Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been demonstrated as a challenging and promising technology towards management of various environmental problems. Bioremediation has been accepted widely as viable option utilizing the naturally inhabited microorganisms, but sometimes the severe low efficiency of the microorganisms and poor controllability limits its application. In this context, MFC technology can be used as a potential means to stimulate bioremediation for effective removal of various pollutants. The special features including energy saving, less sludge and energy production make MFCs as outstanding technology compared to conventional technologies. This article is mainly focused on application of MFCs towards removal of various environmental pollutants viz. antibiotics, synthetic dyes, phenolic compounds, nitrogen based compounds, ethyl acetate, toluene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, perchlorate, pesticide, sulphur, emerging contaminants, trace organic compounds etc. from aqueous environment. Although the current applications of MFC technology is still at laboratory level, it will definitely prove a great potential towards commercial applications in near future.