The influence of biosurfactants of trehalose lipid nature (R. erythropolis Au-1) and rhamnolipid nature ( Pseudomonas sp. PS-17) on the efficiency of the absorption of K+ and Ca2+ ions and plants growth was studied. The seeds of soybean, wheat and sunflower after the pre-sowing treatment by the biosurfactants solutions were grown on a liquid nutrient medium. The residual contents of K+ and Ca2+ ions in the medium were different for the variants with the biosurfactants and control (water). Based on these parameters, it was possible to value the stimulating effect of the biosurfactants on the plants’ ability to absorb mineral elements from the nutrient medium. The plants after the pre-treatment by the biosurfactants absorbed on 10-40% (trehalose lipids) and 27-61% (rhamnolipid biosurfactants) K+ and Ca2+ ions more than control variants. The growth parameters of plants were increased on 17-24% (trehalose lipids) or 39-77% (rhamnolipid biosurfactants). The experiments with plants (wheat, soya and sunflower) were also conducted in field conditions. The results showed that the trehalose lipid and rhamnolipid biosurfactants provide an increase in crop yields on 19-23% as well as the yield quality. The obtained data allowed to suggest a possible mechanism for the influence of surfactants on the plant growth.