Rapid rise in population, economic growth and urbanization are important factors, which can affect the current and future quality of life and food security. An enormous pressure to streamline animal breeding and production have led to the rapid erosion of animal genetic diversity. The importance of animal genetic resource protection emerges from biological, economic, social, cultural and environmental needs of the country. Animal genetic resources contribute to the development of good food quality and food products, new medicines and manufactured goods, as well as other important goods and services. This will ensure that these resources will be fully used to respond to current food security and that they will continue to contribute to human development and well-being. The situation in protection of animal genetic resources in the Slovak Republic is not satisfactory, therefore, it is very important to pay attention to the management of certain breeds and to its conservation. Also, the legal base is needed to ensure the long-term maintaining of the endangered breeds.