Milk is an essential source for the ingredients needed for infant growth and adult health. Healthy milk production is important for consumer safety. The aim of the present review article was to highlight on the incidence and control of the infectious bacteria in bovine milk. Raw bovine milk is considered as a vehicle for many infectious bacterial diseases such as Bovine Tuberculosis, Brucellosis, Leptospirosis and Mycoplasma infection. The main microorganisms which isolated from bovine milk in cows with mastitis were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Streptococcus agalactiae, Pasteurella spp., Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Early and accurate diagnosis is necessary for achieving successful control programs against the infectious bacteria in bovine milk. For successful control of the infectious bacterial diseases in bovine milk, it is mandatory to follow preventive measures such as proper hygienic procedures regarding animal husbandry and handling, providing the cows with balanced nutrition, following vaccination programs against bacterial diseases, reporting of the notifiable diseases to the health authorities, meticulous inspection of the consistency and color of milk and pasteurization of milk. Vaccination programs provide protection of dairy farm animals by preventing or reducing bacterial infections which in turn can help safeguard dairy industry. The main treatment protocol of bacterial diseases in dairy cows is by using suitable antibiotics, so it is necessary to carry out drug sensitivity test before choosing the proper antibiotic. However, multidrug resistance (MDR) has become a growing threat regards the management of infectious bacterial diseases. Therefore, the introduction of alternative antimicrobial agents such as herbal treatment, probiotics, nanoparticles, and stem cells therapy is of absolute necessity to guard against bacterial multidrug resistance. Also, animal vaccinations are important tools for protection against many infectious bacterial diseases affecting bovine milk.
bovine milk, mastitis, infectious bacteria, incidence, control