquid and dry feeds. Unfortunately, the liquid products are susceptible to the growth of undesirable microflora. The aim of the presented research was to assess the possibility of using selected chemical substances to stabilize the high-protein liquid products acquired from Yarrowia lipolytica biomass. The research was designed with the use of a statistical method based on mixture designs. Microbiological stability was assessed using the results of culture tests aimed at calculating the total number of mesophilic bacteria, yeasts, molds, and bacteria from the coli and Salmonella sp. groups. Storage tests were performed at temperatures of 4 and 25 °C. Sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate and phosphoric acid were used as preservatives.
      The use of preservatives resulted in a significant decrease in the numbers of bacteria during storage. After 30 days of storage, the total number of bacterial cells was 0.95±0.11 and 1.5±0.09 Log10 Cfu ml-1, respectively, for storage tests at temperatures of 4 and 25°C. A product with optimum preservative mixture composition, stored at 4°C, should contain 1297mg l-1 of sodium benzoate and 1203 mg l-1 of phosphoric acid. In the case of products stored at 25°C, the concentration of sodium benzoate and phosphoric acid should be 1307 mg l-1 and 1197 mg l-1, respectively.

      Keywords: Yarrowia lipolytica, cavitation, liquid feed, microbial stability, preservatives

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Ewa Białecka-Florjańczyk

    (1)
    1. FACTORS INFLUENCING SYNTHESIS OF EXTRACELLULAR LIPASES BY YARROWIA LIPOLYTICA IN MEDIUM CONTAINING VEGETABLE OILS [MB]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate lipase activity of Yarrowia lipolytica KKP 379 in media containing selected vegetable oils as the sole carbon source. The highest activity for extracellular Yarrowia lipolytica lipases was obtained in a corn oil medium, which was almost two times higher compared to lipase activity in olive oil medium, while the lowest lipolytic activity was observed in medium containing rice and peanut oils. Literature suggested that free fatty acids, especially oleic acid present in olive oil, are good inducers of microbial lipase synthesis, however the results of this study do not support the hypothesis that high oleic acid content stimulates high lipolytic activity. Neither the relationship between the percentage of individual fatty acids in triacylglycerols of vegetable oils nor their content at the sn-1,3 positions influenced the activity of extracellular lipases synthesized by Yarrowia lipolytica KKP 379. Several hypothesis are given regarding the presence of other factors which may determine differences in extracellular lipolytic activity of yeast grown on different vegetable oils, such as presence of metal ions, the content of free fatty acids and critical micellar concentration.

      Keywords: Lipase, lipase activator, oleic acid, triacylglycerol structure, vegetable oil, Yarrowia lipolytica

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Madiha Bichra

    (1)
    1. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS [BT]

      Abstract: The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC). The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC) and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

      Keywords: Medicinal herbs, antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds, flavonoid

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Agata Bielawska-Drózd

    (1)
    1. STUDIES ON THE OCCURRENCE OF COXIELLA BURNETII INFECTION IN TICKS IN SELECTED EASTERN AND CENTRAL REGIONS OF POLAND [MB]

      Abstract: Arthropods may play a role in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii as they transmit pathogen both mechanically (as flies), and actively during the host blood suction. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii occurring in ticks harvested from both domestic and livestock animals, as well as from wildlife in randomly selected regions of Poland. The total number 1126 ticks was collected in four regions of Poland: the Masovian, Lublin, Łódź and Podkarpackie Provinces. Among ticks collected from May 2011 to August 2012, the presence of IS1111 gene sequence was detected in 15 (1.33%) cases by real-time PCR test. Among the ticks harvested from domestic and livestock animals in 12 cases (3.1%), and in case of ticks found in open-space rodents in 3 cases (0.4%) we found the presence of marker sequences. The low percentage of C. burnetii infected ticks indicate a limited role of these arthropods in Q fever transmission.

      Keywords: Coxiella burnetii, ticks, IS1111, real-time PCR

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Md. Morsaline Billah

    (3)
    1. IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, ANTIMICROBIAL AND PRELIMINARY CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF CYNOMETRA RAMIFLORA- A MANGROVE PLANT [BT]

      Abstract: A mangrove medicinal plant Cynometra ramiflora (Family: Leguminosae) was selected to investigate the bioactivities namely antioxidant, antimicrobial and preliminary cytotoxic activity using methanol and chloroform extracts of the leaves and stems, respectively. In 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of the methanolic stem extract was found to be 31.62 µg.mL-1. Reducing power of the same extract demonstrated consistent increase in a concentration-dependent manner and was comparable with quercetin while ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay revealed potential total antioxidant capacity (84.0 mM Fe (II)/g of extract). In addition, the presence of total phenolics (96.2 mg GAE/g of extract), total flavonoids (166.4 mg QE/g of extract) and tannins content (80.4 mg GAE/g of extract) were determined in the methanolic stem extract. The chloroformic stem extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against a number of bacterial strains while the MIC values of extracts were in the range from 62.5 to 500µg.mL-1. The methanolic stem and leaf extracts demonstrated strong lethality in preliminary cytotoxicity assay using brine shrimp nauplii where the 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values were 1.596 and 4.613 µg.mL-1 respectively. It can be therefore concluded that the methanolic extracts of C. ramiflora possess potential antioxidant, antimicrobial and strong preliminary cytotoxic activity and could be further exploited for prospective scientific exploration towards bioactive principles.

      Keywords: Cynometra ramiflora, antioxidant, antimicrobial, cytotoxic

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. EFFECTIVE IDENTIFICATION OF LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI-1 BY 16S-23S rRNA INTERGENIC SPECER REGION SEQUENCING [MB]

      Abstract: Fermentation profiling is a common tool to identify Lactobacillus paracasei from other related members of Lactobacillus genus. Because of the proximate biochemical characteristics, identification based on the fermentation pattern within L. casei group (L. casei, L. paracasei and L. rahmnosus) has considerable limitation. On the other hand, members of L. casei group are genetically very closely related and sequencing of signature region is the most reliable and rapid method of differentiation. In this study, instead of sequencing entire 16S or 23S ribosomal RNA gene, we have sequenced 16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer region and compared them across the members of L. casei group. We also compiled thirteen signature sequences within 16s-23s ISR rRNA gene of L. casei group members. Our isolated strain (L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1) resembled 100% and 99% similarity when compared with 16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer region of L. paracasei and L. casei respectively. Our study summarizes that sequencing of short 16s-23s rRNA intergenic spacer region carries great significance in identification of closely related probiotic bacteria such as the members of L. casei group. The findings of this research could be very much helpful for food and pharmaceutical industries who are dealing with probiotic bacteria.

      Keywords: Identification, L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1, 16s-23s rRNA, signature sequence, probiotic

      article details | fulltext pdf

    3. ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY AND ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE PROFILE OF LACTOBACILLUS PARACASEI SSP. PARACASEI-1 ISOLATED FROM REGIONAL YOGURTS OF BANGLADESH [MB]

      Abstract: Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 was identified from traditional yogurts of Khulna region, Bangladesh and its enzyme and antibiotic resistance profiles were determined. A commercially available API Zym kit was employed to determine the activities of 19 different enzymes. We found that L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 showed strong activities for several enzymes, viz. leucine arylamidase, valine arylamidase, napthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase, β-galactosidase, α –Glucosidase, N-Acetyl- β- glucosaminidase while activities for other enzymes were absent. Antibiotic resistance profile was assessed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test for 61 major antibiotics and 4 antifungal agents obtained from commercial sources in MRS Agar media. The strain generally showed resistance to gram negative spectrum antibiotic while it showed susceptibility towards β-lactam antibiotic to gram positive spectrum antibiotic. The findings provide the therapeutic basis of using L. paracasei ssp. paracasei-1 in finished food products.

      Keywords: Lactobacillus, antibiotic resistance, enzyme profile, yogurt, MIC, 16s-23s rRNA

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Lukasz Jakub Binkowski

    (1)
    1. IS THE MEAT OF WILD WATERFOWL FIT FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION? PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF CADMIUM AND LEAD CONCENTRATION IN PECTORAL MUSCLES OF MALLARDS AND COOTS SHOT IN 2006 IN SOUTHERN POLAND [FS]

      Abstract: Concentrations of cadmium and lead in pectoral muscles of mallards (N = 15) and coots (N = 15) shot on fishponds in Zator area (southern Poland, Europe) were determined with the graphite furnace AAS. Samples were dried and wet digested in the mixture of HNO3 and HClO4. Median concentration of cadmium was 0.0616 µg.g-1d.w. among mallards and 0.0868 µg.g-1d.w. among coots. Concentrations of lead were higher and median run to 0.1898 µg.g-1d.w. in mallards and to 0.2637 µg.g-1d.w. in coots. No differences in heavy metals concentrations between species were statistically significant. According to the thresholds for foodstuff given by European Commission, meat of all birds was edible in the aspect of cadmium concentration (only meat of one coot contained cadmium near the given border). In the aspect of lead, 26% of researched birds have concentration beyond the safety limit and their meat was not fit for human consumption. Considering the annually number of shot birds, any kind of monitoring must be planned to assess potential consumers’ safety.

      Keywords: game meat, metals, waterfowl, lead poisoning, cadmium

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Łukasz Binkowski

    (1)
    1. COMPARISION OF MERCURY CONCENTRATION IN MEAT PRODUCTS OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN [FS]

      Abstract: In this study the concentration of mercury in the Malokarpatska and Lovecka salami during the technological processing with comparison of the raw materials originating from domestic and foreign production was determined. Mercury content was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest concentration of mercury in raw materials (beef, pork, pork bacon) was detected in beef from foreign production. Increasing concentrations of mercury was found after the addition of additives, spices and curing compounds causing a threefold increase in the concentration of mercury in final products.

      Keywords: Mercury, meat, meat products, AAS

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Łukasz J. Binkowski

    (1)
    1. DIFFERENCES IN HAEMOGLOBIN CONCENTRATION AND HAEMATOCRIT LEVEL IN RANA RIDIBUNDA PALL. UNDER A DEHYDRATION STRESS [BT]

      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of particular water loss on changes of haemoglobin content and haematocrit level in marsh frog. During these research we used only mature females, taken directly from the natural environment, in two terms of the annual cycle, i.e. during hibernation (3rd decade of February) and during activity (3rd decade of May).
      The amphibians in each term were divided into three groups. The control group had unlimited access to water. The experimental groups underwent a controlled dehydration until the loss of respectively 17% and 20% of the body mass. After the planned body mass loss frogs were sectioned and during the process blood samples, directly from the heart ventricle, were taken for the analysis.
      The haemoglobin concentration was measured with the colorimetric method, using spectrophotometer Spekol 11 (Carl Zeiss Jena) and the haematocrit level was measured with the microhaematocritic method (modified Hedin method).
      The result of analysis was that the dehydration stress has definite influence on elevation of haemathological indexes in frogs. In comparison to other species it is only a slight elevation. However the grater elevation of haemoglobin and haematocrit values can be observed during the active life period than during the hibernation. It is definitely due to differences of metabolism in hibernated (ponderous) and mating (very active) specimens.

      Keywords: haemoglobin, haematocrit, dehydration, marsh frog

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Łukasz Jakub Binkowski

    (2)
    1. ALA-D AS AN INDICATOR OF LEAD POISONING AMONG HUNTED BIRDS [BT]

      Abstract: The major causes of lead (Pb) poisoning in waterbirds (mostly Anseriformes) are lead pellets from ammunition sources and fishing sinkers which may be ingested by the mistake by birds during foraging. They are being dissolved and got into the bloodstream causing a poisoning. To evaluate this exposition of particular specimens, biomarkers as the activity of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in blood can be used. These measurements may be done in blood samples taken from birds during the ringing or the trapping. However, the use of this biomarker for hunted birds is still scarcely evaluated which is the significant lack of knowledge in respect of world-wide hunting activity and easiness of material collection. Such measurements are faster and cheaper in comparison to Pb determination in blood with Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. They are not as precise as AAS method but they better show the real impact of Pb on the physiology of the organism. In this study we present the results of the measurements of ALA-d activity in blood of hunted birds (Mallards and Coots). The samples were taken immediately after the shot from the heart to K2EDTA vials. The activity was measured according to the standard European method. Lead was positively determined in the majority of blood sample. The relationship between Pb level and ALA-d activity was found.

      Keywords: dehydratase, biomarker, waterfowl, lead poisoning, Pb

      article details | fulltext pdf

    2. XENOBIOTIC METALS IN MUSCULES AND BONES OF MALLARD FROM SOUTHERN POLAND [BT]

      Abstract: Samples collected from adult males of Mallard (shot in 2011 near Zator) were analyzed in the aspect of cadmium and mercury concentrations. Among bones samples of radius, ulna, humerus, femur, tibia, crista sterni and rostrum were taken. From muscles musculus pectoralis major, m. pectoralis minor, m. gastrocnemius, m. tibialis anterior,
      m. biceps, m. triceps, m. external oblique, and m. lingua were sampled. Concentrations were measured with AA spectrometer and mercury analyzer. Cadmium concentrations were lower in muscles – only 7% of these samples have concentrations higher than the detection limit. Cadmium content in bones are not high (medians range 1.962 – 2.508 µg/g d.w.). Mercury concentrations in bones were diverse: from 0.016 (ulna) to 0.213 (rostrum) µg/g w.w. In muscles accumulation was low and medians fitted in the range between 0.020 (biceps) and 0.025 µg/g w.w.

      Keywords: cadmium, mercury, waterfowl, accumulation, food, meat

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Angeliki Birmpa

    (1)
    1. EVALUATION OF A LOOP-MEDIATED ISOTHERMAL AMPLIFICATION (LAMP) ASSAY FOR THE DETECTION OF VIRUSES IN READY-TO-EAT FOODS [BT]

      Abstract: The ability of viruses to persist in the environment and on fresh produce, as well as their low infectious doses, allows even a small amount of contamination to cause foodborne viral outbreaks. Human Adenoviruses (hAdVs) of subgroup F (enteric serotypes 40 and 41) are known to be associated with 5–20% worldwide of acute gastroenteritis cases among infants and young children. The present study aimed to evaluate a simple and cost-effective, one-step, single-tube adenovirus type 40/41 specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of hAdV40/41 DNA in a series of ready-to-eat food samples (strawberries, sour cherries, lettuce, cherry tomatoes and green onions). No LAMP assay has previously been reported for the detection of these virus types in food samples. Results were obtained within 60 min, under isothermal conditions at 69°C. After amplification, the products were detected either by observing a ladder pattern following gel electrophoresis, or a color change with the addition of SYBR Green I to the reaction tube. The limits of detection of hAdV40/41 in food samples were found to be >30 GCs per reaction, when a nucleic acids extraction step was included in the analysis. A 1 log higher (>100 GCs/reaction) detection limit was found for lettuce, cherry tomatoes and green onions, without a nucleic acids extraction step included before the isothermal amplification. The LAMP assay for the virological analysis of food samples is expected to provide a robust, innovative, powerful, cheap and fast monitoring tool, without the need of sophisticated equipment, which will be available for food safety testing by the food industry and the public food health authorities.

      Keywords: Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), ready-to-eat food matrices, human adenoviruses 40/41, molecular detection, food safety

      article details | fulltext pdf

  • Daniel Bíro

    (1)